Browsing by Subject "emotions"

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  • Komulainen, Emma; Heikkila, Roope; Meskanen, Katarina; Raij, Tuukka T.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Lahti, Jari; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Harmer, Catherine J.; Isometsa, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (2016)
    Increased self-focus is a core factor in the psychopathology of depression. Cortical midline structures (CMS) are implicated in the neurobiology of self, depression and antidepressant treatment response. Mirtazapine, an antidepressant that increases serotonin and norepinephrine release, enhances processing of positive and attenuates processing of negative emotional information in healthy volunteers after a single dose. These early changes, which are opposite to the negative information bias in depression, may be important for the therapeutic effect of mirtazapine. It nevertheless remains unresolved whether/how mirtazapine specifically influences processing of self-referential emotional information. Half of the healthy volunteers (n=15/30) received a single dose of mirtazapine, in an open-label design, two hours before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the other half was scanned as a control group without medication. During fMRI the participants categorized positive and negative self-referential adjectives. Mirtazapine attenuated responses to self-referential processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Mirtazapine further decreased responses to positive self-referential processing in the posterior cingulate cortex and parietal cortex. These decreased responses of the CMS suggest that mirtazapine may rapidly improve the ability of the CMS to down-regulate self-referential processing. In depressed patients, this could lead to decreased self-focus and rumination, contributing to the antidepressant effect.
  • Komulainen, Emma; Heikkila, Roope; Meskanen, Katarina; Raij, Tuukka T.; Nummenmaa, Lauri; Lahti, Jari; Jylhä, Pekka; Melartin, Tarja; Harmer, Catherine J.; Isometsa, Erkki; Ekelund, Jesper (SAGE SCIENCE PRESS (UK), 2016)
    Increased self-focus is a core factor in the psychopathology of depression. Cortical midline structures (CMS) are implicated in the neurobiology of self, depression and antidepressant treatment response. Mirtazapine, an antidepressant that increases serotonin and norepinephrine release, enhances processing of positive and attenuates processing of negative emotional information in healthy volunteers after a single dose. These early changes, which are opposite to the negative information bias in depression, may be important for the therapeutic effect of mirtazapine. It nevertheless remains unresolved whether/how mirtazapine specifically influences processing of self-referential emotional information. Half of the healthy volunteers (n=15/30) received a single dose of mirtazapine, in an open-label design, two hours before functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI), and the other half was scanned as a control group without medication. During fMRI the participants categorized positive and negative self-referential adjectives. Mirtazapine attenuated responses to self-referential processing in the medial prefrontal cortex and the anterior cingulate cortex. Mirtazapine further decreased responses to positive self-referential processing in the posterior cingulate cortex and parietal cortex. These decreased responses of the CMS suggest that mirtazapine may rapidly improve the ability of the CMS to down-regulate self-referential processing. In depressed patients, this could lead to decreased self-focus and rumination, contributing to the antidepressant effect.
  • Roinila, Markku (2019)
    In his defense of innateness in New Essays on Human Understanding (1704), Leibniz attributes innateness to concepts and principles which do not originate from the senses rather than to the ideas that we are born with. He argues that the innate concepts and principles can be known in two ways: through reason or natural light (necessary truths), and through instincts (other innate truths and principles). In this paper I will show how theoretical and moral reasoning differ from each other in Leibniz, and compare moral reasoning and instincts as sources of knowledge in his practical philosophy. As the practical instincts are closely related to pleasure and passions, which are by nature cognitive, my emphasis will be on the affective character of instinctive moral action and especially deliberation which leads to moral action. I will argue that inclinations arising from moral instinct, which lead us to pleasure while avoiding sorrow, can direct our moral action and sometimes anticipate reasoning when conclusions are not readily available. Acting by will, which is related to moral reasoning, and acting by instincts can lead us to the same moral knowledge independently, but they can also complement each other. To illustrate the two alternative ways to reach moral knowledge, I will discuss the case of happiness, which is the goal of all human moral action for Leibniz.
  • Bergman-Pyykkönen, Marina; Salovaara, Veronica (Finlandssvenska kompetenscentret inom det sociala området, 2021)
    FSKC Rapporter
    Emotions in social work - how can they be understood and managed? In this book we describe findings from a project that developed together with social workers from three municipalities network meetings for investigating emotions in social work practice on basis of Karen Healy's (2018) CSCE-model.
