Browsing by Subject "engagement"

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  • Kukkakorpi, Mariia; Pantti, Mervi (2021)
    Virtual reality (VR) and other immersive technologies introduce new opportunities for emotionally compelling narratives and user agency. Virtually mediated environments lie at the heart of immersive journalism (IJ) experiences, foregrounding a sense of presence and bridging the connection between the user and the character. Mediated environments in VR stories provide more than a setting since the user can interact with and respond to the surroundings. Drawing on the theory of spatial narrative, documentary and cinema literature and studies on media morality, this article examines the meaning of place in VR news stories and its ability to engage the user with the story. This study contributes to the discussion of creating and communicating places in journalism studies by examining spatial storytelling in immersive news stories, which are available in the NYT VR smartphone application. This paper argues that spatial storytelling eventually affects what is experienced and how it is experienced either by demonstrating the circumstances with aesthetical elements or via the selection of spaces.
  • Juuti, Kalle; Lavonen, Jari; Salonen, Visajaani; Salmela-Aro, Katariina; Schneider, Barbara; Krajcik, Joseph (2021)
    We present teacher-researcher partnership (TRP) as a way of fostering teachers' professional learning. Teachers' participation as research group members is an essential aspect of the partnership. Teachers and researchers share the same goal, which is to improve their understanding of and enhance students' engagement in science. Project-based learning (PBL) was selected as a means of enhancing student engagement. The activities of the partnership focused on the co-design and enactment of and co-reflection on PBL units. Teachers participated in the design of the data collection process and the interpretation of initial findings. As an indicator of teachers' professional learning, we examined students' engagement during different implementations of the PBL units. Student engagement was measured using a situational experience sampling questionnaire delivered via mobile phones. The students' experiences of scientific practices and engagement in actual learning situations were measured in the first and second years of the teachers' implementation of the teaching units. An analysis of the students' responses showed that the students were 20% more engaged in the second year than in the first year. We argue that TRP has the potential to enhance teachers' professional learning.
  • Helve, Oskari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    There has been increasing research attention on wellbeing of students in higher education both in Finland and internationally. Because of its goal-oriented nature, higher education resembles working in many ways. Thus, research on students´ wellbeing has started utilizing concepts derived from occupational research. Burnout and study engagement are concepts that are being used in research on both lower educational levels and higher education. Burnout describes feelings of exhaustion, cynicism and inadequacy experienced when demands of studying exceed available resources. Engagement on the other hand means feeling vigorous, dedicated and absorbed in studying and arises when demands and resources are better balanced. The goal of this thesis was to increase understanding of social resources that can guard against the negative effects of demands and foster engagement in higher education. It investigated how social support, guidance and counselling from the educational institution and sense of belonging to studying related groups are related to burnout and engagement experienced by students. The data for this study was the Finnish Student Health Service´s Student Health Survey from 2016, which is a representative sample of students in universities and universities of applied sciences in Finland (N=3110). Burnout symptoms were measured using the SBI-9 measure and engagement using the Schoolwork Engagement Scale. The total scores on these two scales were analyzed together with social support, guidance and counselling and sense of belonging to studying related groups. Pearson´s correlation coefficients were obtained to reveal the bivariate associations of these variables followed by two hierarchical regression analyses on burnout and engagement individually. All of the social resources were included as predictors in these models and the stage of studies, gender and feeling of being in the right field of study were controlled for as background variables. The results supported both hypotheses and existing literature. It was found that those students who were able to talk about their matters with someone, had received guidance to their studies and felt like they belong to studying related groups had lower levels of burnout symptoms. Similarly, students with sufficient social resources were more engaged in their studies. The results indicate that social resources are an important factor in wellbeing of higher education students. Future research should continue to further study these resources using more accurate measures incorporating different types of social support or different groups in the educational context.
