Browsing by Subject "environmental change"

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  • Huilla, Miika (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Northern peatlands form a globally significant carbon reservoir holding almost one third of global terrestrial organic soil carbon. Peatlands are in constant interaction with the atmosphere and their carbon balance can change from a sink to a source. Climate is the one of the most important factors controlling peatland dynamics and subsequently carbon dynamics. As global warming is predicted to have increasingly strong impacts over the high latitudes, also peatlands will be affected. Peatlands are an environment defined by a certain type of vegetation, which can tolerate excess moisture and of often low pH. Peatland vegetation can be divided based on the preferred habitat conditions. Peatland vegetation compositions are not static, but instead everchanging and they react to changes in climate and environment, observed as shifts from vegetation assemblage to another. I studied the climatic response of peatland vegetation compositions in Lakkasuo bog in Southern Finland. High resolution macrofossil approach was carried out to observe peat vegetation changes trough time, in particular I studied responses to known climate phases. To obtain robust chronologies, both 210Pb and 14C dating was applied. Peat bulk density and C/N ratio was also analysed, carbon accumulation rates calculated, and current vegetation and water table depth (WTD) measured in the field. Three peat sections, 50-60cm from the top, were analysed. Dating revealed that the peat sections reached back c. 300 years. Plant data was statistically analysed using Changepoint to make an objective core-to-core comparison of the changes and the timing of vegetation shifts. Because WTD is largely defining the vegetation compositions in bogs, for Lakkasuo sites three bog microforms, i.e. microhabitats, currently representing different WTD levels were chosen for the palaeoecological analyses. Vegetation was inspected in high plant taxonomical level and as larger compositional groups (plant functional types). For changepoint analyses plant taxa were classified as “dry”, “intermediate” and “wet” based on their preferred moisture conditions today. Macrofossil data indicated clear shifts in vegetation composition in Lakkasuo as a response to the Little Ice Age (LIA) cool period and to current warming. LIA was characterised by presence of wet taxa. Current warming, in turn, is visible as an increase in dry taxa. This leads to the conclusion that climate has been the prevalent controlling factor for the bog vegetation during the last c. 300 years. Current development towards dry conditions in Lakkasuo will affect the peatland carbon dynamics. The peatland is projected to experience decrease in effective moisture hindering carbon uptake capability.
  • Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Makela, Annikki; Fronzek, Stefan; Minunno, Francesco; Peltoniemi, Mikko (2018)
    We are bound to large uncertainties when considering impacts of climate change on forest productivity. Studies formally acknowledging and determining the relative importance of different sources of this uncertainty are still scarce, although the choice of the climate scenario, and e.g. the assumption of the CO2 effects on tree water use can easily result in contradicting conclusions of future forest productivity. In a large scale, forest productivity is primarily driven by two large fluxes, gross primary production (GPP), which is the source for all carbon in forest ecosystems, and heterotrophic respiration. Here we show how uncertainty of GPP projections of Finnish boreal forests divides between input, mechanistic and parametric uncertainty. We used the simple semi-empirical stand GPP and water balance model PRELES with an ensemble of downscaled global circulation model (GCM) projections for the 21st century under different emissions and forcing scenarios (both RCP and SRES). We also evaluated the sensitivity of assumptions of the relationships between atmospheric CO2 concentration (C-a), photosynthesis and water use of trees. Even mean changes in climate projections of different meteorological variables for Finland were so high that it is likely that the primary productivity of forests will increase by the end of the century. The scale of productivity change largely depends on the long-term C-a fertilization effect on GPP and transpiration. However, GCM variability was the major source of uncertainty until 2060, after which emission scenario/pathway became the dominant factor. Large uncertainties with a wide range of projections can make it more difficult to draw ecologically meaningful conclusions especially on the local to regional scales, yet a thorough assessment of uncertainties is important for drawing robust conclusions.
