Browsing by Subject "entrepreneurship"

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  • Lehtonen, Oskari (Hanken School of Economics, 2011)
    Economics and Society - 233
    Previous research has been inconclusive regarding the impact of those who invest in entrepreneurs. Consider for a moment how potentially important they are to entrepreneurs. They for example decide who deserves funding, how much time they contribute to their portfolio firms, how they grant entrepreneurs access to their networks, and help entrepreneurs acquire additional funding. In sum, investors potentially have a great impact on the success of entrepreneurs. It is therefore important that we better understand the environment, relationships and context in which parties operate. This thesis contains five articles that explore investors’ and entrepreneurs’ relationships from various viewpoints, in theoretical frameworks, and use a variety of data and research methods. The first article is a literature review that summarises what we know of venture capital, business angel and corporate venture capital funding. The second article studies the entrepreneurs’ investor selection process, its consequences, and identifies key factors that influence the process. Earlier, the common approach has been to concentrate research on the investors’ selection policy, not the entrepreneurs’. The data and conclusions are based on multiple case studies. The article analyses how entrepreneurs can ensure that they get the best possible investor, when it is possible for an entrepreneur to select an investor, and what are the consequences of investor selection. The third article employs power constructs (dependency, power balance/imbalance, power sources) and analyses their applicability in the investor-entrepreneur relationship. Power constructs are extensively studied and utilised in the management and organisation literature. In entrepreneur investor relationships, power aspects are rarely analysed. However, having the ability to “get others to do things they would not otherwise do” is a very common factor in the investor-entrepreneur relationship. Therefore, employing and analysing the applicability of power constructs in this setting is well founded. The article is based on a single case study but suggests that power constructs could be applicable and consequently provide additional insights into the investor-entrepreneur relationship. The fourth article studies the role of advisors in the venture capital investment process and analyses implications for research and practice, particularly from the entrepreneurs’ perspective. The common entrepreneurial finance literature describes the entrepreneur-investor relationship as linear and bilateral. However, it was discovered that advisors may influence the relationship. In this article, the role of advisors, operating procedures and advisors’ impact on different parties is analysed. The fifth article concentrates on investors’ certification effect. The article measures and demonstrates that venture capital investment is likely to increase the credibility (in terms of media attention) of early stage firms, those that most often need additional credibility. Understanding investor certification can affect how entrepreneurs evaluate investment offers and how investors can make their offers appear more lucrative.
  • Lahikainen, Katja; Kolhinen, Johanna; Ruskovaara, Elena; Pihkala, Timo (2019)
    The purpose of this study is to add to the literature on entrepreneurial university ecosystems by highlighting the ways in which academics engage or decouple in entrepreneurship processes and thereby in the emerging entrepreneurial ecosystem. The study extends our understanding of the emergence of an entrepreneurial university ecosystem by providing an in-depth analysis of a Finnish university campus, investigating how individuals' perceptions respond to societal and institutional demands for the fostering of entrepreneurship. The findings suggest that education and research are regarded as the highly institutionalized logics of universities, and these logics tend to be maintained since more rewards are associated with them than are associated with the logic of entrepreneurial actions. These competing logics lead to conflicting interests and cause intentional and unintentional decoupling in the adaptation and implementation of entrepreneurial actions in universities.
  • Tala, Mika Samuel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Unprecedented environmental challenges require new entrepreneurs who develop disruptive ideas, products and services. These entrepreneurs are becoming increasingly dependent on their surrounding context and the other actors situated within this context. Against this background, this research focused on the emergence of bioeconomy entrepreneurial ecosystems in two Finnish regions: Lahti and Tampere, and investigated regional differences in entrepreneurial ecosystem emergence, evolution and legitimacy. This research was based on an iterative process of theory elaboration. Spigel’s relational perspective to entrepreneurial ecosystem attributes was used as the main guiding perspective. An integrative literature review conceptualized and synthesized literature around the topic. A comparative case study design was applied, and case regions were selected based on theoretical relevance. The primary data consisted of 21 interviews which were analyzed using thematic analyses. The results showed contrasting development paths for ecosystem emergence: the Lahti ecosystem was emerging from established and maintained arrangements, whereas the Tampere ecosystem was emerging from change processes; the change seemed to be easiest for those areas within cities that do not suffer from path-dependent arrangements. The findings challenge standard evolutionary models and bottom-up models of entrepreneurial ecosystems. When successful, changing ecosystems could potentially reduce the timespan for ecosystem development. Moreover, different ecosystems had different implications for legitimacy. In conclusion, the public sector and research institutions should play a more prominent role in the development of entrepreneurial ecosystems in the bioeconomy and work towards a more inclusive collaborative process. Nonetheless, the dichotomy between change and path dependence in entrepreneurial ecosystems was based on preliminary categorizations that can be elaborated in further study and broader empirical data.
