Browsing by Subject "emergency medical services"

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  • Heinonen, Kari; Puolakka, Tuukka; Salmi, Heli; Boyd, James; Laiho, Mia; Porthan, Kari; Harve-Rytsälä, Heini; Kuisma, Markku (2022)
    Background Ambulance patients are usually transported to the hospital in the emergency medical service (EMS) system. The aim of this study was to describe the non-conveyance practice in the Helsinki EMS system and to report mortality following non-conveyance decisions. Methods All prehospital patients >= 16 years attended by the EMS but not transported to a hospital during 2013-2017 were included in the study. EMS mission- and patient-related factors were collected and examined in relation to patient death within 30 days of the EMS non-conveyance decision. Results The EMS performed 324,207 missions with a patient during the study period. The patient was not transported in 95,909 (29.6%) missions; 72,233 missions met the study criteria. The patient mean age (standard deviation) was 59.5 (22.5) years; 55.5% of patients were female. The most common dispatch codes were malaise (15.0%), suspected decline in vital signs (14.0%), and falling over (12.9%). A total of 960 (1.3%) patients died within 30 days after the non-conveyance decision. Multivariate logistic regression analysis revealed that mortality was associated with the patient's inability to walk (odds ratio 3.19, 95% confidence interval 2.67-3.80), ambulance dispatch due to shortness of breath (2.73, 2.27-3.27), decreased level of consciousness (2.72, 1.75-4.10), decreased blood oxygen saturation (2.64, 2.27-3.06), and abnormal systolic blood pressure (2.48, 1.79-3.37). Conclusion One-third of EMS missions did not result in patient transport to the hospital. Thirty-day mortality was 1.3%. Abnormalities in multiple respiratory-related vital signs were associated with an increased likelihood of death within 30 days.
  • Saviluoto, Anssi; Jäntti, Helena; Kirves, Hetti Anna; Setälä, Piritta; Nurmi, Jouni (2022)
    Background: Pre-hospital anaesthesia is a core competency of helicopter emergency medical services (HEMS). Whether physician pre-hospital anaesthesia case volume affects outcomes is unknown in this setting. We aimed to investigate whether physician case volume was associated with differences in mortality or medical management. Methods: We conducted a registry-based cohort study of patients undergoing drug-facilitated intubation by HEMS physician from January 1, 2013 to August 31, 2019. The primary outcome was 30-day mortality, analysed using multivariate logistic regression controlling for patient-dependent variables. Case volume for each patient was determined by the number of pre-hospital anaesthetics the attending physician had managed in the previous 12 months. The explanatory variable was physician case volume grouped by low (0-12), intermediate (13-36), and high (>= 37) case volume. Secondary outcomes were characteristics of medical management, including the incidence of hypoxaemia and hypotension. Results: In 4818 patients, the physician case volume was 511, 2033, and 2274 patients in low-, intermediate-, and high-case-volume groups, respectively. Higher physician case volume was associated with lower 30-day mortality (odds ratio 0.79 per logarithmic number of cases [95% confidence interval: 0.64-0.98]). High-volume physician providers had shorter on-scene times (median 28 [25th-75th percentile: 22-38], compared with intermediate 32 [23-42] and lowest 32 [23-43] case-volume groups; P Conclusions: Mortality appears to be lower after pre-hospital anaesthesia when delivered by physician providers with higher case volumes.
  • Gellerfors, M.; Fevang, E.; Bäckman, A.; Krüger, A.; Mikkelsen, S.; Nurmi, J.; Rognås, L.; Sandström, E.; Skallsjö, G.; Svensén, C.; Gryth, D.; Lossius, H.M. (2018)
    Background: Pre-hospital tracheal intubation success and complication rates vary considerably among provider categories. The purpose of this study was to estimate the success and complication rates of pre-hospital tracheal intubation performed by physician anaesthetist or nurse anaesthetist pre-hospital critical care teams. Methods: Data were prospectively collected from critical care teams staffed with a physician anaesthetist or a nurse anaesthetist according to the Utstein template for pre-hospital advanced airway management. The patients served by six ambulance helicopters and six rapid response vehicles in Denmark, Finland, Norway, and Sweden from May 2015 to November 2016 were included. Results: The critical care teams attended to 32 007 patients; 2028 (6.3%) required pre-hospital tracheal intubation. The overall success rate of pre-hospital tracheal intubation was 98.7% with a median intubation time of 25 s and an on-scene time of 25 min. The majority (67.0%) of the patients' tracheas were intubated by providers who had performed >2500 tracheal intubations. The success rate of tracheal intubation on the first attempt was 84.5%, and 95.9% of intubations were completed after two attempts. Complications related to pre-hospital tracheal intubation were recorded in 10.9% of the patients. Intubations after rapid sequence induction had a higher success rate compared with intubations without rapid sequence induction (99.4% vs 98.1%; P=0.02). Physicians had a higher tracheal intubation success rate than nurses (99.0% vs 97.6%; P=0.03). Conclusions: When performed by experienced physician anaesthetists and nurse anaesthetists, pre-hospital tracheal intubation was completed rapidly with high success rates and a low incidence of complications.