  • Hietajärvi, Lauri; Maksniemi, Erika; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2022)
    Since the turn of the millennium, the digital revolution has opened a new layer of opportunities for adolescents to participate, create and learn. Simultaneously there has been growth in both debate and worries regarding how the intensive engagement with digital media affects students' academic performance, engagement, and school-related well-being, that is, academic functioning. Students' continuously evolving digital practices are not always in congruence with the more traditional ways of schoolwork. Students flourish and fulfill their potential when the informal and format practices of learning reach congruence, but when this is not the case, frictions can emerge. Spending time with digital media can provide new avenues for learning and development, but it can equally well divert young people from their studies or increase the daily demands. In this narrative review, we address these continuities and discontinuities between engagement with digital media and academic functioning for school-aged children and young people, focusing on meta-analyses, reviews, and key studies. Following the examination of the current literature, we conclude that, in general, the field of "digital media effects" needs to move beyond screen time and utilize the research on the students' multidimensional socio-digital engagement already conducted. Second, we conclude that the average effects of digital engagement on academic functioning are negligibly small but heterogeneous, further corroborating the claim to examine the qualitative differences in students' digital engagement, the individual differences between students, as well as the contextual interplay.
  • Makkonen, Taina; Tirri, Kirsi; Lavonen, Jari (2021)
    Research on the advantages and disadvantages of project-based learning (PBL) among gifted pupils studying physics is scarce. This mixed-methods study investigates engagement, experiences, and learning outcomes among gifted Finnish uppersecondary-level students learning physics through PBL. A six-lesson PBL module on basic Newtonian mechanics was designed and implemented for a group of gifted students (N = 38), whereas a traditional teacher-driven approach was used among a control group (N = 38) of gifted students. Data were collected by means of a questionnaire, interviews and a physics test. According to the results, PBL met the preconditions (challenge, skill, interest) for engaging the students in learning physics. It generated interest in learning among the vast majority, but not as many found it challenging. The findings also highlight the impact of autonomy when learning through PBL. No differences in overall learning outcomes were found between the groups.
  • Nurmi, Johanna; Knittle, Keegan; Ginchev, Todor; Khattak, Fida; Helf, Christopher; Zwickl, Patrick; Castellano-Tejedor, Carmina; Lusilla-Palacios, Pilar; Costa-Requena, Jose; Ravaja, Niklas; Haukkala, Ari (2020)
    Background: Most adults do not engage in sufficient physical activity to maintain good health. Smartphone apps are increasingly used to support physical activity but typically focus on tracking behaviors with no support for the complex process of behavior change. Tracking features do not engage all users, and apps could better reach their targets by engaging users in reflecting their reasons, capabilities, and opportunities to change. Motivational interviewing supports this active engagement in self-reflection and self-regulation by fostering psychological needs proposed by the self-determination theory (ie, autonomy, competence, and relatedness). However, it is unknown whether digitalized motivational interviewing in a smartphone app engages users in this process. Objective: This study aimed to describe the theory- and evidence-based development of the Precious app and to examine how digitalized motivational interviewing using a smartphone app engages users in the behavior change process. Specifically, we aimed to determine if use of the Precious app elicits change talk in participants and how they perceive autonomy support in the app. Methods: A multidisciplinary team built the Precious app to support engagement in the behavior change process. The Precious app targets reflective processes with motivational interviewing and spontaneous processes with gamified tools, and builds on the principles of self-determination theory and control theory by using 7 relational techniques and 12 behavior change techniques. The feasibility of the app was tested among 12 adults, who were asked to interact with the prototype and think aloud. Semistructured interviews allowed participants to extend their statements. Participants’ interactions with the app were video recorded, transcribed, and analyzed with deductive thematic analysis to identify the theoretical themes related to autonomy support and change talk. Results: Participants valued the autonomy supportive features in the Precious app (eg, freedom to pursue personally relevant goals and receive tailored feedback). We identified the following five themes based on the theory-based theme autonomy support: valuing the chance to choose, concern about lack of autonomy, expecting controlling features, autonomous goals, and