  • Cosens, Barbara; Ruhl, J. B.; Soininen, Niko; Gunderson, Lance; Belinskij, Antti; Blenckner, Thorsten; Camacho, Alejandro E.; Chaffin, Brian C.; Craig, Robin Kundis; Doremus, Holly; Glicksman, Robert; Heiskanen, Anna-Stiina; Larson, Rhett; Similä, Jukka (National Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences Sep 2021, 118 (36) e2102798118
    The speed and uncertainty of environmental change in the Anthropocene challenge the capacity of coevolving social–ecological–technological systems (SETs) to adapt or transform to these changes. Formal government and legal structures further constrain the adaptive capacity of our SETs. However, new, self-organized forms of adaptive governance are emerging at multiple scales in natural resource-based SETs. Adaptive governance involves the private and public sectors as well as formal and informal institutions, self-organized to fill governance gaps in the traditional roles of states. While new governance forms are emerging, they are not yet doing so rapidly enough to match the pace of environmental change. Furthermore, they do not yet possess the legitimacy or capacity needed to address disparities between the winners and losers from change. These emergent forms of adaptive governance appear to be particularly effective in managing complexity. We explore governance and SETs as coevolving complex systems, focusing on legal systems to understand the potential pathways and obstacles to equitable adaptation. We explore how governments may facilitate the emergence of adaptive governance and promote legitimacy in both the process of governance despite the involvement of nonstate actors, and its adherence to democratic values of equity and justice. To manage the contextual nature of the results of change in complex systems, we propose the establishment of long-term study initiatives for the coproduction of knowledge, to accelerate learning and synergize interactions between science and governance and to foster public science and epistemic communities dedicated to navigating transitions to more just, sustainable, and resilient futures.
  • Henriksson, Eva; Candolin, Ulrika (2020)
    The operation of sexual selection depends on ecological conditions. Thus, changes in environmental conditions because of human activities can alter the strength and direction of sexual selection, with implications for evolutionary trajectories and the viability of populations. We show that aquatic algal blooms can relax the operation of sexual selection by influencing which males are available to attract females. This is by influencing the ability of males to maintain a resource needed in mate attraction. When we exposed two competing threespine stickleback malesGasterosteus aculeatus, whose attractiveness to females was known, to either clear or algal-turbid water, nest abandonment was more common in clear water, and it was usually the unattractive male that abandoned his nest. In turbid water, on the other hand, nest abandonments were less common and when they occurred, the probability increased that the attractive male abandoned his nest, and that the unattractive male subsequently occupied it. This change in the composition of nesting males increased the mating success of unattractive males. Thus, our results reveal a new mechanism through which habitat deterioration can influence sexual selection, by altering success in the competition for a resource critical in mate attraction, a territory with a nest in this case. This could be a common mechanism, considering the prevalence of resource competition in mate choice systems. On a broader level, our results emphasise the importance of considering the impact of environmental changes on the outcome of resource competition when investigating the influence that environmental disturbances have on the operation of sexual selection and thereby on evolutionary processes and population dynamics.
  • Karjalainen, Olli; Luoto, Miska; Aalto, Juha; Etzelmuller, Bernd; Grosse, Guido; Jones, Benjamin M.; Lilleoren, Karianne S.; Hjort, Jan (2020)
    The presence of ground ice in Arctic soils exerts a major effect on permafrost hydrology and ecology, and factors prominently into geomorphic landform development. As most ground ice has accumulated in near-surface permafrost, it is sensitive to variations in atmospheric conditions. Typical and regionally widespread permafrost landforms such as pingos, ice-wedge polygons, and rock glaciers are closely tied to ground ice. However, under ongoing climate change, suitable environmental spaces for preserving landforms associated with ice-rich permafrost may be rapidly disappearing. We deploy a statistical ensemble approach to model, for the first time, the current and potential future environmental conditions of three typical permafrost landforms, pingos, ice-wedge polygons and rock glaciers across the Northern Hemisphere. We show that by midcentury, the landforms are projected to lose more than one-fifth of their suitable environments under a moderate climate scenario (RCP4.5) and on average around one-third under a very high baseline emission scenario (RCP8.5), even when projected new suitable areas for occurrence are considered. By 2061-2080, on average more than 50% of the recent suitable conditions can be lost (RCP8.5). In the case of pingos and ice-wedge polygons, geographical changes are mainly attributed to alterations in thawing-season precipitation and air temperatures. Rock glaciers show air temperature-induced regional changes in suitable conditions strongly constrained by topography and soil properties. The predicted losses could have important implications for Arctic hydrology, geo- and biodiversity, and to the global climate system through changes in biogeochemical cycles governed by the geomorphology of permafrost landscapes. Moreover, our projections provide insights into the circumpolar distribution of various ground ice types and help inventory permafrost landforms in unmapped regions.