  • Larsson, Martin; Castren, Maaret; Lindström, Veronica; von Euler, Mia; Patrone, Cesare; Wahlgren, Nils; Nathanson, David (2019)
    Objectives Hyperglycemia is a predictor for poor stroke outcome. Hyperglycemic stroke patients treated with thrombolysis have an increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage. Insulin is the gold standard for treating hyperglycemia but comes with a risk of hypoglycemia. Glucagon-like peptide-1 receptor agonists (GLP-1RA) are drugs used in type 2 diabetes that have a low risk of hypoglycemia and have been shown to exert neuroprotective effects. The primary objective was to determine whether prehospital administration of the GLP-1RA exenatide could lower plasma glucose in stroke patients. Secondary objective was to study tolerability and safety. Materials & Methods Randomized controlled trial comparing exenatide administrated prehospitally with a control group receiving standard care for hyperglycemia. Patients with Face Arm Speech Test >= 1 and glucose >= 8 mmol/L were randomized. Glucose was monitored for 24 hours. All adverse events were recorded. Results Nineteen patients were randomized, eight received exenatide. An interim recruitment failure analysis with subsequent changes of the protocol was made. The study was stopped prematurely due to slow inclusion. No difference was observed in the main outcome of plasma glucose at 4 hours, control vs exenatide (mean, SD); 7.0 +/- 1.9 vs 7.6 +/- 1.6; P = .56). No major adverse events were reported. Conclusions We found no evidence that prehospital exenatide had effect on hyperglycemia. However, it was given without adverse events in this study with limited sample size that was prematurely stopped due to slow inclusion.
  • Puolakka, Tuukka; Strbian, Daniel; Harve, Heini; Kuisma, Markku; Lindsberg, Perttu J. (2016)
    Background-Few studies have discussed the emergency call and prehospital care as a continuous process to decrease the prehospital and in-hospital delays for acute stroke. To identify features associated with early hospital arrival ( Methods and Results-This was a 2-year prospective observational study. All stroke patients who were transported to the hospital by emergency medical services and received recanalization therapy were recruited for the study. For a sample of 308 patients, the stroke code was activated in 206 (67%) and high priority was used in 258 (84%) of the emergency calls. Emergency medical services transported 285 (93%) of the patients using the stroke code and 269 (87%) using high priority. In the univariate analysis, the most dominant predictors of early hospital arrival were transport using stroke code (P= 0.001) and high priority (P= 0.002) and onset-to-call (P<0.0001) and on-scene times (P= 0.052). In the regression analysis, the influences of high-priority transport (P<0.01) and onset-to-call time (P<0.001) prevailed as significant in both dichotomies of early arrival and treatment. The on-scene time was found to be surprisingly long (> 23.5 minutes) for both early and late-arriving patients. Conclusions-Fast emergency medical services activation and ambulance transport promoted early hospital arrival and treatment. Although patient-dependent delays still dominate the prehospital process, it should be ensured that the minutes on the scene are well spent.