  • Rannikko, Heikki (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 240
    This study participates in several discussions on new technology-based firms, both from a population-level viewpoint and a firm-level viewpoint. The overall objective of this study is to examine how new technology-based firms grow. For the population level research this study provides new knowledge by analysing growth, and high growth, in the context of new technology-based firms. As a firm level phenomenon the present study provides new knowledge, both for the behavioural orientation literature and the resource dependence literature, by examining the possible causes and implications of entrepreneurial orientation and external resource mobilisation. The results of the descriptive empirical analysis picture the group of technology-based firms as a distinct sector of the economy. The emphasis on technology is shown through the finding that new technology-based firms’ managers value the distinction of technology over other business goals. Concerning growth patterns it is found that only a minority of new firms experience high annual growth, that growth is erratic and that it may take a long time for a new technology-based firm to achieve growth. The testing of the theoretical model suggests that entrepreneurial orientation is positively associated with growth performance and that the experienced growth performance is positively associated with entrepreneurial orientation. In conclusion, it seems that positive experiences in the past reinforce entrepreneurial orientation, which further strengthens the development of a firm. Concerning moderating factors it is found that technological distinctiveness modifies the relationship between entrepreneurial orientation and growth. The finding hints that entrepreneurship (risk-taking, boldness and pro-activeness) is more beneficial with strategies in which technological excellence and sophistication are not the top priority. In support of the resource dependence argument, it was found that financial resource mobilisation is positively associated with growth. The findings further give support for the view that embeddedness in a firm community of practice is associated with a higher level of resource mobilisation in a firm level. Concerning financial resource mobilisation, the results suggest that there is a positive association, both between identification with a community of practice and financial resource mobilization and between nature of co-operation in a community of practice and financial resource mobilisation. Towards operational resource mobilisation similar associations were not found. Overall, these results contribute to the innovation policy discussion by suggesting that hands-on innovation policy interventions may have firm-level effects, in addition to those of technological and business learning. The results suggest indirectly that supporting firms to create and maintain close ties with their exchange partners within a community of practice may lead to improved resource mobilisation e.g. through increased awareness of firm participants. This discovery contributes both to the research on innovation policy interventions and to the research on a more nuanced view of the resource dependence perspective.
  • Aarnio, Hanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Aims. Previous research on entrepreneurial education has mainly been driven by economic interest. It has been based on quantitative approaches focusing on learning outcomes. Entrepreneurial competencies have been observed as learnable and teachable, although there has been contradictory evidence about effectiveness of entrepreneurial education. Process perspective on entrepreneurial education has left as a minor viewpoint. By now, researchers’ have recommended socio-constructive and experiential approaches to pedagogics. The objective of this study is to bring together previously separate research traditions on educational outcomes and process, introducing more profound picture of learning entrepreneurial competencies especially from the students’ perspective. Methods. The study was conducted by interviewing 18 fifth-year engineering students, who had started their studies on August 1, 2013. The interview invitations were targeted based on study register data for reaching participants from diverse backgrounds on entrepreneurial studies. The research instrument was built on directions of narrative research, critical incident technique and lifeline approach. The data were analyzed with content analysis combined with abductive reasoning and data quantification. Results and conclusions. Consistently with the previous studies, entrepreneurial competencies were shown possible to learn. All students recognized learning of business competencies. However, competencies needed in early-phase entrepreneurship were emphasized by students, who had accomplished several entrepreneurial courses. Results concerning learning process indicated that combining formal learning environments with elements of informal learning resulted as a wide spectrum of learned entrepreneurial competencies. Learning was located especially in problem-solving and project working environments where students co-worked in inter- or multidisciplinary groups. However, other than entrepreneurial courses did not directly support learning of entrepreneurial competencies. Thus, the findings set base for further actions in integrating the elements of entrepreneurial courses into project courses.
