Browsing by Subject "environmental management"

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  • Pieterse, Arnold; Rytkönen, Mari; Hellsten, Seppo (Finnish Environment Institute, 2009)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 15/2009
  • Lyytimäki, Jari (Elsevier, 2015)
    Environmental Development 16 (2015), pages 4-14
    Light pollution resulting from artificial lighting is a global environmental change that profoundly alters the nocturnal environment. Various ecological and health effects are caused by the alteration of natural levels of light and disruption of cycles of light and dark. Emissions of artificial light into the night environment have increased rapidly over the last decades and this trend is likely to continue due to the introduction of new cost-efficient light sources, urban sprawl, increasing traffic, population growth, and economic growth. Efficient measures to reduce light pollution are needed. Most measures so far have been based on top-down approaches such as legislation, technical norms and guidance. Based on the results from an online survey in Finland, household-level efforts aimed at reducing light pollution are reviewed and obstacles to action based on bottom-up approach are discussed. The systems intelligence is proposed as a context sensitive approach to light pollution management. Systems intelligence emphasises personal and active involvement in socio-technological systems, characterised by complex cross-scale interactions and feedbacks.
  • Lyytimäki, Jari (Elsevier, 2014)
    Urban Forestry & Urban Greening 13(3), 418-424
    Public perceptions and expectations towards ecosystems are an important part of environmental management and planning. This article focuses on the media representations that disseminate information, create framings and influence public attitudes. More specifically, the focus is on print media representations of ecosystem disservices. Ecosystem disservices are functions or properties of ecosystems that cause negative effects on human well-being or that are perceived as harmful, unpleasant or unwanted. Results from a case study focusing on the Finnish newspaper coverage of ecosystem disservices are presented. The results show that a wide variety of harms and nuisances related to ecosystems are brought up and discussed by the media. Implications for environmental management are discussed. The key claim is that taking into account the full repertoire of media representations of ecosystem functions is vital for preventing, anticipating and solving controversies related to environmental management and planning.
  • Perälä, Tommi; Vanhatalo, Jarno; Chrysafi, Anna (2020)
    Expert assessments are routinely used to inform management and other decision making. However, often these assessments contain considerable biases and uncertainties for which reason they should be calibrated if possible. Moreover, coherently combining multiple expert assessments into one estimate poses a long-standing problem in statistics since modeling expert knowledge is often difficult. Here, we present a hierarchical Bayesian model for expert calibration in a task of estimating a continuous univariate parameter. The model allows experts' biases to vary as a function of the true value of the parameter and according to the expert's background. We follow the fully Bayesian approach (the so-called supra-Bayesian approach) and model experts' bias functions explicitly using hierarchical Gaussian processes. We show how to use calibration data to infer the experts' observation models with the use of bias functions and to calculate the bias corrected posterior distributions for an unknown system parameter of interest. We demonstrate and test our model and methods with simulated data and a real case study on data-limited fisheries stock assessment. The case study results show that experts' biases vary with respect to the true system parameter value and that the calibration of the expert assessments improves the inference compared to using uncalibrated expert assessments or a vague uniform guess. Moreover, the bias functions in the real case study show important differences between the reliability of alternative experts. The model and methods presented here can be also straightforwardly applied to other applications than our case study.
  • Leppänen, Maija (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    This thesis studies the current level of environmental management in the Ship Power business division within Wärtsilä corporation and aims to identify the related development needs. Hitherto environmental management has been mainly coordinated at the corporate level and implemented in local companies distributed geographically. Due to the recent organizational changes, however, the significance of division level environmental management in Ship Power has increased. The research goal is approached by examining the central elements of corporate environmental management and the challenges that the organizational structure places for it. Based on the findings, suggestions for further actions are given in order to develop the environmental management in Ship Power. Empirical data was collected through 35 qualitative interviews with Wärtsilä employees from different functions, business lines, and local companies in order to get a comprehensive view of environmental management in the Ship Power related activities. The interviews were semi-structured in order to provide answers for certain areas of concern, but also to enable the disclosure of topics not defined by the interviewer. The data is categorized into themes according to the theoretical background, and its analysis is based on inductive reasoning. Based on the findings, the environmental management in Ship Power is divided into two dimensions. The product-related environmental questions are handled in the business lines and the operational issues in the local companies. This fragmentation of the environmental knowledge causes inconsistent environmental focus at different organizational levels, and creates challenges to information sharing across the organization. The lack of corporate instructions on the environmental management system implementation has led to diverse practices in the local companies, and the lack of standardized documentation makes the internal comparison between them difficult. Therefore the experience gained from the local management systems does not support organizational learning throughout the corporation. While the product-related environmental aspects are the core of the business strategy, more attention could be paid to operational environmental management in Ship Power. For instance, the sharing of environmental knowledge could be strengthened in order to enhance employee awareness of the corporate practices and to facilitate the discussion of the best practices between the local units. A standardized documentation system would facilitate internal benchmarking and provide a means for centralized environmental performance follow-up. Because the local management systems are not sufficient to cover the global business processes, it would also be important to identify the environmental aspects in the Ship Power division. Furthermore, visible communication of the common environmental targets would help to create consistent environmental focus in Ship Power.