  • Somppi, Sanni; Törnqvist, Heini; Koskela, Aija; Vehkaoja, Antti; Tiira, Katriina; Väätäjä, Heli; Surakka, Veikko; Vainio, Outi; Kujala, Miiamaaria (2022)
    Simple Summary The relationship between owner and the dog affects the dog's attachment behaviors and stress coping. In turn, the quality of the relationship may affect owner's interpretations about their dog's behavior. Here, we assessed dogs' emotional responses from heart rate variability and behavioral changes during five different situations. Dog owners evaluated the emotion (valence and arousal) of their dog after each situation. We found that both negative and positive incidents provoked signs of emotional arousal in dogs. Owners detected the dog's arousal especially during fear- and stress-evoking situations. The dog-owner relationship did not affect owners' interpretation of dogs' emotion. However, the dog-owner relationship was reflected in the dog's emotional reactions. Close emotional bond with the owner appeared to decrease the arousal of the dogs. Dog owners' frequent caregiving of their dog was associated with increased attachment behaviors and heightened arousal of dogs. Owners rated the disadvantages of the dog relationship higher for the dogs that were less owner-oriented and less arousable. Dog's arousal may provoke dog's need to seek human attention, which in turn may promote the development of emotional bond. We evaluated the effect of the dog-owner relationship on dogs' emotional reactivity, quantified with heart rate variability (HRV), behavioral changes, physical activity and dog owner interpretations. Twenty nine adult dogs encountered five different emotional situations (i.e., stroking, a feeding toy, separation from the owner, reunion with the owner, a sudden appearance of a novel object). The results showed that both negative and positive situations provoked signs of heightened arousal in dogs. During negative situations, owners' ratings about the heightened emotional arousal correlated with lower HRV, higher physical activity and more behaviors that typically index arousal and fear. The three factors of The Monash Dog-Owner Relationship Scale (MDORS) were reflected in the dogs' heart rate variability and behaviors: the Emotional Closeness factor was related to increased HRV (p = 0.009), suggesting this aspect is associated with the secure base effect, and the Shared Activities factor showed a trend toward lower HRV (p = 0.067) along with more owner-directed behaviors reflecting attachment related arousal. In contrast, the Perceived Costs factor was related to higher HRV (p = 0.009) along with less fear and less owner-directed behaviors, which may reflect the dog's more independent personality. In conclusion, dogs' emotional reactivity and the dog-owner relationship modulate each other, depending on the aspect of the relationship and dogs' individual responsivity.
  • Veijalainen, Jouni; Reunamo, Jyrki; Heikkilä, Minna (2021)
    This paper aims to determine possible gender differences in children’s observed emotional expressions and their relationship with teacher-rated self-regulation (SR) skills in the setting of early childhood education and care (ECEC). Supporting SR and emotional wellbeing in early childhood can be considered a favourable pathway towards holistic development (e.g. Shonkoff et al. [2012]. The lifelong effects of early childhood adversity and toxic stress. Pediatrics, 129(1), e232–e246; Bagdi & Vacca [2005]. Supporting early childhood social-emotional well being: The building blocks for early learning and school success. Early Childhood Education Journal, 33(3), 145–150). The participants included 1213 (44.2%) boys and 1075 (41.0%) girls which were 13–83 months old. The SR data was collected through an evaluation instrument. Emotional expressions (N = 50480) were observed with an independent instrument. The results indicated how girls were observed to have more neutral, calm or peaceful-related emotional expressions, while boys tended to express more surprise, curiosity, anger or frustration-related emotions. Boys’ and girls’ ability for SR was related to their emotional expressions. Boys’ and girls’ SR skills had the same tendency in weak, moderate and good SR categories.
  • Pihkala, Panu (2018)
    This article addresses the problem of eco-anxiety by integrating results from numerous fields of inquiry. Although climate change may cause direct psychological and existential impacts, vast numbers of people already experience indirect impacts in the form of depression, socio-ethical paralysis, and loss of well-being. This is not always evident, because people have developed psychological and social defenses in response, including socially constructed silence. I argue that this situation causes the need to frame climate change narratives as emphasizing hope in the midst of tragedy. Framing the situation simply as a threat or a possibility does not work. Religious communities and the use of methods which include spirituality have an important role in enabling people to process their deep emotions and existential questions. I draw also from my experiences from Finland in enabling cooperation between natural scientists and theologians in order to address climate issues.