  • Tötterman, Henrik (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2008)
    Economics and Society
    This study focuses on self-employed industrial designers and how they emerge new venture ideas. More specifically, this study strives to determine what design entrepreneurs do when they create new venture ideas, how venture ideas are nurtured into being, and how the processes are organized to bring such ideas to the market in the given industrial context. In contemporary times when the concern for the creative class is peaking, the research and business communities need more insight of the kind that this study provides, namely how professionals may contribute to their entrepreneurial processes and other agents’ business processes. On the one hand, the interviews underlying this study suggest that design entrepreneurs may act as reactive service providers who are appointed by producers or marketing parties to generate product-related ideas on their behalf. On the other hand, the interviews suggest that proactive behaviour that aims on generating own venture ideas, may force design entrepreneurs to take considerable responsibility in organizing their entrepreneurial processes. Another option is that they strive to bring venture ideas to the market in collaboration, or by passing these to other agents’ product development processes. Design entrepreneurs’ venture ideas typically emerge from design related starting points and observations. Product developers are mainly engaged with creating their own ideas, whereas service providers refer mainly to the development of other agents’ venture ideas. In contrast with design entrepreneurs, external actors commonly emphasize customer demand as their primary source for new venture ideas, as well as development of these in close interaction with available means of production and marketing. Consequently, design entrepreneurs need to address market demand since without sales their venture ideas may as well be classified as art. In case, they want to experiment with creative ideas, then there should be another source of income to support this typically uncertain and extensive process. Currently, it appears like a lot of good venture ideas and resources are being wasted, when venture ideas do not suite available production or business procedures. Sufficient communication between design entrepreneurs and other agents would assist all parties in developing production efficient and distributable venture ideas. Overall, the findings suggest that design entrepreneurs are often involved simultaneously in several processes that aim at emerging new product related ventures. Consequently, design entrepreneurship is conceptualized in this study as a dual process. This implies that design entrepreneurs can simultaneously be in charge of their entrepreneurial processes, as they operate as resources in other agents’ business processes. The interconnection between activities and agents suggests that these kinds of processes tend to be both complex and multifaceted to their nature.
  • Pietiläinen, Tarja (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2001)
    Working Papers
    In this working paper I discuss gendered entrepreneurship by exploring how the media writes about female entrepreneurship. The starting point is that the media when talking and writing about female entrepreneurs and female entrepreneurship, mould meanings of gender in entrepreneurship. I view entrepreneurship and gender as socially constructed, discursive phenomena. To uncover the processes of constructing gender in female entrepreneurship this paper applies a discursive framework, which treats language as a representational system producing and circulating meaning. The focus on language use as action implies that practises of writing and talking about female entrepreneurship ‘make’ gender as much as the women entrepreneurs) themselves: both involve working on culturally shared meanings to make reality intelligible. The data consists of articles published in Yrittäjä, a pro-SME magazine, in 1990-1997. In the analysis I show how gender is constructed in media talk. as a women’s issue Women entrepreneurs are constantly compared with men and with an implicitly masculine ideal of entrepreneurship and with strengths and weaknesses of women are displayed pointing out that the meaning making of gender taking place in the data refers to equality discourse. Finally I discuss possible consequences of the hegemonic equality discourse and suggest lines of further research.
