Browsing by Subject "emotion"

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  • Huttunen, Katriina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    By exploring touristic practices around particular forms of West African dance and music cultures, this study discusses how structures of global inequality are enacted on a micro-level. The study aims to understand the social relations and subjectivities embedded in them in the context of dance and music workshops for tourists in southern Senegal. A focus on dance and music allows to ask, whether these artistic endeavors provide some progressive or transformational potentials often ascribed to them, whereas the perspective of tourism enables to simultaneously consider the social and material relations of production in the context. This study is an attempt to explore the maintenance of as well as ways of challenging the inequality producing ‘social structures’ by combining postcolonial perspectives, certain ideas from ANT tradition, and theorizations of affects and emotions as productive and hence, political. This study applies an ethnographic approach. The fieldwork was conducted in southern Senegal, in December 2016 and January 2017, on touristic dance and music workshops. The research material consists of 11 thematic interviews with workshop tourists, organizers, and artists, participatory observation, background interviews and document material. The researcher’s long-term participation in the field is also reflexively considered as a source of research material and a tool for analysis. The context was understood through relations of work and dependency, yet also alternative translations and subjectivities were enabled. The context’s social relations were also informed by a desire for the Other, intensive circulation of positive affects, and reproduction of stereotypes of Africa. Disruptive affects stemming from asymmetric power structures were dealt with techniques of individualization. The research shows how the context is profoundly entangled with asymmetric and historical relations of power and inequality, and that these relations are naturalized by certain techniques of concealment. Yet, the context retains enabling possibilities as well. The study shows how affects are productive in the context, suggesting that they firmly attach subjects to problematic structures. Though the complexity and ambivalence of the maintenance of inequality producing structures is a theoretical starting point, this study points to the endurance of these problematic structures by exploring their affective extents. The study adds to a body of research on cultural tourism and shows the importance of looking outside the traditional spheres of developmental and political action in order to understand the complexities of global inequality. The study also gestures that further attention should be given to the relevance and possibilities of such concepts as affects and emotions in the field of development studies, too.
  • Pihkala, Panu (2020)
    Eco-anxiety and climate anxiety are widely discussed in contemporary media and are subjects of growing research interest. However, there is a lack of research about the definitions and variations of these phenomena. This article analyzes various views of eco-anxiety from a wide range of disciplines. Insights from various anxiety theories are used to discuss empirical studies about forms of eco-anxiety. The article points out that uncertainty, unpredictability, and uncontrollability seem to be important factors in eco-anxiety. Most forms of eco-anxiety appear to be non-clinical, but cases of “pathological” eco-anxiety are also discussed. Other relevant terms and phenomena are scrutinized, such as ecological grief, solastalgia, and ecological trauma. The relationship between studies on eco-anxiety and research about ecological emotions and affect is probed. Eco-anxiety is found to be closely connected to fear and worry, but several disciplines include discussion of its character as existential anxiety. Psychosocial and sociological perspectives point out that social dynamics shape forms of eco-anxiety in profound ways. While paralyzing forms of eco-anxiety emerge as a problem, it is noted that eco-anxiety manifests itself also as “practical anxiety”, which leads to gathering of new information and reassessment of behavior options. This variety of forms of eco-anxiety should be taken into account in healthcare and public discussion.