autonomy supportive feedback. The motivational interviewing features actively engaged participants in reflecting their outcome goals and reasons for activity, producing several types of change talk and very little sustain talk. The types of change talk identified were desire, need, reasons, ability, commitment, and taking steps toward change. Conclusions: The Precious app takes a unique approach to engage users in the behavior change process by targeting both reflective and spontaneous processes. It allows motivational interviewing in a mobile form, supports psychological needs with relational techniques, and targets intrinsic motivation with gamified elements. The motivational interviewing approach shows promise, but the impact of its interactive features and tailored feedback needs to be studied over time. The Precious app is undergoing testing in a series of n-of-1 randomized controlled trials. KEYWORDS health app; mHealth; human-computer interaction; prevention; service design; usability design; intrinsic motivation; reflective processes; spontaneous processes; engagement; self-determination theory; autonomous motivation; gamification; physical activity
  • Peräkylä, Anssi; Voutilainen, Liisa; Lehtinen, Maarit; Wuolio, Mariel (2022)
    In a longitudinal conversation analytical (CA) case study, we examined patient engagement in a psychiatric assessment process (nine clinical interviews) with a young woman who eventually received the diagnosis of personality disorder. Based on Goffman, we consider engagement in interaction as consisting of three facets: engagement in the action at hand, bodily engagement with the co-participant, and engagement with the local moral order of the encounter. The patient begins the assessment process with high engagement and ends it up in low engagement. Yet, during this process, the patient oscillates between moments of high and low engagement. We show how the Goffmanian idea of engagement can be elaborated by CA. On the other hand, the Goffmanian view enriches CA by bringing to the foreground the interconnectedness of the different facets of engagement. A video abstract is available at
  • Kukkakorpi, Mariia Päivikki (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This study explores immersive journalism and how virtual reality (VR) stories engage the recipient in real-life events. Immersive journalism can be characterised as a first-person experience of news, emphasising interactive qualities as well as a sense of presence, thus creating a notion of ‘being there’ in the virtual world. The study aims to shed light on the new field of immersive journalism as well as to explore the characteristics and constraints of VR stories in terms of engagement in conflict news. Particular interest is given to the notion of presence and the way in which media form and media content produce engagement as well as the ways in which VR aims to connect the recipient with the news story. Due to its interdisciplinary nature, the study combines theories from VR, audio-visual media, presence and media witnessing. The qualitative study employs close reading as the primary method. The New York Times (NYT) has been chosen as the news producer of VR stories since it is the pioneer in the field and provides the largest selection of VR stories. The data is delimited to conflict news, as tragedy can often be described as engaging audiences through distant suffering. The study results in four findings: (1) VR stories employ different narrative strategies to maintain proper distance between the phenomenon and the other and to enhance the experience; (2) the positioning of the recipient spatially in the VR narratives emphasises location, creates a sense of witnessing and focuses on the recipient’s own experience; (3) VR stories aim to construct a relationship between the recipient and the other; and (4) media form and media content aim to evoke various emotions, including empathy. This study finds that NYT VR stories aim to personally engage the recipient with conflict news and to increase emotional engagement. Media content and media form contribute to engagement, for example, in creating proximity to the other and evoking the recipient’s personal interest. Presence enlivens consumption of news and underpins the recipient’s freedom to generate his or her own understanding of events.
  • Tuovinen, Sanna; Tang, Xin; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2020)
    Learning through social interaction has been documented widely, however, how introverted people are socially engaged in learning is largely unknown. The aim of this study was, first, to examine the reliability and validity of the social engagement scale among students at Finnish comprehensive schools. Then we aimed to examine the interaction effect of introversion and social engagement on self-esteem, schoolwork engagement and school burnout. Based on a sample of 862 ninth grade students in Finland, we found that two-factor model best fitted the social engagement scale (i.e., social engagement and social disengagement). Further, we found that introverts with high social engagement have higher self-esteem than introverts with low social engagement. Our results implied that introverts should be given extra support when they encounter group work in school.