  • Salojärvi, Sari (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    Economics and Society
    This study explores the role and nature of knowledge management (KM) in small and medium-sized companies (SMEs). Even though the role of knowledge as a competitive advantage is commonly recognized in the SME sector, almost no attention has been paid to the managing and developing of knowledge in SMEs. This thesis consists of three different sub-studies that were reported in four individual essays. The results of the questionnaire study indicate that nearly all companies that responded to the questionnaire (N = 108) found intangible assets, i.e. knowledge resources to be their main source of competitive advantage. However, only less than a third of the companies actively deal with knowledge management. The results also indicate a significant correlation between activity in knowledge management and sustainable organic growth of the company. The interview study (N = 10) explored the context and motives of the SMEs for managing their intangible assets, and the concrete practices of knowledge management. It turned out that KM facilitated change management, clarification of the vision and new strategy formulation. All the interviewed companies were aiming at improved innovation process, new ways of doing business and attaining an increased “knowledge focus” in their business. Nearly all also aspired to grow significantly. Thus, KM provides a strategy for these SMEs to guarantee their survival and sustainability in the turbulent markets. The action research was a process to assess and develop intangible resources in three companies. The experienced benefits were the clarification of future focus and strategy, creation of a common language to discuss strategic issues within the company, as well as improved balance of different categories of intangible assets. After the process all the case companies had developed in the chosen key areas. Thus, by systematic knowledge management the implementation of new strategic orientation (knowledge focusing) was facilitated. The findings can be summarized in two main points. First, knowledge management seems to serve the purpose of change, renewal and new strategic orientation in the SMEs. It also seems to be closely related to organic growth and innovation. All of these factors can be considered dimensions of entrepreneurship. Second, the conscious development of intangible assets can increase the balance of different categories of intangible assets and the overall knowledge focusing of business. In the case companies, this in turn facilitated the path to the improved overall performance.
  • Laukkanen, Seppo (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 243
    Exploration and exploitation complement one another in the organizational learning. Exploration fosters the ability to diversify, while exploitation increases specialization. Together, these two modes promote innovation and subsequent organizational renewal. While exploration facilitates the discovery of new knowledge, exploitation merges this knowledge with previously held knowledge and skills to expand and strengthen the firm. The current scientific literature falls short in explaining in practical terms how this fusion takes place, produces innovations, and renews the strategy of an organization. By leveraging an intimate relationship with the innovation activities of a large-scale multinational enterprise, Laukkanen created an Integrated Process Model of the interplay between ambidextrous innovation activities and the strategy and structure development of a company. The Integrated Process Model highlights the conversion between exploration and exploitation as the central mechanism for establishing a dialogue that fosters reciprocal adjustment between the innovation activity, strategy and structure of the firm. The study identified three conversion patterns that bring the discoveries from the exploration mode to the commercial realm. In the ‘linear’ pattern, the innovation activities execute the fine-grained strategy with the established structure of the company. The linear innovation activities produce incremental innovations that sustain the strategy of the firm. In the ‘transforming’ pattern, an iterative conversion process facilitates concurrent reciprocal adjustments in the innovation activity and strategy and structure of the firm. The adjustments of the strategy and structure are necessary for radical innovations. In the ‘experimenting’ conversion pattern, the activity is intermittently connected to the strategy and structure development of the company. The intermittent connection provides the experimenting activity with the latitude to craft new business entries outside the traditional domain of the company. The intermittent connection between the innovation activity and strategy and structure implies that the strategic learning takes place primarily in retrospect to the experiment. The research illuminated ambidexterity as an eclectic organizational learning phenomenon that cuts through the fabric of an organization. The study captured the ambidexterity phenomenon on three ‘presentation layers’. Ambidexterity was identified both in actions and in their concrete outcomes, i.e. innovations. Additionally, ambidexterity left observable traces on the realized strategy of the firm. Each presentation layer of ambidexterity needs to be managed on its own. However, the study argues that the most decisive factor in making ambidexterity productive is the purposefulness of the continuum across these presentation layers. The three identified innovation patterns represent alternative paths from ambidextrous activities to their eventual outcomes. The Integrated Process Model of ambidexterity provides a conceptualization for actualizing ambidexterity to the strategic benefit of a company. This study provides guidance for firms seeking to promote ambidextrous activities for innovations and organizational renewal.