  • Papazacharias, Apostolos; Taurisano, Paolo; Fazio, Leonardo; Gelao, Barbara; Di Giorgio, Annabella; Lo Bianco, Luciana; Quarto, Tiziana; Mancini, Marina; Porcelli, Annamaria; Romano, Raffaella; Caforio, Grazia; Todarello, Orlando; Popolizio, Teresa; Blasi, Giuseppe; Bertolino, Alessandro (2015)
    Earlier studies have demonstrated that emotional stimulation modulates attentional processing during goal directed behavior and related activity of a brain network including the inferior frontal gyrus (IFG) and the caudate nucleus. However, it is not clear how emotional interference modulates behavior and brain physiology during variation in attentional control, a relevant question for everyday life situations in which both emotional stimuli and cognitive load vary. The aim of this study was to investigate the impact of negative emotions on behavior and activity in IFG and caudate nucleus during increasing levels of attentional control. Twenty two healthy subjects underwent event related functional magnetic resonance imaging while performing a task in which neutral or fearful facial expressions were displayed before stimuli eliciting increasing levels of attentional control processing. Results indicated slower reaction time (RI) and greater right IFG activity when fearful compared with neutral facial expressions preceded the low level of attentional control. On the other hand, fearful facial expressions preceding the intermediate level of attentional control elicited faster behavioral responses and greater activity in the right and left sides of the caudate. Finally, correlation analysis indicated a relationship between behavioral correlates of attentional control after emotional interference and right IFG activity. All together, these results suggest that the impact of negative emotions on attentional processing is differentially elicited at the behavioral and physiological levels as a function of cognitive load.
  • Eeroia, Tuomas; Vuoskoski, Jonna K.; Kautiainen, Hannu (2016)
    The paradox of enjoying listening to music that evokes sadness is yet to be fully understood. Unlike prior studies that have explored potential explanations related to lyrics, memories, and mood regulation, we investigated the types of emotions induced by unfamiliar, instrumental sad music, and whether these responses are consistently associated with certain individual difference variables. One hundred and two participants were drawn from a representative sample to minimize self-selection bias. The results suggest that the emotional responses induced by unfamiliar sad music could be characterized in terms of three underlying factors: Relaxing sadness, Moving sadness, and Nervous sadness. Relaxing sadness was characterized by felt and perceived peacefulness and positive valence. Moving sadness captured an intense experience that involved feelings of sadness and being moved. Nervous sadness was associated with felt anxiety, perceived scariness and negative valence. These interpretations were supported by indirect measures of felt emotion. Experiences of Moving sadness were strongly associated with high trait empathy and emotional contagion, but not with other previously suggested traits such as absorption or nostalgia-proneness. Relaxing sadness and Nervous sadness were not significantly predicted by any of the individual difference variables. The findings are interpreted within a theoretical framework of embodied emotions.
  • Savolainen, Laura; Trilling, Damian; Liotsiou, Dimitra (2020)
    How do audiences make sense of and interact with political junk news on Facebook? How does the platform's "emotional architecture" intervene in these sense-making, interactive processes? What kinds of mediated publics emerge on and through Facebook as a result? We study these questions through topic modeling 40,500 junk news articles, quantitatively analyzing their engagement metrics, and a qualitative comment analysis. This exploratory research design allows us to move between levels of public discourse, zooming in from cross-outlet talking points to microsociological processes of meaning-making, interaction, and emotional entrainment taking place within the comment boxes themselves. We propose the concepts of delighting and detesting engagement to illustrate how the interplay between audiences, platform architecture, and political junk news generates a bivalent emotional dynamic that routinely divides posts into highly "loved" and highly "angering." We argue that high-performing (or in everyday parlance, viral) junk news bring otherwise disparate audience members together and orient their dramatic focus toward objects of collective joy, anger, or concern. In this context, the nature of political junk news is performative as they become resources for emotional signaling and the construction of group identity and shared feeling on social media. The emotions that animate junk news audiences typically refer back to a transpiring social relationship between two political sides. This affectively loaded "us" versus "them" dynamic is both enforced by Facebook's emotional architecture and made use of by junk news publishers.
  • Pihkala, Panu (2020)
    Anxiety and distress about the ecological crisis seems to be a rapidly growing phenomenon. This article analyzes the challenges and possibilities posed by such "eco-anxiety" for environmental education. Variations of eco-anxiety are analyzed, and it is argued that educators should be aware of the multiple forms that the phenomenon has. Eco-anxiety is found to be closely connected with many difficult emotions, such as grief, guilt, anger, and despair. However, anxiety also has an adaptive dimension, which can be called "practical anxiety". Anxiety is connected with expectation, motivation, and hopes. Previous research about eco-anxiety and ecological emotions in various disciplines is discussed, and related studies from various fields of education are brought together. Based on this extensive literature review, theoretical analyses are made, using a philosophical method. It is argued that environmental educators need organizational and peer support both in relation to their own difficult emotions and in order to develop emotional skills in their work. Educators should first practice self-reflection about eco-anxiety, after which they have many possibilities to help their audiences to develop emotional resilience. Potential practical activities related to eco-anxiety are discussed, drawing from various fields of education. These include validation of eco-anxiety and ecological emotions, providing safe spaces to discuss them, and, if possible, providing embodied and creative activities to more fully deliberate on them.