  • Ollinaho, Ossi; Arponen, V. P. J. (2020)
    Drawing on Alfred Schütz’s thought, as well as on a number of modern pragmatists and practice theorists, we theorize incomegetting—referring to practices of getting income, typically salaried work—as the paramount structurer of everyday life and, therefore, also the chief mediator of the human–nature metabolism. Even though the pragmatics of everyday life as an aggregate underlie the bulk of environmental impacts, these insidious impacts impose little immediate influence on everyday life, in particular in the urban Global North. In other words, the pragmatic dimension of everyday activities—principally, work—that takes place within a vastly complex and globally interlinked productive world system, has most often no immediate connection to the “natural” environment. While parts of the populations are directly dependent in terms of livelihoods on the “natural” environment, these populations are typically pushed to the margins of the global productive system. The understanding formulated in this essay suggests that in environmental social sciences there is a reason to shift the epicenter of the analysis from consumption to everyday life, to the varied practices of incomegetting. Against the backdrop of this paper, universal basic income schemes ought to have radical impacts on the way we relate also to the “natural” environment and such schemes necessitate understanding the essence of money in our contemporary realities.
  • Junqueira, André Braga; Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Torrents-Ticó, Miquel; Haira, Paul Lokono; Nasak, Job Guol; Burgas, Daniel; Fraixedas, Sara; Cabeza, Mar; Reyes-García, Victoria (2021)
    The fast and widespread environmental changes that have intensified in the last decades are bringing disproportionate impacts to Indigenous Peoples and Local Communities. Changes that affect water resources are particularly relevant for subsistence-based peoples, many of whom already suffer from constraints regarding reliable access to safe water. Particularly in areas where water is scarce, climate change is expected to amplify existing stresses in water availability, which are also exacerbated by multiple socioeconomic drivers. In this paper, we look into the local perceptions of environmental change expressed by the Daasanach people of northern Kenya, where the impacts of climate change overlap with those brought by large infrastructure projects recently established in the Omo River. We show that the Daasanach have rich and detailed understanding of changes in their environment, especially in relation to water resources. Daasanach understand observations of change in different elements of the social-ecological system as an outcome of complex interactions between climatic and non-climatic drivers of change. Our findings highlight the perceived synergistic effects of climate change and infrastructure projects in water resources, driving multiple and cascading impacts on biophysical elements and local livelihoods. Our results also demonstrate the potential of Local Ecological Knowledge in enhancing the understanding of complex social-ecological issues, such as the impacts of environmental change in local communities. To minimize and mitigate the social-ecological impacts of development projects, it is essential to consider potential synergies between climatic and socioeconomic factors and to ensure inclusive governance rooted in local understandings of environmental change.
  • Kortelainen, Pirkko; Larmola, Tuula; Rantakari, Miitta; Juutinen, Sari; Alm, Jukka; Martikainen, Pertti J. (2020)
    Abstract Estimates of regional and global freshwater N2O emissions have remained inaccurate due to scarce data and complexity of the multiple processes driving N2O fluxes the focus predominantly being on summer time measurements from emission hot spots, agricultural streams. Here we present four-season data of N2O concentrations in the water columns of randomly selected boreal lakes covering a large variation in latitude, lake type, area, depth, water chemistry and land use cover. Nitrate was the key driver for N2O dynamics, explaining as much as 78% of the variation of the seasonal mean N2O concentrations across all lakes. Nitrate concentrations varied among seasons being highest in winter and lowest in summer. Of the surface water samples 71% were oversaturated with N2O relative to the atmosphere. Largest oversaturation was measured in winter and lowest in summer stressing the importance to include full year N2O measurements in annual emission estimates. Including winter data resulted in four-fold annual N2O emission estimates compared to summer only measurements. Nutrient rich calcareous and large humic lakes had the highest annual N2O emissions. Our emission estimates for Finnish and boreal lakes are 0.6 Gg and 29 Gg N2O-N y-1, respectively. The Global Warming Potential (GWP) of N2O cannot be neglected in the boreal landscape, being 35% of that of diffusive CH4 emission in Finnish lakes.