  • Hujala, Anneli; Oksman, Erja (2018)
    Cross-boundary collaboration, both multiprofessional and interorganizational, is needed when providing integrated care for people with multiple problems, who need services at the same time from diverse care providers. Multiple problems of clients also pose extra challenges for interaction between care professionals and clients. Emotional dynamics are always present in everyday interaction between human beings, but seldom explicitly addressed in research on integrated care. The aim of this reflective paper is to illustrate the emotional dimensions of integrated care in light of the experiences of care professionals in the context of care for people with multiple complex problems. The paper draws on a Finnish study on integrated care reflecting its findings from the perspective of emotional labor. The difficult life situations of people with multiple complex problems form an emotional burden, which is mirrored in the interaction between clients and professionals and affects relational dynamics among professionals. Professionals' fear of emotions and the different feeling rules' of care professions and sectors pose extra challenges to professionals' collaboration in this emotionally loaded context. Alongside the structural and functional aspects of integrated care, it is important that emotions embedded in everyday cross-boundary collaboration are recognized and taken into account in order to ensure the success of integrated care.
  • Peltonen, Niina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Objectives The purpose of this thesis is to study physiological connections during emotion, and investigate whether emotional synchrony predicts cognitive performance. It is widely acknowledged emotions affect human behavior extensively, however, less is known about how different processes of emotional regulation are related. These relations can be studied by measuring emotional physiological synchrony, determined as the index value of similarities between physiological processes that are recorded while experiencing emotion. When people experience emotions, activity of bodily functions changes, and the synchrony measure is meant to reflect whether the changes vary in the same manner. Multiple different methods for determining the emotional synchrony have been suggested, yet there is no established practice. In this thesis, a new method for determining emotional physiological synchrony is presented. Also, cognitive performance is measured to understand whether synchrony has a relationship with behavioral outcomes. The research question of this thesis is: Does synchrony of emotional responses predict cognitive performance? Methods 32 subjects participated in the experiment in which three signals—electrodermal activity (EDA), electroencephalography (EEG) and facial electromyography (fEMG)—were recorded while subjects’ performed in cognitively loading and emotionally arousing tasks. Cognitive performance was measured by Visual Search and Mental Arithmetic tasks. Emotional synchrony was determined based on each subjects’ physiological activity during Mental Imagery task, in which subjects recalled their emotional memories. A new method for determining the synchrony was created, consisting of two approaches: Approach 1 for investigating the synchrony of physiological responses over time, within one emotion, and Approach 2 investigating synchrony of physiological responses between two emotions, averaged over time. Both approaches employed Kendall correlation and cosine similarity analysis. The physiological responses extracted from the signals included: skin conductance response (SCR) from EDA, frontal alpha asymmetry (FASYM) from EEG, and corrugator supercilii (CRG), zygomaticus major (ZYG) and orbicularis oculi (ORB) from fEMG. The relationship between synchrony indices and cognitive performance was explored with linear models. Results It was found that strong synchronization between facial muscles ZYG and ORB corresponded to the positiveness of emotions having greatest activation during highly arousing positive emotions: enthusiasm, joy and triumph. This synchrony was linked with increased performance in Visual Search tasks, indicating that subjects whose facial muscle activation synchronized during Mental Imagery, tended to achieve better performance scores in Visual Search.
  • Jarvela, Simo; Kätsyri, Jari; Ravaja, Niklas; Chanel, Guillaume; Henttonen, Pentti (2016)
    We investigated how technologically mediating two different components of emotion communicative expression and physiological state to group members affects physiological linkage and self-reported feelings in a small group during video viewing. In different conditions the availability of second screen text chat (communicative expression) and visualization of group level physiological heart rates and their dyadic linkage (physiology) was varied. Within this four person group two participants formed a physically co-located dyad and the other two were individually situated in two separate rooms. We found that text chat always increased heart rate synchrony but HR visualization only with non-co-located dyads. We also found that physiological linkage was strongly connected to self-reported social presence. The results encourage further exploration of the possibilities of sharing group member's physiological components of emotion by technological means to enhance mediated communication and strengthen social presence.
