Browsing by Subject "endotoxin"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-3 of 3
  • FinnGen; Leskelä, Jaakko; Toppila, Iiro; Härmä, Mari-Anne; Palviainen, Teemu; Salminen, Aino; Sandholm, Niina; Pietiäinen, Milla; Kopra, Elisa; Pais de Barros, Jean-Paul; Lassenius, Mariann I.; Kumar, Anmol; Harjutsalo, Valma; Roslund, Kajsa; Forsblom, Carol; Loukola, Anu; Havulinna, Aki S.; Lagrost, Laurent; Salomaa, Veikko; Groop, Per-Henrik; Perola, Markus; Kaprio, Jaakko; Lehto, Markku; Pussinen, Pirkko J. (2021)
    Background Translocation of lipopolysaccharide from gram-negative bacteria into the systemic circulation results in endotoxemia. In addition to acute infections, endotoxemia is detected in cardiometabolic disorders, such as cardiovascular diseases and obesity. Methods and Results We performed a genome-wide association study of serum lipopolysaccharide activity in 11 296 individuals from 6 different Finnish study cohorts. Endotoxemia was measured by limulus amebocyte lysate assay in the whole population and by 2 other techniques (Endolisa and high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry) in subpopulations. The associations of the composed genetic risk score of endotoxemia and thrombosis-related clinical end points for 195 170 participants were analyzed in FinnGen. Lipopolysaccharide activity had a genome-wide significant association with 741 single-nucleotide polymorphisms in 5 independent loci, which were mainly located at genes affecting the contact activation of the coagulation cascade and lipoprotein metabolism and explained 1.5% to 9.2% of the variability in lipopolysaccharide activity levels. The closest genes included KNG1, KLKB1, F12, SLC34A1, YPEL4, CLP1, ZDHHC5, SERPING1, CBX5, and LIPC. The genetic risk score of endotoxemia was associated with deep vein thrombosis, pulmonary embolism, pulmonary heart disease, and venous thromboembolism. Conclusions The biological activity of lipopolysaccharide in the circulation (ie, endotoxemia) has a small but highly significant genetic component. Endotoxemia is associated with genetic variation in the contact activation pathway, vasoactivity, and lipoprotein metabolism, which play important roles in host defense, lipopolysaccharide neutralization, and thrombosis, and thereby thromboembolism and stroke.
  • Hietala, Ville; Horsma-Heikkinen, Jenni; Carron, Annelie; Skurnik, Mikael; Kiljunen, Saija (2019)
    The production of phages for therapeutic purposes demands fast, efficient and scalable purification procedures. Phage lysates have a wide range of impurities, of which endotoxins of gram-negative bacteria and protein toxins produced by many pathogenic bacterial species are harmful to humans. The highest allowed endotoxin concentration for parenterally applied medicines is 5 EU/kg/h. The aim of this study was to evaluate the feasibility of different purification methods in endotoxin and protein toxin removal in the production of phage preparations for clinical use. In the purification assays, we utilized three phages: Escherichia phage vB_EcoM_fHoEco02, Acinetobacter phage vB_ApiMiHyAci03, and Staphylococcus phage vB_SauMiRuSau02. The purification methods tested in the study were precipitation with polyethylene glycol, ultracentrifugation, ultrafiltration, anion exchange chromatography, octanol extraction, two different endotoxin removal columns, and different combinations thereof. The efficiency of the applied purification protocols was evaluated by measuring phage titer and either endotoxins or staphylococcal enterotoxins A and C (SEA and SEC, respectively) from samples taken from different purification steps. The most efficient procedure in endotoxin removal was the combination of ultrafiltration and EndoTrap HD affinity column, which was able to reduce the endotoxin-to-phage ratio of vB_EcoM_HoEco02 lysate from 3.5 x 10(4) Endotoxin Units (EU)/10(9) plaque forming units (PFU) to 0.09 EU/10 9 PFU. The combination of ultrafiltration and anion exchange chromatography resulted in ratio 96 EU/10(9) PFU, and the addition of octanol extraction step into this procedure still reduced this ratio threefold. The other methods tested either resulted to less efficient endotoxin removal or required the use of harmful chemicals that should be avoided when producing phage preparations for medical use. Ultrafiltration with 100,000 MWCO efficiently removed enterotoxins from vB_SauM_fRuSau02 lysate (from 1.3 to 0.06 ng SEA/10(9) PFU), and anion exchange chromatography reduced the enterotoxin concentration below 0.25 ng/ml, the detection limit of the assay.
  • Valle, Jenni (Helsingfors universitet, 2018)
    Gut inflammation and permeability is speculated to play a major role in the pathophysiology of several human diseases. Signs of a low-grade gut inflammation in patients with type 1 diabetes (T1D) have been found. Focus of this study was to understand the role of gut inflammation and increased gut permeability in the development of diabetic complications, especially nephropathy. Approximately, one-third of Finnish patients with T1D develop kidney disease during their lifetime. Inflammatory mechanisms may have an essential role in the pathophysiology of the disease. Lipopolysaccharide, LPS, is found in the outer membrane of gram-negative bacteria. LPS activates innate immune system and triggers the activation of inflammatory cytokines, neutrophils and macrophages as well as many pathophysiological processes in vivo, for instance fever and endotoxic shock. Aim of this study was to establish a zebrafish gut inflammation model using fluorophore conjugated endotoxin, LPS. We hypothesized that delivery of LPS in addition to EDTA in the gut of zebrafish triggers inflammation and increased gut permeability which may lead to leakage of LPS to blood stream and potentially kidney injury. This novel zebrafish inflammation model could possibly be used for studying the pathophysiological mechanisms of gut inflammation and possible kidney injury as well as for screening new anti-inflammatory drugs. In addition, this animal model can be used for studying intestinal alkaline phosphatase (IAP) in reducing gut permeability and LPS-mediated kidney damage. IAP is an enzyme produced in small-intestinal epithelium. IAP can detoxify several bacterial endotoxins including LPS and thus protect against the induction of intestinal inflammation. LPS and EDTA were delivered in the gut of 6 days old zebrafish larvae using microgavage injection. Fluorescence microscopy imaging of live zebrafish enabled following the same individual at different timepoints after injections. Paraffin sectioning of the small larvae was promising for investigating the morphology and permeability of the gut as well as possible immunostaining for detection of IAP. L-phenylalanine was used for inhibition of IAP enzyme. Using the novel method of microinjection to gut on zebrafish larvae the timing and amount of delivered materials to gut can be controlled well. The anatomy and function of the gut in zebrafish is very similar to small intestine of mammals and the highly developed vertebrate immune system makes zebrafish an interesting model organism for studying gut inflammation and permeability. In addition, inflammatory processes can be visualized in live, intact transparent zebrafish larvae. However, the technique has a lot of challenges including small size of the fish and possible tissue damage of the fish while performing injection. More experiments need to be carried out to establish the model for drug screening. Also, along with microscopy images, a more precise way for quantification the gut permeability is needed. Based on the images it’s not yet possible to conclude whether LPS increased gut permeability or if IAP inhibition with L-phenylalanine worked in zebrafish larvae. Using adult zebrafish in the future will give more information about the chronic gut inflammation and development of possible kidney injury.