  • Kovanen, Anna (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Introduction Young adulthood is an important stage of life. Health development and problems during young adulthood have impact on life later on (Koskinen, Kestilä, Martelin & Aromaa, 2005). Well- and ill-being during studying and working have been studied from the perspective of burnout and engagement. Burnout is defined as a studying- or work-related prolonged stress-disorder (Maslach, Schaufeli & Leiter, 2001; Salmela-Aro, 2009), while engagement is a positive, long-term affective-cognitive state (Schaufeli, Salanova, González-Romá & Bakker, 2002). According to the demands-resources -model, in studying and work, burnout leads to ill-being while engagement leads to well-being (Demerouti, Bakker, Nachreiner & Schaufeli, 2001; Salmela-Aro & Upadyaya, 2014a; Schaufeli & Bakker, 2004). Apparently it has not been previously studied, whether it is possible to experience burnout and engagement in leisure-time like it is in studying and working. The main goal of this study was to identify burnout- and engagement groups using the person-centered approach (Bergman & Anderson, 2010) in studying or working young adults, who could differ in terms of background-, health- and welfare-factors. The secondary goal was to explore the structure of burnout and engagement in leisure-time of the same participants and also find out what kind of factors were involved. Methods This study is part of the Finnish Educational Transitions Studies (FinEdu) -longitudinal study, using the latest questionnaire material collected in 2013–2014. Only students and employees were included in the analyzed data (N=924, women=562, primary students=317, employees=607), their age varying from 24 to 29 years of age. Burnout and engagement groups in studying and work were identified through latent profile analysis. The structure of burnout and engagement in leisure-time was studied with explorative factor analysis. The acquired groups along with burnout and engagement in leisure-time were compared to different background-, health- and welfare-factors. Results The latent-profile-analysis identified three burnout- and engagement groups in studying and work. The engaged (56%) experienced engagement and minor burnout in their studies or work. They also had the best state of health and well-being. The burned-out (14%) experienced burnout in their studies or work and had low engagement. Their group also had the worst state of health and well-being. The disengaged (30%) reminded the burned-out, but did not have as low experience of engagement or as high burnout as the burned-out. The disengaged placed in between the engaged and the burned-out in terms of health and well-being. In leisure-time, both burnout- and engagement dimensions were distinguishable through explorative factor analysis. Burnout in leisure-time was connected to a worse state of health and lesser well-being, while engagement linked to better health and higher well-being. In addition, burnout and engagement in leisure-time was connected to the burnout- and engagement groups in studying and work. Discussion Young adults experience burnout and engagement in their studies, work and leisure time. According to this study, half of the students experience more engagement than burnout in their studies or work. Alarmingly, the other half experiences more burnout than engagement in their studies or work which is also linked to burnout and engagement experienced in leisure-time. Burnout and engagement are linked to many ill- and well-being factors, thus having a great impact on both the individual and the society. Therefore, it is important that the study of these phenomena is pursued.
  • Peake, Christopher (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    Modern views of learning emphasise the utilisation of students' pre-existing knowledge in teaching. Learning and information refinement occurs in social interaction, and for this reason school should also utilise more communal approaches to learning and teaching. Making use of students' existing knowledge is important also for student interest and engagement. The aim of this study is to find out how well teachers succeed in including student initiatives into teaching. The focal point is student-teacher interaction and how its quality is likely to affect student engagement. Earlier research has highlighted the importance of a good student-teacher social relationship, but on a level that provides no details of practicalities. A purpose of this study is to provide practical examples of different kinds of student-teacher interaction, and the interactions' effects on learning and engagement. This study is a qualitative analysis and the data is part of the data collected during the "Learning, Agency and Well-being" (2009-2014) project. The data of this study comprises of observational data collected from two upper secondary classes during 2010 and 2011. It consists of a total of 146 lessons that were concatenated into 52 episodes. From these episodes 109 interaction sequences that begun with a student initiative were included. In addition, 7 episode examples for selected for deeper scrutiny to form more detailed qualitative analyses and interpretations. Although teachers were fond of attempting to include student initiatives into teaching, only a few times was activity re-directed on the bases of the initiative. A good social relationship was found to be a significant factor for the creation of engagement fostering surroundings. Mutual trust and respect were found to be hallmarks of a good social relationship. Accepting students' somewhat on-task initiatives was found to be the best way of improving student engagement.