  • Linden, Carl-Gustav (Södertörns Högskola, 2020)
    Journalistikstudier vid Södertörns högskola
  • Poikonen, Leena (2004)
    This thesis examines memories and emotions about the home left behind by the Gambian immigrants in Finland. It elucidates what kinds of emotions are brought out by the memories of home, and how people describe and interpret those emotions. It also discusses the different kinds of ideas and conceptualisations about home as well as the significance of the home left behind when living in the migrant condition. It is argued that home left behind affects the life of immigrants: people are not without history when they arrive to their new homeland. Moreover, it is assumed that there are emotional connections to home, the place where we care for people, and those connections do not disappear when we move. The study challenges the Western notion of emotions as individual inner events untouched by culture and thus readily understandable across cultures. The study is situated in the fields of psychological anthropology and migration studies. The theoretical framework consists of theories of home, migration, transnationalism and diaspora, anthropological theories of emotion, and theories of collective memory. The qualitative data is derived from fieldwork among the Gambian immigrants in the metropolitan area of Finland (Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa) and it consists of participant observation and semi-structured in-depth interviews with 10 informants, as well as informal interviews. The study shows that emotionally loaded memories centre around social relationships. Closeness and the collective way of life of the Gambia is remembered and longed for. Emotions are often expressed implicitly and also through the medium of body: sometimes memories, loneliness and longing are experienced as mental and somatic symptoms. Gambian conception of emotion differs from the Western one and conveys the cultural norms of controlling and balancing emotions. Home left behind is apparent in the lives of immigrants as practices learned, values, morality, beliefs, and social order. The home left behind also means concrete contacts and responsibilities of maintaining social relations as well as economically contributing to those left behind. The home left behind signifies responsibilities as well as dreams about return to the place where “people know who you are”.
  • Pipatti, Otto (Routledge, 2019)
    While highly respected among evolutionary scholars, the sociologist, anthropologist and philosopher Edward Westermarck is now largely forgotten in the social sciences. This book is the first full study of his moral and social theory, focusing on the key elements of his theory of moral emotions as presented in The Origin and Development of the Moral Ideas and summarised in Ethical Relativity. Examining Westermarck’s evolutionary approach to the human mind, the author introduces important new themes to scholarship on Westermarck, including the pivotal role of emotions in human reciprocity, the evolutionary origins of human society, social solidarity, the emergence and maintenance of moral norms and moral responsibility. With attention to Westermarck’s debt to David Hume and Adam Smith, whose views on human nature, moral sentiments and sympathy Westermarck combined with Darwinian evolutionary thinking, Morality Made Visible highlights the importance of the theory of sympathy that lies at the heart of Westermarck’s work, which proves to be crucial to his understanding of morality and human social life. A rigorous examination of Westermarck’s moral and social theory in its intellectual context, this volume connects Westermarck’s work on morality to classical sociology, to the history of evolutionism in the social and behavioural sciences, and to the sociological study of morality and emotions, showing him to be the forerunner of modern evolutionary psychology and anthropology. In revealing the lasting value of his work in understanding and explaining a wide range of moral phenomena, it will appeal to scholars of sociology, anthropology and psychology with interests in social theory, morality and intellectual history.
  • Ihanus, Juhani; Tuohimetsä, Martti (2021)
  • Zhang, Mengyan (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The rapid development in the computer game industry has led to a renewed interest in research on computer game (CG) players’ experience. This study examines the emotions CG playing arouses in players, the players’ motivations for playing, as well as the phenomenon of immersion. Game players’ positive and negative emotions – as well as emotions not directly classifiable as either positive or negative – are all explored, as is the relationship of different emotions to different game types. The study also examines the immersion state, that is, the psychological phenomenon of being so engaged in playing that one is distracted from reality. Finally, the study also applies the uses and gratification paradigm to investigate the motivations behind CG playing. The study is based on a survey of 167 Chinese computer game players. In the survey, these players self-report their emotions (with a Chinese version of PANAS-X), their immersion state during play (with an immersion questionnaire), and the reasons for CG playing (with a uses and gratification scale). Previous work has shown that CG players experience enjoyment in playing, and that enjoyment as well as positive emotions is closely linked to players experiencing an immersion state. The goal of the present study is to explore the less well researched area of negative emotions and their relationship to immersion and gratification. The study also examines how immersion and gratification are influenced by factors like game type or the gender of the player. The result is consistent with previous findings that immersion and gratifications are closely related to enjoyment, and that both negative and positive emotions are related to gratification factors like Diversion, Fantasy and Arousal. The present study, however, emphasizes that negative emotions (such as hostility, sadness and guilt) as well as emotions that are neither positive nor negative (such as surprise) also contribute to game players’ immersion state. Also, of the six dominant factors of uses and gratification in the present study, fantasy is particularly interesting for further exploration, as it is positively related not only to negative and positive emotions, but also to emotions like surprise and shyness that cannot be classified as either positive or negative. Additionally, the emotion of surprise is strongly related to both immersion and gratification. In all, the results show that computer game playing is multi-dimensional behavior that involves emotion, immersion and gratifications. The three dimensions are independent, while closely related to and interacting with each other.