  • Mäkinen, Heikki (Finnish Environment Institute, 2007)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 26/2007
  • Reinikainen, Tapio; Merenheimo, Tiia; Tenhunen, Jyrki; Savolahti, Hanna; Rauta, Okariina (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2022)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 6/2022
    Kunnat ovat keskeisessä asemassa oman alueensa toiminnan ohjaamisessa kohti kestävän kehityksen mukaisia tavoitteita. Indikaattoreita tarvitaan tavoitteiden saavuttamisen seurannassa. FISU (Finnish Sustainable Communities) -kunnat tavoitellevat kestävää kehitystä ja resurssiviisautta, joka on määritelty pyrkimyksenä hiilineutraalisuuteen, jätteettömyyteen ja globaalisti kestävään kulutukseen. Resurssiviisaustoimenpiteiden vaikuttavuuden mittaaminen kestävien kaupunkien johtamisen tukena (REMI) -hanke käynnistyi FISU-verkoston kuntien tarpeesta luoda resurssiviisautta edistävien toimien vaikuttavuutta mittaavia indikaattoreita, joilla tuetaan kaupunkien kestävyyttä edistävien tiekarttojen toimeenpanoa ja johtamista. Työn tavoitteena on myös palvella mahdollisimman hyvin kuntien laajempaa Agenda 2030 -työn seurantaa ja toteutusta. Työn lopputuloksen on tarkoitus hyödyttää kaikkia niitä suomalaisia kuntia, jotka haluavat edistää omalla alueellaan ilmastotavoitteita, kiertotaloutta ja kestävää kehitystä. Tässä raportissa esitetään 94 indikaattoria, jotka soveltuvat kestävän kehityksen mukaisten tavoitteiden mittaamiseen kunnissa. Indikaattorit on ryhmitelty seitsemään kaistaan, jotka ovat energia, liikkuminen ja yhdyskuntarakenne, kulutus ja materiaalit, vedenkäyttö ja luonnonvedet, luonnon monimuotoisuus, ruoantuotanto- ja kulutus sekä elinympäristö (viihtyvyys ja terveellisyys). Indikaattoreiden valintaprosessi toteutettiin kahdessa työpajassa, jossa oli kuntien edustajien lisäksi osallistujia ministeriöistä, Suomen ympäristökeskuksesta sekä Motivasta. Indikaattoreiden valinnassa käytettiin systeemianalyysiin perustuvia menetelmiä. Valintakriteereiksi nousivat indikaattorien edustavuus, mitattavuus ja tavoitteellisuus, relevanttius, vaikutusmahdollisuus ja vertailtavuus. Valitut indikaattorit ryhmiteltiin koko kuntaa koskeviin ja pelkästään kuntaorganisaatiota koskeviin indikaattoreihin. Tärkeimmiksi analysoidut indikaattorit nimettiin avainindikaattoreiksi ja vähemmän painoa saaneet täydentäviksi indikaattoreiksi. REMI-hankkeessa myös selvitettiin, miten FISU-kunnissa on tähän asti hyödynnetty ympäristöindikaattoritietoa. Työpajoissa käytyjen keskustelujen perusteella tärkeimmät selkeyttämistä kaipaavat asiat indikaattorien hyödyntämisessä olivat: miten indikaattoritieto koostetaan osaksi päätöksenteon asiakirjoja, miten seuranta vaikuttaa arjen johtamiseen, ja miten resurssiviisaustavoitteiden sitovuus ilmenee ja ohjaa toimintaa. Oleellinen osa indikaattorityötä on indikaattoreiden liittäminen osaksi kunnan päätöksentekoa. Yksi tärkeä johtopäätös on, että kunnan päätöksenteon vuosikalenteriin eri vaiheissa valmisteltaviin päätösasiakirjoihin tarvitaan erilaisia indikaattoreita ja kunnan eri päätöksentekoelimissä on erilaiset tarpeet indikaattoritiedolle. Kussakin kunnassa tulee harkita ja soveltaa kunnan omien tarpeiden mukaan indikaattorien jaottelu strategisen johtamisjärjestelmän eri tasoille sekä seurantavastuiden ja -syklin määrittely. REMI-hanke on ympäristöministeriön rahoittama ja osa ympäristöministeriön koordinoimaa Kestävä kaupunki -ohjelmaa. Hanke kytkeytyy erityisesti ohjelman kestävyyden johtamisen osioon, jossa kehitetään laaja-alaisten kestävyyshaasteiden parempaa haltuunottoa ja kestävän kehityksen johtamista kaupungeissa ja kunnissa. Loppuraportin lisäksi hankkeessa tuotettiin kunnille suunnattu tiivistelmäkalvosarja hankkeen tuloksista.