  • Kaaronen, Roope Oskari; Manninen, Mikael A.; Roe, Emery Martin; Hukkinen, Janne; Eronen, Jussi T. (2021)
    Historical records are incomplete templates for preparing for an uncertain future. The global utility of past ecological knowledge for present/future purposes is questioned as we move from Holocene to Anthropocene. To increase the adaptive capacity of today’s societies, generalizable strategies must be identified for coping with uncertainty over a wide range of conditions and contingencies. We identify two key principles that increase adaptive capacities: diversification and precautionary heuristics. These sharply contrast with the present global state represented by the global production ecosystem characterized by: (1) homogenization and simplification of cultural practices and resource bases; (2) increased global connectivity and forced dissolution of cultural borders; and (3) centralization and intensification of modes of resource production and extraction. We highlight that responses of smaller-scale societies to risks and uncertainties are in many cases emulated by professionals in the high reliability management in today’s critical infrastructures. This provides a modern template for managing unpredictability in the Anthropocene.
  • Saarni, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Climate change affects the human habitat and the mechanics that cause this scientific phenomenon are somewhat well known. This study examines how forest policy, agricultural policy and environmental policy can control the mechanisms that cause climate change. The material of the study consists of interviews of 12-13 Finnish experts, each representing one of the previously mentioned sectors. Each of the experts have been asked 13-14 questions about the importance of climate change mitigation, as well as the mechanisms by which agriculture and forests affect the climate and how climate change should be considered in environmental policy. The data was collected between October 8th and November 8th of 2019. This was in five weeks after the IPCC 1,5-degree climate report was published. A series of topics was constructed from the answers, and they are meant to be used as topics to be discussed in the Finnish 2019 parliamentary election. In addition, on how important scientific academics see the control of climate change, they were also asked how critical climate change is. The interview material is stored in the Finnish Social Science Data Archive (www.fsd.uta.fi) The experts’ answers to the importance of controlling climate change were almost unanimous and considered to be highly important. Carbon sink and storage were considered the most effective methods to control climate change. According to the results, the study proposes topics that should be discussed in politics and when a person wants to advance the control of climate change in forest, agriculture and environment politics. Political decisions are often based on value judgement, which again are based on the information of different methods efficacy. The results that are discussed in this study are not the only options, but they give guidelines and reasons for discussions related to effective choices. Forest policies should recognize the effects of forest industry to the development of carbon sink and storage. Forest industries prerequisite for operation and decision making in addition to considering employment and export industry, must also consider the effect for Finland’s net carbon emissions. Activities which lengthen the forest rotation time would have multiple positive benefits and increase forest carbon storage. Agricultural politics should broaden the discussion to reach food politics. Consumption habits have big effect on agricultural production structure and it can be directed by many ways. The structure of agricultural production should also be considered from the emission point of view, because the land use is substantially large and changes in production can affect Finland’s emission in a scale, that would have large effect on our nations net carbon emissions. To strengthen carbon sinks, landowners should have compensation mechanism methods, that increase carbon sinks, and which are combined to the size of the carbon storage. In environmental policy climate change must be paid more attention and governmental boundaries must not intervene significant decision making. The strengthening of the role of Ministry of the Environment and adding co-operation between different ministries supports the decision making regarding environmentally positive issues.
  • Candolin, Ulrika (2019)
    Human activities by altering environmental conditions are influencing the mate choice of animals. This is by impacts on: (i) the production and expression of traits evaluated by mate choosers; (ii) the transmission of information about potential mates to choosers; (iii) the reception and processing of the information by choosers; and (iv) the final mate choice. Here, I first discuss how these four stages of the mate-choice process can be altered by environmental change, and how these alterations, in turn, can influence individuals, populations, and communities. Much evidence exists for human-induced environmental changes influencing mate choice, but the consequences for the fitness of courters and choosers are less well known, and even less is known about the impact on population dynamics, species interactions and community composition. More evidence exists for altered mate-choice systems influencing interspecific matings and thereby community composition and biodiversity. I then consider whether plastic adjustments and evolutionary changes can rescue adaptive mate-choice systems, and reflect on the possibility of non-adaptive mate-choice systems becoming less maladaptive under environmental change. Much evidence exists for plastic adjustments of mate-choice systems, but whether these are adaptive is seldom known, as is the contribution of genetic changes. Finally, I contemplate the possibility of mate-choice systems rescuing populations from decline in changing environments. I explain how this is context dependent with both positive and negative outcomes possible. In summary, while much evidence exists for human-induced environmental changes influencing mate-choice systems, less is known about the consequences for ecological and evolutionary processes. Considering the importance that mate choice plays in determining individual fitness and population viability, the effects of environmental change on mate-choice systems should be considered in studies on the ecological and evolutionary consequences of human disturbances to habitats.
