Browsing by Subject "erityiskasvatus"

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  • Halenius, Outi (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The purpose of this study was to examine the pedagogical use of illustrative material in early childhood education. While pictorial material is widely used in early childhood education, there is little research on the topic. The application of pictorial material in supporting communication and structuring everyday function is gaining recognition in early childhood education. The aim of this study was to investigate the pictorial environment of day care centers and the experience of using pictorial material in interactions with children from the kindergarten teachers perspective. Furthermore, the study examines how kindergarten teachers use pictorial material in early childhood education and how they plan the pictorial environment. The research design was qualitative. The research material was collected by theme interviews and photographic documentation. The data included 15 interviews of kindergarten teachers and 613 photographs of their classes. The research material collected end of 2010 in a city in southern Finland. The method used in analyzing both the interviews and the photograph material was theory-guided content analysis. The pictures displayed in the day care environments particularly emphasized everyday functions such as day or week schedules, dressing, eating and play in day care groups. In addition, children's artwork was on display in every classroom. The study suggests that the kindergarten teachers find the pictorial material essential particularly when teaching children with special needs and children who speak Finnish as a second language. However, the teachers noted that they considered the pictorial material beneficial to all children. Kindergarten teachers used pictorial material in everyday life, principally to structure function, guide children's play and support language development. Especially within integrated special groups the communication and participation through pictorial material was seen essential. Kindergarten teachers highlighted that the pictorial environment planning is based on child oriented, function oriented or aesthetic perspectives. The key emphasis in planning the environment is the needs of a particular child or group of children.
  • Nykänen, Hanne-Maaria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The goal of the thesis was to examine 1) whether the special education teachers' and other teachers' educational stances show mutual differences in the areas of classification or categorization, and 2) which kind of imaginal characteristics is it possible to build by using teachers' stances. In the theoretical framework classification or categorization was spread into more specific themes which were automatic thinking, medicalization, separate special education, labeling, social disability studies and social constructionist language. The sense of the thesis was explorative, considering that the concepts of classification or categorization haven't been exactly framed in special educational studies. According to previous research it seems that there exist mutual differences when comparing special educators' and other educators' attitudes concerning the educational system overall. The data was collected in the areas of Helsinki and Turku cities by using an E-questionnaire. Along with the background information the questionnaire included 48 educational claims which were estimated by a Likert scale from 0 to 5. There were altogether N=119 answers gathered from class teachers, special education teachers, kindergarten teachers and special kindergarten teachers. Summaries were counted and explored through frequency analysis in the four occupational groups. Mann-Whitney's U-test was proceeded to answer to the first task of the research. The test's purpose was to examine the differences of summary medians formed by special education teachers' and other teachers' answers. Explorative factor analysis was completed to answer to the second task, to find out which kind of characteristics the correlations between the teachers' answers would reveal. According to the Mann-Whitney's U-test there was discovered that the educational attitudes of special education teachers were more categorizational around theme of medicalization, both in the direct claims (p=.049, r=.19) and the opposite claims (p=.005, r=.30). Also it appeared that the special education teachers' educational attitudes were more categorizational (p=.057, r=.18) than the other teachers' attitudes when supporting the separate special education system. Nevertheless the latest mentioned result wasn't found to be statistically significant. The explorative factor analysis revealed four characteristics, 1) the one being aware of language and against labeling, 2) the one being an aware thinker who demands social equality, 3) the one supporting medicalization and seeing speciality being absolute, and 4) the character positioning against medical culture and individualism.
  • Immonen, Seena-Tuulia (2008)
    Pro gradu-tutkielmani tarkastelee suomalaista erityiskasvatusta ja erityisopetusta sekä liittää tämän keskustelu syrjäytymiseen ja nuorten koulupudokkuuteen. Tutkielmani esittää kuvauksen erityisopetuksen kehityksestä Suomessa ja herättää samalla kysymyksen, mitä erityiskasvatuksen keinoin on pyritty ratkaisemaan. Toisaalta tutkielmani etsii selvennystä pohdintaan, mitä kehityskaari kertoo suomalaisesta yhteiskunnasta. Erityisopetuksen ja erityiskasvatuksen tar-kasteluni teoreettisena viitekehyksenä toimii olemassa oleva suomalainen erityispedagoginen tutkimus. Antropologinen aineistoni sisältää antropologien huomioita koulumaailmasta ja koulupudokkuudesta sekä analyysiä sosialisaatiosta. Tutkielmassani esiintyvä pohdinta ja keskustelu keskittyy tarkastelemaan peruskoulua nuorten siirtymäriitin tapahtumapaikkana. Antropologien tutkimusten mukaan nuorten aikuistuminen kouluissa on lineaarinen siirtymäriitti. Aikuistuminen siirtymäriittinä koettelee nykypäivän koulujärjetelmää ja asettaa koulut uudenlaisen haasteen eteen. Esitän tutkielmassani miten etnografinen näkeminen avaisi kouluissa uusia mahdollisuuksia ja laajentaisi normaaliuden kapeaa käsitettä. Tutkielmani innoittajana