  • Uusitalo, Laura; Blenckner, Thorsten; Puntila-Dodd, Riikka; Skyttä, Annaliina; Jernberg, Susanna; Voss, Rudi; Müller-Karulis, Bärbel; Tomczak, Maciej T.; Möllmann, Christian; Peltonen, Heikki (Elsevier, 2022)
    Science of the Total Environment
    Sustainable environmental management needs to consider multiple ecological and societal objectives simultaneously while accounting for the many uncertainties arising from natural variability, insufficient knowledge about the system's behaviour leading to diverging model projections, and changing ecosystem. In this paper we demonstrate how a Bayesian network- based decision support model can be used to summarize a large body of research and model projections about potential management alternatives and climate scenarios for the Baltic Sea. We demonstrate how this type of a model can act as an emulator and ensemble, integrating disciplines such as climatology, biogeochemistry, marine and fisheries ecology as well as economics. Further, Bayesian network models include and present the uncertainty related to the predictions, allowing evaluation of the uncertainties, precautionary management, and the explicit consideration of acceptable risk levels. The Baltic Sea example also shows that the two biogeochemical models frequently used in future projections give considerably different predictions. Further, inclusion of parameter uncertainty of the food web model increased uncertainty in the outcomes and reduced the predicted manageability of the system. The model allows simultaneous evaluation of environmental and economic goals, while illustrating the uncertainty of predictions, providing a more holistic view of the management problem.
  • Koski, Vilja; Kotamäki, Niina; Hämäläinen, Heikki; Meissner, Kristian; Karvanen, Juha; Kärkkäinen, Salme (Elsevier, 2020)
    Science of the Total Environment 726 (2020), 138396
    Uncertainty in the information obtained through monitoring complicates decision making about aquatic ecosystems management actions. We suggest the value of information (VOI) to assess the profitability of paying for additional monitoring information, when taking into account the costs and benefits of monitoring and management actions, as well as associated uncertainty. Estimating the monetary value of the ecosystem needed for deriving VOI is challenging. Therefore, instead of considering a single value, we evaluate the sensitivity of VOI to varying monetary value. We also extend the VOI analysis to the more realistic context where additional information does not result in perfect, but rather in imperfect information on the true state of the environment. Therefore, we analytically derive the value of perfect information in the case of two alternative decisions and two states of uncertainty. Second, we describe a Monte Carlo type of approach to evaluate the value of imperfect information about a continuous classification variable. Third, we determine confidence intervals for the VOI with a percentile bootstrap method. Results for our case study on 144 Finnish lakes suggest that generally, the value of monitoring exceeds the cost. It is particularly profitable to monitor lakes that meet the quality standards a priori, to ascertain that expensive and unnecessary management can be avoided. The VOI analysis provides a novel tool for lake and other environmental managers to estimate the value of additional monitoring data for a particular, single case, e.g. a lake, when an additional benefit is attainable through remedial management actions.