  • Lundberg, Piia; Meierhofer, Melissa; Vasko, Ville Veijo Wilhelm; Suutari, Miina Sofia; Ojala, Ann; Vainio, Annukka; Lilley, Thomas M. (2021)
    Time and budgetary resources are often a limiting factor in the collection of large-scale ecological data. If data collected by citizen scientists were comparable to data collected by researchers, it would allow for more efficient data collection over a broad geographic area. Here, we compare the quality of data on bat activity collected by citizens (high school students and teachers) and researchers. Both researchers and citizen scientists used the same comprehensive instructions when choosing study sites. We found no statistically significant difference in total bat activity minutes recorded by citizens and researchers. Instead, citizen scientists collected data from a wider variety of habitats than researchers. Involvement of citizens also increased the geographical coverage of data collection, resulting in the northernmost documentation of the Nathusius’s pipistrelle so far in Finland. Therefore, bat research can benefit from the use of citizen science when participants are given precise instructions and calibrated data collection equipment. Citizen science projects also have other far-reaching benefits, increasing, for example, the scientific literacy and interest in natural sciences of citizens. Involving citizens in science projects also has the potential to enhance their willingness to conserve nature.
  • Candolin, Ulrika; Jensen, Irene (2021)
    When environments change rapidly, evolutionary processes may be too slow to rescue populations from decline. Persistence then hinges on plastic adjustments of critical traits to the altered conditions. However, the degree to which species harbour the necessary plasticity and the degree to which the plasticity is exposed to selection in human-disturbed environments are poorly known. We show that a population of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) harbours variation in plasticity in male courtship behaviour, which is exposed to selection when visibility deteriorates because of enhanced algal growth. Females in clear water show no preference for plastic males, while females in algal-rich, turbid water switch their mate preference towards males with adaptive plasticity. Thus, while the plasticity is not selected for in the original clear water environment, it comes under selection in turbid water. However, much maladaptive plasticity is present in the population, probably because larger turbidity fluctuations have been rare in the past. Thus, the probability that the plasticity will improve the ability of the population to cope with human-induced increases in turbidity-and possibly facilitate genetic adaptation-depends on its prevalence and genetic basis. In conclusion, our results show that rapid human-induced environmental change can expose phenotypic plasticity to selection, but that much of the plasticity can be maladaptive, also when the altered conditions represent extremes of earlier encountered conditions. Thus, whether the plasticity will improve population viability remains questionable.
  • Elgert, Christina Barbro Cecilia; Hopkins, Juhani; Kaitala, Arja Leena; Candolin, Ulrika (2020)
    The amount of artificial light at night is growing worldwide, impacting the behaviour of nocturnal organisms. Yet, we know little about the consequences of these behavioural responses for individual fitness and population viability. We investigated if females of the common glow-wormLampyris noctiluca-which glow in the night to attract males-mitigate negative effects of artificial light on mate attraction by adjusting the timing and location of glowing to spatial variation in light conditions. We found females do not move away from light when exposed to a gradient of artificial light, but delay or even refrain from glowing. Further, we demonstrate that this response is maladaptive, as our field study showed that staying still when exposed to artificial light from a simulated streetlight decreases mate attraction success, while moving only a short distance from the light source can markedly improve mate attraction. These results indicate that glow-worms are unable to respond to spatial variation in artificial light, which may be a factor in their global decline. Consequently, our results support the hypothesis that animals often lack adaptive behavioural responses to anthropogenic environmental changes and underlines the importance of considering behavioural responses when investigating the effects of human activities on wildlife.