  • Nuortimo, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Aims. Understanding of emotional processing is important for the research of mental states. A better understanding of the visual system would facilitate understanding the functioning of the entire brain. Emotions are processed in a complex neural network. The aim of the present Master's thesis is to explore the effective connectivity of the occipital face areas (OFAs) and fusiform face areas (FFAs) during the processing of visual stimuli eliciting negative emotion. Methods. The subjects (n = 16) were young adult male students. Negative and neutral emotion were elicited using visual stimuli from the International Affective Picture System (IAPS). Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data were acquired using an MRI scanner. The fMRI data were preprocessed and analyzed using SPM8 software. In order to proceed to the psycho-physiological interaction (PPI) analyses, imaging sessions were concatenated and entered into the analyses as one single session. Subject-level model comprised the following regressors: negative emotion, neutral emotion, baseline and a binary regressor for each functional session to model session effects. An effects of interest F-contrast and a negative emotion t-contrast were defined. Spherical volumes of interest (VOIs) were computed for each subject for the left and the right occipital face area (OFA) and for the left and the right fusiform face area (FFA). The PPI variables were computed for each statistically significant VOI. A standard PPI model was defined. Each of the 4 VOIs was used as source region for all other VOIs. A group-level whole brain analysis was done for each PPI source VOI. Group-level VOI analyses were conducted for all PPI source VOIs. Results and conclusions. In the whole brain analyses statistically significant group-level PPIs were found in the following brain regions: left cuneus, right middle occipital gyrus, right and left inferior occipital gyrus, left lingual gyrus, and the left culmen. VOI analyses demonstrated the strong connectivity in the network consisting of the right OFA and left and right FFAs. Negative emotional content enhances effective connectivity in the bilateral OFA-FFA network.
  • Maria, Ambika; Shekhar, Shashank; Nissilä, Ilkka; Kotilahti, Kalle; Huotilainen, Minna; Karlsson, Linnea; Karlsson, Hasse; Tuulari, Jetro J. (2018)
    Emotional stimuli processing during childhood helps us to detect salient cues in our environment and prepares us for our social life. In early childhood, the emotional valences of auditory and visual input are salient and relevant cues of social aspects of the environment, and it is of special interest to understand how exactly the processing ofemotional stimuli develops. Near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) is a noninvasive neuroimaging tool that has proven valuable in studying emotional processing in children. After conducting a systematic search of PubMed, Web of Science, and Embase databases, we examined 50 NIRS studies performed to study emotional stimuli processing in children in the first 2 years of age. We found that the majority of these studies are done in infants and the most commonly used stimuli are visual and auditory. Many of the reviewed studies suggest the involvement of bilateral temporal areas in emotional processing of visual and auditory stimuli. It is unclear which neural activation patterns reflect maturation and at what age the emotional encoding reaches those typically seen in adults. Our review provides an overview of the database on emotional processing in children up to 2 years of age. Furthermore, it demonstrates the need to include the less-studied age range of 1 to 2 years, and suggests the use of combined audio-visual stimuli and longitudinal studies for future research on emotional processing in children. Thus, NIRS might be a vital tool to study the associations between the early pattern of neural responses and socioemotional development later in life.