  • Ljungqvist, Harry; Nurmi, Jouni (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Bakgrund: Vid rutinmässig användning av C-MAC videolaryngoskop samt Frova introducer uppnår man en hög procent av lyckade intubationer på första försöket. Vi strävade i denna studie till att identifiera potentiella orsaker samt undergrupper av patienter associerade med misslyckade intubationsförsök. Vi ville även utreda vilka åtgärder som vidtagits efter de misslyckade försöken samt om det uppstod några komplikationer. Metoder: Vi genomförde en retrospektiv observationell studie av vuxna intuberade patienter hos en läkarhelikopterenhet i södra Finland under åren 2016 till 2018. Ur ett nationellt läkarhelikopterregister samt ur de prehospitala patienttexterna samlade vi omfattande data gällande demografi och patient egenskaper, beskrivna orsaker till de misslyckade försöken, möjliga komplikationer och åtgärder efter ett misslyckat försök. Resultat: 1011 intubationer utfördes. I 994 av fallen lyckades intubationen på det första försöket (994/1011, 98,3%), 15 lyckades på det andra eller tredje försöket och i två fall krävdes en kirurgisk andningsväg (17/1011, 1,7%, 95% CI 1.0–2.7). Vanligaste orsaken till ett misslyckat intubations försök var en obstruktion av luftvägen på grund av maginnehåll, slem eller blod (10/13, 76%). Efter ett misslyckat försök avvek sex av fallen från de föreskrivna riktlinjerna (6/14, 43%) medan de vanligaste komplikationerna var hypoxi (5/17, 29%) samt hypotension (4/17, 24%) Slutsatser: När man använder ett intubations protokoll som inkluderar rutinmässig användning av C-MAC videolaryngoskop samt Frova introducer, är den vanligaste orsaken till ett misslyckat försök en obstruktion av luftvägen på grund av maginnehåll, slem eller blod. Dessa fynd markerar vikten av effektiva metoder för rengörning av luftvägen samt ifrågasätter lämpligheten av en mera anatomifokuserad bedömning av luftvägen inför intubering.
  • Björkman, Johannes; Raatiniemi, Lasse; Setälä, Piritta; Nurmi, Jouni (2021)
    Background The value of shock-index has been demonstrated in hospital triage, but few studies have evaluated its prehospital use. The aim of our study was to evaluate the association between shock-index in prehospital critical care and short-term mortality. Methods We analyzed data from the national helicopter emergency medical services database and the Population Register Centre. The shock-index was calculated from the patients' first measured parameters. The primary outcome measure was 1- and 30-day mortality. Results A total of 22 433 patients were included. The 1-day mortality was 7.5% and 30-day mortality was 16%. The median shock-index was 0.68 (0.55/0.84) for survivors and 0.67 (0.49/0.93) for non-survivors (P = .316) at 30-days. Association between shock-index and mortality followed a U-shaped curve in trauma (shock-index <0.5: odds ratio 2.5 [95% confidence interval 1.8-3.4], shock-index > 1.3: odds ratio 4.4 [2.7-7.2] at 30 days). Patients with neurological emergencies with a low shock-index had an increased risk of mortality (shock-index <0.5: odds ratio 1.8 [1.5-2.3]) whereas patients treated after successful resuscitation from out-of-hospital cardiac arrest, a higher shock-index was associated with higher mortality (shock-index > 1.3: odds ratio 3.5 [2.3-5.4). The association was similar for all ages, but older patients had higher mortality in each shock-index category. Conclusion The shock-index is associated with short time mortality in most critical patient categories in the prehospital setting. However, the marked overlap of shock-index in survivors and non-survivors in all patient categories limits its predictive value.
  • Harjola, Pia (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Background: Real-life data on the role of emergency medical services (EMS) in acute heart failure (AHF) are scarce. Our aim was to describe prehospital treatment of AHF and to compare patients using EMS with self-presented, non-EMS patients. Methods: Data were collected retrospectively from three university hospitals in Helsinki metropolitan area between July 1 2012 and July 31 2013. According to the use of EMS, patients were divided into EMS and non-EMS groups. Results: The study included 873 AHF patients. One hundred were (11.5%) EMS and 773 (88.5%) non-EMS. EMS patients tended to have more comorbidities. Initial heart rate (HR) and peripheral oxygen saturation (SpO2) differed between EMS and non-EMS patients; mean HR 89.2 (SD 22.5) vs. 83.7 (21.5) /min (p=0.02) and SpO2 90.3 (8.6) vs. 92.9 (6.6)% (p=0.01). However, on presentation to ED EMS patients' vital signs were similar to non-EMS patients'. On presentation to ED 46.0% were normotensive and 68.2% "warm and wet". Thirty-four percentage of EMS patients received prehospital medication. In-hospital mortality was 6.0% and 7.1% (p=0.84) and length of stay (LOS) 7.7 (7.0) and 8.5 (7.9) days (p= 0.36) in EMS and non-EMS groups. Conclusion: The use of EMS and administration of prehospital medication was low. EMS patients had initially worse HR and SpO2 than non-EMS patients. However, EMS patients' signs improved and were similar on presentation to ED. There was no difference in in-hospital mortality and LOS. This underscores the need for equal attention to any AHF patient independent of the arrival mode.