  • Oinas, Sanna; Ahtiainen, Raisa; Vainikainen, Mari-Pauliina; Hotulainen, Risto (2021)
    Although technology-enhanced feedback (TEF) from teachers to pupils is given daily, little is known about pupils' thoughts about this feedback in Finland. Pupils' perceptions were studied to evaluate whether TEF support self-regulated learning, as suggested. Interviews (N = 62) and questionnaires (N = 132) about pupils' perceptions and emotions related to TEF were analyzed. TEF, enriched with smiling emojis, is used to monitor performance and behavior. Reported emotions varied from joy to disappointment. TEF seems to direct pupils to understand that the appropriate behavior is one of the more desired learning goals and TEF may encourage pupils to become dependent on reassurance from teachers. To support pupils' self-regulatory skills, TEF should be developed to improve learning and support pupils' active participation on feedback as a process.
  • Tiainen, Tanja (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The purpose of this thesis was to describe mistakes occurring in daycare and the emotions they evoke, as well as how these mistakes are reported to outsiders. Mistakes occurring at work have raised internationally steady amounts of attention throughout the entire 2000s. Earlier studies have mainly focused on the best ways to avoid mistakes or to learn from them, as well as on factors that predispose to mistakes and failures. However, there are very few Finnish studies on this topic. Additionally, earlier studies have mainly ignored the individual view; thoughts and emotions in a situation where a worker makes a mistake. This thesis investigates the types of narratives told about mistakes. Further, the emotions perceivable in these stories are mapped together with how these narratives reflect the thoughts of alternatives to reality. In research publications, the latter is called counterfactual thinking. The material was collected and analysed using a narrative research method. For this thesis, six former or present daycare workers were interviewed, each of them twice. The first interview was a narrative one, and the second one a semi-structured one. The actual material comprised 18 narratives, each one describing a particular situation where a mistake was made by the interviewee or his or her coworker. Narrative analysis was used to analyse various reporting styles, the emotional expressions used in them and the counterfactual thinking. Through reporting styles and counterfactual thinking it was possible to detect five different types of narratives the daycare workers used for reporting mistakes. These types of narratives were qualitatively different depending on whether the reported mistake was made by the person himself or herself or by a coworker. The types of narratives were judgmental, evasive, learning, polishing and what if reports.
  • Capelos, Tereza; Chrona, Stavroula; Salmela, Mikko; Bee, Cristiano (2021)
    This thematic issue brings together ten articles from political psychology, political sociology, philosophy, history, public policy, media studies, and electoral studies, which examine reactionary politics and resentful affect in populist times.
  • Janasik-Honkela, Nina Margareta (2017)
    Since the time between the world wars, the language of emotions has been dominated by the discourse of therapy, starting a style of emotional expression and practice. Somewhat paradoxically, at the same time as a new professional group emerged with authority to pronounce on all matters emotional as part of the unfolding of modern emotional capitalism, the categories of psychic suffering have witnessed a veritable emptying out of emotions. Currently, the emphasis is placed, rather, on various kinds of lack of behaviour. For instance, “melancholy” as an existential category for strong and energy-intense reactions to all kinds of loss, has been squeezed into the clinical category of “depression,” literally meaning “pressing down.” Negative emotional states have, however, recently appeared in many self-tracking activities, including in the “datafication” of emotions in the form of the Finnish application Emotion Tracker. In this article, I ask whether this introduction of self-tracking into the context of health care and the workplace has written any differences into the current practices of emotional capitalism. My findings suggest that by placing itself in the opaque middle ground between professional psychology and ordinary life, Emotion Tracker creates a new space where the rich tapestry of melancholy is again allowed to figure