  • Stevanovic, Melisa; Perakyla, Anssi (2015)
    In this perspective article, we consider the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking. There is much evidence suggesting that human social interaction is permeated by two temporal organizations: (1) the sequential framework of turn-taking and (2) the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity. From this perspective, we introduce two alternative hypotheses about how the relationship between experience sharing and turn-taking could be viewed. According to the first hypothesis, the home environment of experience sharing is in the concurrent framework of emotional reciprocity, while the motivation to share experiences is in tension with the sequential framework of turn-taking. According to the second hypothesis, people's inclination to coordinate their actions in terms of turn-taking is motivated precisely by their propensity to share experiences. We consider theoretical and empirical ideas in favor of both of these hypotheses and discuss their implications for future research.
  • Grau-Sanchez, Jennifer; Foley, Meabh; Hlavova, Renata; Muukkonen, Ilkka; Ojinaga-Alfageme, Olatz; Radukic, Andrijana; Spindler, Melanie; Hundevad, Bodil (2017)
    Music is a powerful, pleasurable stimulus that can induce positive feelings and can therefore be used for emotional self-regulation. Musical activities such as listening to music, playing an instrument, singing or dancing are also an important source for social contact, promoting interaction and the sense of belonging with others. Recent evidence has suggested that after retirement, other functions of music, such as self-conceptual processing related to autobiographical memories, become more salient. However, few studies have addressed the meaningfulness of music in the elderly. This study aims to investigate elderly people's habits and preferences related to music, study the role music plays in their everyday life, and explore the relationship between musical activities and emotional well-being across different countries of Europe. A survey will be administered to elderly people over the age of 65 from five different European countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Czechia, Germany, Ireland, and UK) and to a control group. Participants in both groups will be asked about basic sociodemographic information, habits and preferences in their participation in musical activities and emotional well-being. Overall, the aim of this study is to gain a deeper understanding of the role of music in the elderly from a psychological perspective. This advanced knowledge could help to develop therapeutic applications, such as musical recreational programs for healthy older people or elderly in residential care, which are better able to meet their emotional and social needs.
  • Lundahl, Outi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Moral panics are instances of public anxiety in response to a problem regarded as threatening the moral standards of society. Extant literature on moral panics has then tended to focus on individual deviants. In contrast, this study focuses on a moral panic where the morally objectionable actor is an entire industry which is portrayed as having intentionally manufactured the societal problem for their own personal gain. Thus, this study investigates how does the media create a moral panic around an industry? The context of this study is social media addiction. In order to answer this research question, a longitudinal, mixed methods media analysis of British newspapers in 2015–2019 is conducted. The constructivist media frame analysis then shows that while previously social media addiction was seen as an individual disorder, media then framed social media addiction as a manufactured epidemic. Thus, the study shows that a moral panic around social media addiction was created and that there were increased calls for regulation of the industry. However, it also that as these calls were seen as being responded to by the government, the moral panic dissipated. In addition, an automated text mining analysis also shows that, contrary to extant literature, the media framing does not rely on increasingly emotional rhetoric. The study then firstly contributes to extant literature on moral panics by showing how an industry, instead of groups of individuals, can become seen as the “folk devil”. This happens through powerful metaphors which are formed around social media companies. This can have considerable implications for the industry as even if this particular moral panic around social media addiction may remain short-lived, it may prove to be only one wave in the so-called spiral of signification, in other words, the increasing anxiety towards the social media industry. Secondly, the study also contributes to the understanding of emotions in a moral panic by showing that moral panics do not necessitate increased emotional rhetoric in the media framing. The study concludes with a discussion of the implications of the recent public policy measures in the UK.