  • Westanmo, Ida (Hanken School of Economics, 2000)
    Working Papers
    This paper discusses mentoring from the mentors' point of view in an entrepreneurial setting. The aim of the paper is to present why mentoring can be considered important for entrepreneurs who are mentors and under what circumstances mentoring is valuable for the mentor. A pilot mentorprogramme was conducted among women entrepreneurs during 1998. A study was made in order to examine the mentors’ perception of the programme. Firstly mentoring and entrepreneurship in Finland are discussed briefly. Secondly the results of the study are presented. The results of the study show that mentoring can be valuable for the mentors both on a vocational and a personal level. However, it is important to choose the mentees of the programme on a rather strict basis. The results demonstrate a need to be careful in choosing mentees.
  • Mantere, Saku; Aula, Pekka; Schildt, Henri; Vaara, Eero (Hanken School of Economics, 2013)
    We examine how organizational stakeholders use narratives in their psychological processing of venture failure. We identify a range of “narrative attributions”, alternative accounts of failure that actors draw on to process the failure and their role in it. Our analysis provides a view of entrepreneurial failure as a complex social construction, as entrepreneurs, hired executives, employees and the media construct failure in distinctively different ways. Narratives provide means for both cognitive and emotional processing of failure through grief recovery and self-justification.
  • Haimila, Sanna (2007)
    This paper examines the question of when employees become entrepreneurs from an economic theory perspective. It focuses on new company formation as a decision between spin-out, spin-off or internal venture, especially from employee's point of view. It addresses the question of how pre-entry organizational structures and availability of outside financing influence both employee and company decisions, taking into account the fundamental questions of when employees generate innovations, how companies react to them, and whether they are eventually developed inside or outside the company. The starting point is the situation when an employee has a new business idea while working in a company as an employee. It is also assumed that the idea or innovation is out side employer company's core business. The question is, under what circumstances does the employee start a new business. Intellectual property right regime influences the outcome, but not so that it pre-determines the outcome. This paper will be based mainly on the work of Klepper, Anton, Yao and Hellman. Anton and Yao's (1995) and Klepper's (2001) work form a base for the economical approach on the formation of spin-outs and spin-offs. Anton and Yao's work focuses on inventions that don't require much start up capital and for which property rights are very weak or missing all together. In such settings, the employee will sometimes form a new company even though joint profits would have been larger had the invention been developed with the original company. They study the incentives faced by an employer and an employee when the employee privately discovers a significant invention. Most of the definitions of new entrants and employee motivations in this thesis are adaptations of Klepper's previous work. Besides the work of Anton and Yao, this thesis is based on Hellman's model on new company formation (Hellman, 2001). Hellman has combined different approaches in his paper, by forming a model that is based on four main elements: Alternative regimes of intellectual property rights, differences in the entrepreneurial environment, endogenous corporate strategy and employee-driven innovations. The model aims to explain why some companies let their employees go, others develop their innovations internally, turning employees into entrepreneurs, while some use their employees' innovations to create spin-offs Hellman (2002). Helman's paper differs from most of the other previous work in that it considers a larger set of development alternatives, explaining spin-outs (voluntary or not, with or without intellectual property rights), internal ventures, spin-offs, and even refusals to develop an innovation. The analysis does not rely on incomplete contracts, but instead uses a multi-task incentive framework to characterize the employee's incentive problem. Most importantly, Hellman's paper introduces corporate strategy into the analysis. This approach builds on the work by Rotemberg and Saloner (1994), who examine the benefits of narrow business strategy. Some other aspects of spin-off and spin-out motives are visited briefly in this paper.