  • Nevalainen, Liisa; Brown, Meghan; Manca, Marina (2018)
    We examined fossil Cladocera (Crustacea) communities and their functional assemblages in a similar to 60-year sediment record from Lake Maggiore, northern Italy. Our main objective was to document the response of aquatic community functioning to environmental stress during eutrophication (1960-1985) and recovery (post-1985), and to identify environmental controls on cladoceran functionality. Of the functional groups, large filter feeders and oval epibenthos thrived prior to eutrophication (reference conditions pre-1960) and globular epibenthos and small filter feeders increased during eutrophication and as the lake recovered. Multivariate analyses suggested that bottom-up controls (i.e., total phosphorus) were important for shaping functional assemblages but taxonomic community changes were likely related to top-down control by predators, particularly the predaceous cladoceran Bythotrephes longimanus. Functional diversity (FD) was higher and Daphnia ephippia length (DEL) larger during the reference and early eutrophication periods and decreased during eutrophication and recovery. Both FD (high) and DEL (large) were distinct during reference period, but were similar (FD low, DEL small) between the eutrophication and recovery periods. The functional attributes and the assemblages did not recover post-eutrophication, suggesting that the system exhibited a clear shift to low FD and dominance of small filterers. Cladoceran functionality appears to be related to fundamental ecosystem functions, such as productivity, and may thus provide insights for long-term changes in ecological resilience.
  • Elgert, Christina Barbro Cecilia; Lehtonen, Topi Kasperi; Kaitala, Arja Leena; Candolin, Ulrika (2021)
  • Lounela, Anu K. (2021)
    This article explores how changing environmental conditions and practices connect with shifting forms and valuations of sociality in a Ngaju Dayak village in the radically transformed peatlands of southern Borneo. It proposes that the production of values and social relations is indivisible from the production of a livelihood through material means and dwelling in the local environment. The article describes how changing Ngaju orientations to social life and the riverscape have been interlinked with fluctuations in the local valuescape. The focus is on two distinct but overlapping forms of organising sociality and labour in the riverine environment, and how they have influenced and been influenced by the dialectically conjoined Ngaju values of solidarity and autonomy, and, more recently, by emerging economic value. It is argued that the valuation of sociality crucially reflects the changing valuation of land and nature and related politics of value within the local riverscape. Finally, the article shows that the radically transformed riverine environment sets limits on (imagining) environmental practices, forms of sociality, and how they are valued.
  • Atti, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Underwater light climate in mountain lakes is controlled by dissolved organic carbon concentrations and by lake ice regimes. Both are affected by local, regional and global variables linked to anthropogenic disturbances such as climate change and atmospheric pollution. Aim of this work was to investigate changes in underwater light climate over the past ~200 years in two oligotrophic mountain lakes and how it reflects on diatom (Bacillariophyceae) guild distribution. For these aims, diatom communities and ecological guilds were analyzed from sediment core and contemporary habitat samples along a depth gradient. In addition, sediment inferred chlorophyll a (CHLa) and lake water total organic carbon (TOC) were analyzed to detect development of primary production and lake water carbon content. Results showed that acidification of the lakes together with climate induced changes have been important drivers of the ecology of the lakes. Lake water TOC showed a decline and subsequent increase in line with the acidification and subsequent recovery of the lakes, likely affecting underwater light climate in the lakes. However, this did not reflect unambiguously into changes in diatom functionality. Warming has likely contributed to diversification of the diatom community over the study period while no distinct increases were observed in whole lake primary production. Overall, if the present study could not distinguish the exact role of underwater light in driving changes in diatom communities and functional traits, the result show that human pressures have left distinct imprints in the development of biotic communities in these remote mountain lakes.
  • Dallas, Tad; Antão, Laura; Pöyry, Juha; Leinonen, Reima; Ovaskainen, Otso (2020)
    Spatially distinct pairs of sites may have similarly fluctuating population dynamics across large geographical distances, a phenomenon called spatial synchrony. However, species rarely exist in isolation, but rather as members of interactive communities, linked with other communities through dispersal (i.e. a metacommunity). Using data on Finnish moth communities sampled across 65 sites for 20 years, we examine the complex synchronous/anti-synchronous relationships among sites using the geography of synchrony framework. We relate site-level synchrony to mean and temporal variation in climatic data, finding that colder and drier sites-and those with the most drastic temperature increases-are important for spatial synchrony. This suggests that faster-warming sites contribute most strongly to site-level estimates of synchrony, highlighting the role of a changing climate to spatial synchrony. Considering the spatial variability in climate change rates is therefore important to understand metacommunity dynamics and identify habitats which contribute most strongly to spatial synchrony.