  • Kuvaja, Miira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tarkastelen pro gradu -tutkimuksessani miten eri ryhmät: tavalliset katsojat, sivulliset – kuten ohikulkijat – ja suuri yleisö suhtautuvat Helsingissä pelattavien jalkapallon miesten pääsarjatason paikallisotteluiden yhteydessä tapahtuviin häiriötilanteisiin. Näiden ryhmien lisäksi tapahtumin osallistuu myös ultria, eli intohimoisesti joukkueeseensa suhtautuvia katsojia sekä pieni määrä huligaaneja, jotka aiheuttavat varsinaiset häiriötilanteet. Eri ryhmien suhtautumisen lisäksi tarkastelen, miten kansainvälisen politiikan tutkimuksessa alkunsa saanut turvallistamisteoria toimii kansatieteellisessä eli etnologisessa tutkimuksessa, kun tutkimuskohteena on paikallinen tapahtuma. Lisäksi tarkoitukseni on saada selville, miten Facebook-yhteisöpalvelua voi käyttää aineistonkeruuvälineenä kansatieteellisessä tutkimuksessa. Tarkastelun kohteena olevia otteluja kutsutaan nimellä Stadin derby. Otteluissa pelaa kaksi perinteistä jalkapalloseuraa, Helsingin Jalkapalloklubi (HJK) ja HIFK. Jälkimmäisen noustua pääsarjatasolle saatiin Helsinkiin pitkään odotetut paikallisottelut, jotka aiheuttavat joukkueiden kannattajissa suuria tunteita. Otteluiden myötä tulivat myös häiriötilanteet – suuren maailman jalkapallokulttuuri saapui Helsinkiin hyvässä ja pahassa. Tutkimusmateriaalini tulee useasta lähteestä: salaisesta Facebook-ryhmästä, ryhmähaastattelusta ja järjestäjien haastatteluista. Lisäksi käytän taustamateriaalina artikkeleita Yleisradiolta ja Ilta-Sanomilta. Facebookissa käytän materiaalin hankintaan ensin julkista tutkimussivua ja sen jälkeen salaista tutkimusryhmää. Odotetusti – sosiaalisen median nykyilmapiirin vuoksi – en saanut ensimmäisessä vaiheessa vastauksia tutkimuskysymyksiini. Esitin ryhmässä seitsemän kysymystä, joista kolmen yhteyteen liitin joko artikkelin tai videon tapahtumista. Käytän tutkimuksessa kriittistä diskurssianalyysiä ja lähilukua eri aineistojen analysoimisessa. Näiden ohella käytän apunani tunteisiin liittyvää teoreettista keskustelua. Kaikki ryhmässä vastanneet tuomitsevat huliganismin Osassa tapahtumat aiheuttavat jopa raivoa, pelkoa ja vihaa. Moni ilmoitti, ettei halua lähteä tällaisissa tilanteissa stadionille katsomaan pelejä. Facebook-ryhmän aineiston avulla tuli selkeästi esiin, että lajia ja itse derbyjä tuntevat suhtautuivat häiriötilanteisiin tyynemmin. Osa heistä on ollut derbyissä, eivätkä he olleet kokeneet oloaan turvattomaksi. Tutkimusaineiston ja vastaajien kirjoittamien tunteiden ja näkemysten avulla pystyy myös jäljittämään derbyihin liittyviä turvallistamisen mekanismeja. Yllättävää on, että voimakkaimmin turvallistamista tuottavat media ja lajia tuntemattomat eli ulkopuoliset, eivätkä toimijat, joilla on asemansa vuoksi valta tehdä päätöksiä tilanteen rauhoittamiseksi. Tutkielman kieli on englanti. Sivumäärä 63 + liitteet 3
  • Kaakinen, Johanna; Simola, Jaana (2020)
    Thirty-nine participants listened to 28 neutral and horror excerpts of Stephen King short stories while constantly tracking their emotional arousal. Pupil size was measured with an Eyelink 1000+, and participants rated valence and transportation after each story. In addition to computing mean pupil size across 1-sec intervals, we extracted blink count and used detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) to obtain the scaling exponents of long-range temporal correlations (LRTCs) in pupil size time-series. Pupil size was expected to be sensitive also to emotional arousal, whereas blink count and LRTC’s were expected to reflect cognitive engagement. The results showed that self-reported arousal increased, pupil size was overall greater, and the decreasing slope of pupil size was flatter for horror than for neutral stories. Horror stories induced higher transportation than neutral stories. High transportation was associated with a steeper increase in self-reported arousal across time, stronger LRTCs in pupil size fluctuations, and lower blink count. These results indicate that pupil size reflects emotional arousal induced by the text content, while LRTCs and blink count are sensitive to cognitive engagement associated with transportation, irrespective of the text type. The study demonstrates the utility of pupillometric measures and blink count to study literature reception.