  • Markkula, Aapo (2020)
    The aim of this study was to examine what are the drivers fostering swift repurposing of old industrial sites into cultural venues. Qualitative case study focused on three case studies: Suvilahti in Helsinki, WUK in Vienna and Studio Alta in Prague. The data consisted of 13 professional interviews representing cultural sites, entrepreneurs, event organizers, expert panel and city of Helsinki. The research questions were: What drivers enable a fluent process of repurposing an old industrial site for cultural use? What impact does an established cultural hub operating in an old industrial site have on the image of the city and on citizens’ satisfaction in a city? What is the motivation for an organization to operate in a cultural hub? Theoretical framework consisted of literature from the fields of planning theory, city planning, cultural planning, strategic planning of a cultural cluster and civic activism in city planning. From the field of cultural cluster strategic planning strategic management, leadership and co-creation were of special interest. All old industrial sites are one-of-a-kind environments and not all best practises can be directly applied to them. A key finding in the research is that all empty spaces create culture - empty space is the soil where cultural start-ups plant their seed in hope of reaching the sunshine and success. The key conclusions of the research conducted in the thesis can be categorized in three areas: drivers on fluent repurposing; cultural hub’s impact on city image and citizens; and cultural entrepreneurs’ motivation to operate in a cultural hub. The key drivers for fluent repurposing of an old industrial site include facilitation to achieve the vision for the site, cultural entrepreneurs’ working environment in the city and entrepreneurs’ financial challenge management. A cultural hub has profound impact on the image of the city as well as on citizens’ satisfaction in the city. The conclusions on the impact were: cultural entrepreneurs’ freedom to develop cultural programme has a major impact on the success; active civic participation increases the likelihood of getting happy citizens; and a cultural hub that has reached sustainable state is a key element of city’s or area’s domestic and international profile and appeal. The key benefits and reasons why cultural entrepreneurs operate in a cultural hub are: hub is a vehicle to fulfil personal aspirations with freedom to operate, support from the community in the hub and hub’s synergy that fosters growth. Author defined five core elements of future cultural entrepreneurship. The recommended areas for future research include hybrid government in city planning including civic participation and cultural hub success factor research including cultural entrepreneurship.
  • Nel, Francois; Milburn-Curtis, Coral; Lehtisaari, Katja (2020)
    Purpose: This paper sheds light on the distinctive nature of entrepreneurial-oriented behaviours in news media firms. We reconsider conceptualisations of exploitation and exploration in the industry and seek to explore the extent to which they are related to organisational performance. Methodology: In a cross-sectional study, we draw on data from a longitudinal investigation into the decision making of news media executives worldwide. The study focuses on a correlational analysis of primary data collected from media executives across 107 countries. With a large sample size (N = 1438) and strict significance testing, we address the potential limitations of a purposive sampling strategy. Findings/Contribution: We find that firms that prioritise exploration higher than exploitation are more likely to be reporting financial success than those who do the opposite. We propose that the study contributes to the understanding of the impact of volatile times on the media industry, by suggesting that, even in the midst of considerable disruption, the exploration of new opportunities nevertheless has the potential to reap financial rewards. In so doing, it answers both the specific appeal for greater clarity of organisational ambidexterity measures, as well as calls to test and expand existing theory in various contexts, and to develop theory that is directly pertinent to media management science.
  • Eriksson, Päivi; Hearn, Jeff; Jyrkinen, Marjut; Merilainen, Susan; Moisander, Johanna; Niemi, Hertta; Rolin, Kristina; Vanhala, Sinikka; Henttonen, Elina; Hiillos, Minna; Katila, Saija; Tallberg, Teemu (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2005)
    Research Reports
    Viimeaikainen sukupuolta ja organisaatiota käsittelevä tutkimus ja kirjallisuus on saanut paljon (toisinaan epäsuoria) vaikutteita feminismiä ympäröivistä keskusteluista. Lisäksi naisten aseman ja kokemuksien tunnistaminen organisaatioissa ja johtamisessa on vaikuttanut tutkimukseen. Erilaisten kansainvälisesti tutkittujen aiheiden kirjo on laaja: sukupuolisuhteet organisaatioiden ja johtoryhmien kulttuureissa ja kommunikaatiossa; sukupuolittunut työnjako; sukupuolittuneet hierarkiat, valta, auktoriteetti ja johtajuus organisaatioissa ja johtamisessa; sukupuolittuneet markkinat; sukupuolittuneet kuvat, symbolit ja mainokset; sukupuoli ja IT teknologia; seksuaalisuus, häirintä, kiusaaminen ja väkivalta organisaatioissa; työn ja kodin yhteensovittaminen; ja niin edelleen. Myös akateemiset organisaatiot sekä niiden sukupuolittuneet valtasuhteet ja johtaminen kaipaavat kipeästi huomiota. Useimpia mainituista alueista on tutkittu ainakin jonkin verran mutta paljon työtä on vielä myös jäljellä. Tämä kokoelma esittelee ajankohtaista suomalaista