  • Oksa, Reetta; Kaakinen, Markus; Savela, Nina; Hakanen, Jari J.; Oksanen, Atte (2021)
    Background: The COVID-19 pandemic has changed work life profoundly and concerns regarding the mental well-being of employees' have arisen. Organizations have made rapid digital advancements and have started to use new collaborative tools such as social media platforms overnight. Objective: Our study aimed to investigate how professional social media communication has affected work engagement before and during the COVID-19 pandemic and the role of perceived social support, task resources, and psychological distress as predictors and moderators of work engagement. Methods: Nationally representative longitudinal survey data were collected in 2019-2020, and 965 respondents participated in all 4 surveys. Measures included work engagement, perceived social support and task resources, and psychological distress. The data were analyzed using a hybrid linear regression model. Results: Work engagement remained stable and only decreased in autumn 2020. Within-person changes in social media communication at work, social support, task resources, and psychological distress were all associated with work engagement. The negative association between psychological distress and work engagement was stronger in autumn 2020 than before the COVID-19 outbreak. Conclusions: The COVID-19 pandemic has exerted pressure on mental health at work. Fostering social support and task resources at work is important in maintaining work engagement. Social media communication could help maintain a supportive work environment.
  • Kiryluk, Halina; Glińska, Ewa; Ryciuk, Urszula; Vierikko, Kati; Rollnik-Sadowska, Ewa (Public Library of Science, 2021)
    PLoS ONE 16: 6, e0253166
    Stakeholder participation is particularly important when dealing with mobility problems in touristic remote areas, in which there is a need to find sustainable solutions to increase transport accessibility. However, the literature lacks research linking the issues of establishing stakeholder groups with the most desirable level of involvement and methods ensuring involvement on the indicated level. The aim of the paper is to fill this gap on example of project dedicated to six Baltic Sea Regions. In the first stage key stakeholder groups were identified, then different methods and tools were proposed depending on levels of engagement of given group of stakeholders on solving the problems of local mobility. Two research methods were implemented–the case study and the content analysis of documents. The results of the research point to the existence of five key groups of stakeholders interested in solving transport problems of touristic remote areas: authorities, business and service operators, residents, visitors and others (like experts and NGOs). Among the five–authorities and business representatives–should be to a higher degree engaged. However, the main conclusion is that engagement local government units, when developing their own, long-term strategies for social participation, should adapt the selection of participation methods and techniques to a specific target group and the desired level of their involvement so as to include stakeholders in the co-decision processes as effectively as possible and achieve effective regional co-management.
  • Korhonen, Vesa; Mattsson, Markus; Inkinen, Mikko; Toom, Auli (2019)
    In the description of the complex relationship between individual students and their education context, as well as understanding of questions related to progression, retention or dropouts in higher education, student engagement is considered the primary construct. In particular, the significance of the first year of higher education in terms of engagement is decisive. We aim at developing a multidimensional conceptualization of engagement and utilized network analysis. Data were collected as part of the annual Student Barometer survey in Finland during the 2012-2013 academic year, and we gathered a nationally representative sample (n = 2422) of first-year students in different disciplines at 13 Finnish universities. Network analysis confirmed the multidimensional process model of engagement and its six dimensions. The central dimensions of engagement are identity and sense of belonging, which develop in the interplay between individual and collective dimensions as a long-term process. Additional network analyses with covariates identified positive and negative factors that affect engagement. The study adds new perspectives to existing knowledge of engagement. It is important to understand the process-like nature of engagement and make visible factors affecting the process. Based on these findings, we provide novel practical recommendations for interventions for university students who struggle with engagement during their first year.