  • Tissari, Heli; Vanhatalo, Ulla; Siiroinen, Mari (2019)
    NSM researchers have not used corpus data very systematically thus far. One could talk about corpus-assisted rather than corpus-based or corpus-driven research. This article suggests a way to not only base research on corpus data, but also to let it guide us in defining words in terms of NSM. It presents a new method, which we have developed. Our data come from the Suomi24 Sentences Corpus and concerns the Finnish emotion words viha ('anger, hate'), vihata ('to hate') and vihainen ('angry').
  • Döveling, Katrin; Harju, Anu Annika; Sommer, Denise (2018)
    Research on the processes of mediatization aims to explore the mutual shaping of media and social life and how new media technologies influence and infiltrate social practices and cultural life. We extend this discussion of media’s role in transforming the everyday by including in the discussion the mediatization of emotion and discuss what we conceptualize as digital affect culture(s). We understand these as relational, contextual, globally emergent spaces in the digital environment where affective flows construct atmospheres of emotional and cultural belonging by way of emotional resonance and alignment. Approaching emotion as a cultural practice, in terms of affect, as something people do instead of have, we discuss how digital affect culture(s) traverse the digital terrains and construct pockets of culture-specific communities of affective practice. We draw on existing empirical research on digital memorial culture to empirically illustrate how digital affect culture manifests on micro, meso, and macro levels and elaborate on the constitutive characteristics of digital affect culture. We conclude with implications of this conceptualization for theoretical advancement and empirical research.
  • Hiillos, Minna (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2004)
    Economics and Society
    This study focuses on personnel managers in crisis situations. The interviewed personnel managers referred to emotions as a central element to be dealt with in a crisis. However, until recently, the exploration of emotions in organisational life has been de-emphasised or ignored. This study aims to bring to the surface aspects of personnel work that have so far been neglected or remained invisible. It specifically examines how personnel managers handle employees’ and their own emotions in a crisis. Based on the interviews, a number of emotional episodes were constructed. They describe the type and context of the crisis and the person(s) whose emotions are handled. The main findings of the study are the five emotion-handling strategies that could be constructed from the data. The negotiation-like manner in which personnel managers handled emotions in crisis situations proved especially interesting. They were actually negotiating emotional value for their organisations. Further, they handled their own emotions within the frame of two logics of appropriateness labelled mothering and guide-following. The episodes described also enabled identification of the values enacted by the personnel managers in handling emotions. The study provides descriptive information on emotion handling, a current and relevant feature in the practice of personnel management. It seeks to offer a frame for developing practical principles that can be helpful in a crisis. It also offers the opportunity to consider a variety of difficult situations that personnel managers may confront in their work.
  • Ferholt, Beth; Lecusay, Robert; Rainio, Anna Pauliina; Baumer, Sonja; Miyazaki, Kiyotaka; Nilsson, Monica; Cohen, Luciano (2021)
    This paper discusses the playworlds of the Playworld of Creative Research (PWCR) research group. Playworlds are created from a relatively new form of play that can be described as a combination of adult forms of creative imagination (art, science, etc.), which require extensive real life experience, and children's forms of creative imagination (play), which require the embodiment of ideas and emotions in the material world. In playworlds, adults and children (or teenagers or seniors) enter into a common fantasy that is designed to support the development of both adults and children (or teenagers or seniors). The PWCR understands playworlds and the study of playworlds as ways of being. In this paper we present unique, individual playworlds that we truly love from the perspective of researchers, artists, teachers, children, administrators, and imaginary characters, who participate in playworlds. We use a master fiction writer's words on the love of literature to frame our discussion of playworlds, focusing on truth, time, human magic, infinite possibilities, fun, and the enriching and intensifying (and so, creating) of the real in playworlds in Japan, Finland, Sweden and the US.