tutkimusta seuraavista teemoista: tasa-arvo organisaatioissa, naisjohtajuus, yrittäjyyden sukupuoli, verkostot, sukupuolen representaatio sekä sukupuoli ja uusi teknologia. Kokoelma on työryhmän yhdessä koostama joten se on ennen kaikkea yhteistyön tulos. Recent research and literature on the gendering of organisations has been strongly influenced, though sometimes indirectly, by debates in and around feminism, and on recognising women and women’s situations, experiences and voices in organisations and management. The range of topics and issues that have been studied internationally is vast: gender relations in organizational and management groups, cultures and communication; gender divisions of labour; gender divisions of hierarchy, power, authority and leadership in organizations and management; gendered markets; gender imagery, symbols and advertising; gender and information technology; sexuality, harassment, bullying and violence in organisations; home-work relations; and so on. There are also key issues of gender power relations in academic organizations and management themselves, which need urgent attention. Though most of these areas have been researched to some extent, much remains to be done. This collection brings together current Finnish research on: Equality in Organisations, Women in Management, Gender and Entrepreneurship, Networks, Representation of Gender, Gender and ICTs. The book has been put together by an editorial team and is thus first and foremost a collective effort.
  • Heinonen, Piia (2007)
    This case study analyses the economic operations of a group of Lusaka-based businesswomen in the formal economy. In the study, these businesswomen are considered 'new' since through their entrepreneurship they have actively adapted to the 1990s liberalisation of Zambian economy. There are signs indicating that the Zambian entrepreneurial development does not follow the modern trajectories, which makes entrepreneurship an interesting research topic. The concepts of economic citizenship and strategy are launched to understand individual operations in the context of state regulation and social setting. On one hand, I will examine the Zambian neoliberal tax policy and its impact on the economic operations and decision-making of the new businesswomen, such as tax registration. On the other hand, the empirical data from the interviews with businesswomen and from the Zambian literature and magazines are examined to grasp together a full picture of the social elements that influence businesswomen's economic operations. The study reveals that the economic citizenship of the new Lusaka businesswomen builds on a complex set of norms and responsibilities and is more likely based on the duties than on the rights of a citizen. The economic strategies of the businesswomen do not solely reflect the market rationalities, but also responsibilities towards the nation, employees and the extended family. The traditional connotations of female decency influence new businesswomen's operations as well.
  • Honkanen, Pia-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Aims. The purpose of this study is to describe how entrepreneurial women with children experience parenting. The theoretical background is based on the parenting role map (Helminen and Iso-Heiniemi, 1999), as well as the cultural aspects of motherhood (Berg, 2008). The point of view regarding entrepreneurship and parenting coordination is derived from a model (Salmi 2004c) with work and family, as the point where three fields intersect. The fields consist of working life and politics, family life and social policy, as well as the constructive processes of gender and equality politics. Experiences of parenting by self-employed women examined three broad thematic areas: parenting experience, entrepreneurship and parenting coordination, and parenting and entrepreneurship, as positioned in the careers of the interviewees. The main research questions are: 1. How is parenting experienced in the everyday life by female entrepreneurs with children? 2. What types of coping strategies and solutions have women entrepreneurs created to coordinate entrepreneurship and parenting? 3. How have parenthood and entrepreneurship positioned themselves in the life cycle of women entrepreneurs? Methods. The data were collected through semi-structured interviews involving eight 30 to 55-year-old female entrepreneurs in the Uusimaa region. In addition to the interview, the subjects produced their own life stories, where they recorded the important stages of family life and entrepreneurship. The data were analysed using content analysis. The experiences of self employed women were approached through phenomenological understanding without attempting to remove them from the general social context. Results and conclusions. The parenthood of self employed women parentage was purely gender based and expressed as maternity in their daily lives. The role of maternity appeared in their everyday care of children, household tasks, and basic needs. Closeness and presence were also strong factors. A safety net involving the grandparents was present. Also, use of time and bringing the child to the work were functions of the coordination solutions. The life stories of female entrepreneurs appeared as individual stories, with maternity as the common denominator. The use of time included exceptional creativity and resourcefulness in addressing the needs of the family. The way female entrepreneurs schedule their time in everyday life provides an interesting perspective in the discussion regarding coordination of work and family.