  • Tallberg, Linda (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2014)
    Economics and Society – 270
    This book is about life at an Australian animal shelter, called ANIMA. The shelter is tasked with organizing the dark side of humanity of cruelty, neglect, and ignorance. It is about the humans and animals who live and die in the organization - often silenced and hidden in society. Employees join the organization to save animals, yet due to organizational constraints, are the ones who are tasked with the killing. In ANIMA, the emotional and moral conflict is both constant and intense for animal shelter employees. They are promotivated and have strong ideological alignment to the organizational goals. This creates a lifestyle that revolves around saving and caring for the neglected, unwanted and mistreated animals of society. However, management and the animal shelter employees are at odds on how to best handle the social problem of pet overpopulation. The organization rests upon a traditional hierarchical power distribution where those who perform the stigmatized job task of euthanasia are also those without any real decision-making power. Reducing the animal shelter workers to assembly-line workers in a processing-plant is a key way to ensure the business model of the animal welfare organization flows smoothly. I was employed for a year as an animal attendant in the animal shelter. My ethnographic material includes diary entries, interviews, participant-observations and are represented in my thesis through Crystallization. It is through this unusual form of communication that I use poetry, pictures and narratives to try to engage the reader to understand the unique, emotive context of the organization. In this book, I specifically focus on the paradoxical work role that includes euthanasia of healthy animals; how the hidden voices of the animals give knowledge of the organization; and how power relationships are revealed during emergency evacuation during a natural disaster. The study argues that there are immense problems, both at an organizational as well as broader societal level, of how unwanted animals are dealt with. The focus of powerlessness felt by employees and animals leads to four coping mechanisms throughout the study which I call: Hero, Victim, Professional and Tourist. I make contributions to literatures on Emotion in Organizations, Dirty Work and Positive Organizational Scholarship.
  • Tervaniemi, Mari; Makkonen, Tommi; Nie, Peixin (2021)
    We compared music emotion ratings and their physiological correlates when the participants listened to music at home and in the laboratory. We hypothesized that music emotions are stronger in a familiar environment, that is, at home. Participants listened to their self-selected favorite and neutral music excerpts at home and in the laboratory for 10 min in each environment. They completed the questionnaires about their emotional states and gave saliva samples for the analyses of the stress hormone cortisol. We found that in the context of music listening, the participants’ emotion ratings differed between home and the laboratory. Furthermore, the cortisol levels were generally lower at home than in the laboratory and decreased after music listening at home and in the laboratory. However, the modulatory effects of music listening on cortisol levels did not differ between the home and the laboratory. Our exploratory multimethodological data offer novel insight about the psychological and physiological consequences of music listening. These data reveal the sensitivity of the current research methods to investigate human emotions in various contexts without excluding the use of laboratory environment in investigating them.
  • Salmela, Viljami R.; Ölander, Kaisu; Muukkonen, Ilkka; Bays, Paul M. (2019)
    Many studies of visual working memory have tested humans' ability to reproduce primary visual features of simple objects, such as the orientation of a grating or the hue of a color patch, following a delay. A consistent finding of such studies is that precision of responses declines as the number of items in memory increases. Here we compared visual working memory for primary features and high-level objects. We presented participants with memory arrays consisting of oriented gratings, facial expressions, or a mixture of both. Precision of reproduction for all facial expressions declined steadily as the memory load was increased from one to five faces. For primary features, this decline and the specific distributions of error observed, have been parsimoniously explained in terms of neural population codes. We adapted the population coding model for circular variables to the non-circular and bounded parameter space used for expression estimation. Total population activity was held constant according to the principle of normalization and the intensity of expression was decoded by drawing samples from the Bayesian posterior distribution. The model fit the data well, showing that principles of population coding can be applied to model memory representations at multiple levels of the visual hierarchy. When both gratings and faces had to be remembered, an asymmetry was observed. Increasing the number of faces decreased precision of orientation recall, but increasing the number of gratings did not affect recall of expression, suggesting that memorizing faces involves the automatic encoding of low-level features, in addition to higher-level expression information.