  • Timonen, R. (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2000)
    Julkaisuja
    The aim of the study was to search for relationships between entrepreneurship, management and success in farm businesses. Entrepreneurship (’yrittävyys’ in Finnish) is considered as a qualitative characteristic of a person. It is defined as the combination of certain values and attitudes, which are concept of human being; attitudes towards property, labour and uncertainty as well as innovativeness. Management is considered as a labour process on three levels: the institutional level, the economical level and the operative level. Entrepreneurship was measured with a one-dimensional construction called ideology of entrepreneurship. The effectiveness of management on different levels was measured with sum variables. The empirical data of the study was collected from bookkeeping farms in the region of Southern Finland. The main conclusions of the study are as follows. Well-educated farmers and farmers of large farms were more entrepreneurial and more effective as managers than those with lower education and smaller farms. The more entrepreneurial the orientation of the farmer, the higher the effectiveness of management on all the three levels. Innovative farmers and farmers who are willing to take risks were more effective as managers than the less innovative and the risk minimizers. The score on the measure of ideology of entrepreneurship and the coefficient of profitability were positively correlated. The correlation was higher on small farms than on large farms. Three out of five components of ideology of entrepreneurship correlated with the coefficient of profitability on a significant level. The components were attitudes toward property, labour and uncertainty. The scores on the measures of effectiveness on all the managerial levels had a stronger relationship with the technical success (average yield) than with the economical success (coefficient of profitability). Regression analysis demonstrated that besides arable area entrepreneurship is a significant predictor of economical success. Other variables in the model were forest area, insitutional effectiveness and the production line. The model explained 39 percent of the variance in the coefficient of profitability.
  • Tarvainen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This is an explorative case study on the transformations of the hegemonic self and the subaltern other in the spaces of Israel’s globalising economy. Inspired by the works of Saskia Sassen, the thesis is based on a premise that the modern binary categories of difference may transform in the spaces of global, destabilising the hegemonic state. To study this possibility, thesis collects individual imaginaries of difference from Israel where the state has started to integrate the Palestinians of Israel into the centre of Israel’s start-up economy and the key operations of global capital. The thesis deploys an innovative research design that approaches difference as imaginary, made in the living interaction of materialities, myths and creative sense-making. The data of the study consists of individual narrations of difference, collected from Israeli-Palestinian entrepreneurs and Jewish public officials who work together at the entrepreneurial spaces in Israel. The findings of the thesis demonstrate that the Palestinians of Israel who are included into the entrepreneurial space, seek to reject their Palestinian identity and past in order to escape from the national hegemonic conditions. Through analysing the sense-making of Israeli Palestinians, the thesis demonstrates that the entrepreneurial space systematically expels knowledges of otherness that do not fit into the binary logic of modernity. The thesis concludes that in essence, the entrepreneurial intervention is a tool for reproducing the modern emancipatory image of self through the inclusion of the other. At the entrepreneurial site, it is not fear but the hope of emancipation that motivates Palestinians of Israel to detach from Palestinian narratives and spaces. Zionism, it seems, is able to re-institute its binary categories of difference from within the hope that the global brings. The results of the thesis help to understand the hegemonic dynamics through which Zionism and global capital expand together into subaltern consciousness and spaces of political As imaginaries of entrepreneurial knowledge economy are expanding not just in Israel but throughout the globe, the findings of the thesis may open up analytical possibilities also elsewhere.