toimi sopeutumattomaksi ja koulupudokkaiksi määritellyt erityisoppilaat, joiden kanssa vuosia tekemäni työ on antanut minulle mahdollisuuden havainnoida nuorten todellisuutta ja seurata koulua instituutiona. Spindlerin toimittama teos "Doing the Ethnography of Schooling" ja Viktor Turnerin "The Ritual Process" ovat antropologisten julkaisujen, American Anthropologist ja Anthropology and Education, ohella liittäneet oman etnografisen aineistoni tämän hetkiseen antropologiseen kasvatuskeskusteluun ja arvioihin koulumaailmasta. Oman tutkielmani kenttä on suomalainen yläkoulu ja sopeutumattomiksi määriteltyjen oppilaiden muodostama erityisopetuksen ryhmä. Aineiston keruu on tapahtunut usean vuoden ajan erityisoppilaiden kanssa tekemäni työn ohessa. Aineistoa ei ole kerätty ainoastaan osallistuvan havainnoinnin menetelmin vaikka kenttä on mahdollistanut myös oppilaiden tarkkailun. Työ erityisoppilaiden kanssa on mahdollistanut konkreettisen näköalapaikan oppilaiden todellisuuteen. Suomalaista koulujärjeselmää ja erityisopetusta tarkastellessani esitän kysymyksen, miksi tietyt oppilaat muodostavat ongelman järjestelmälle? Tutkielmani havaintojen perusteella joidenkin oppilaiden kohdalla koulut sallivat vähittäisen koulupudokkuuskehityksen. Keskityn pohtimaan, miksi koulu ei tänä päivänä kykene vastaamaan sopeutumattomiksi leimattujen oppilaiden asettamaan haasteeseen ja mikä merkitys sopeutumattomuuden leimalla nuorten elämässä on. Esitän tutkielmassani erään koulun oppilasryhmän käyttäytymisen muotoja ja arvoja, erityisesti ryhmän sisällä esiintyvää ja sen jäsenten tuntemaa uhmaa ja aggressiota. Tutkielmani tarkastelun kohteena ei ole kukaan yksittäinen henkilö vaikka esitänkin oppilaiden kanssa käymiäni sanatarkkoja keskusteluita ja kuvailen yksittäisiä tapahtumia luokkahuo-neessa tai muussa koulutoimintaan kuuluvassa ympäristössä. Tarkasteluni kohteena ovat erityisesti ryhmän keskinäinen kommunikaatio ja syrjäytymisvaarassa olevien nuorten puhetavat, käyttäytyminen ja asenne omaan tulevaisuuteen. Esittämieni keskusteluiden ja tapahtumien kuvailun avulla haluan tuoda esille kohderyhmäni nuorten kokemuksen omasta osallisuudestaan yhteiskunnan jäseninä.
  • Laes, Tuulikki (Taideyliopiston Sibelius-Akatemia, 2017)
    Studia musica
    This dissertation examines inclusion as an ambiguous concept and practice within the context of music education in Finland. The general ethos of inclusive education aims to ensure equal opportunities for all students. However, social practices that are mediated through action and structures within music education contexts, such as segregating students into categories of those who are able, and those who are in need of special education, therapy, or care, generate paradoxes of what inclusion means, and for whom. Furthermore, in the Finnish context the system of music schools has a tradition of selecting young and talented students, with the objective of guiding them toward professional music careers. Such approaches to music education make, in Bourdieusian terms, a distinction between those in the targeted mainstream, and those who are outside of this ideal because of their age, ability, or other characteristics, thus overlooking equal possibilities for learning and gaining agency in and through music. The research project builds upon four sub-studies, which are reported in international, refereed journal articles, focusing on the Resonaari music school which promotes inclusive and accessible music education within the Finnish music school system. By utilizing methodological strategies for reflexive interpretation, these sub-studies examine and reflect on the complexity of inclusion from varying perspectives. The first sub-study presented the case of six female older adults who construct their musical agency within a rock band context at Resonaari, examining the wider meanings assigned to rock band music learning with regard to personal empowerment and a deepened understanding of aging. The second sub-study examined how teacher activism is enacted at Resonaari through innovative pedagogical practices, ethical commitment, and flexible policy advocacy. The third sub-study investigated student music teachers' reflections upon workshops run by Resonaari's musicians, aiming to expand the discourse on professionalism by addressing disability as a generative notion for diversity within higher music education. Finally, the continuum of the sub-studies culminated in the researcher's self-reflexive narrative of striving toward activist scholarship during the research project, addressing the challenges and potentials of inclusive research in music education. Through the methodological lens of critical reflexivity, the overarching task of this research project was to examine: How might Resonaari's activist practices disrupt the hegemonic social practices and discourses of music education; and what potential might these ruptures hold for the reconstruction of the structural, ethical, and political enactments of inclusion? The theoretical framework builds on John Dewey's pragmatist philosophy of educational democracy and moral imagination, as well as complexity theories. Drawing upon Gert Biesta's conceptualization of democratic inclusion, it is argued here that there is a continuing need to challenge the understandings and discourses of inclusion through extending the scope of transformational activism within music education. The findings of this research indicate the benefit of recognizing the potential of inclusivity, as exemplified by Resonaari's specialized music education context, as both a generative and ambiguous process. By identifying the implicit and explicit, and the transferable and unique, these manifestations of inclusion revealed the complexity of such discourses and practices. This expanded and problematized view of inclusion is termed activist hope in this dissertation. Hence, by considering democracy as an experiment, we may radically challenge, extend, and reconstruct the envisioning and implementations of inclusive music education.
  • Nowack, Maia (2020)
    This is an art-pedagogical thesis that is a continuation of a process of artistic-pedagogical practice as inquiry grounded in my work in Winter 2019-2020 at a vocational special education training program in contemporary dance, where I co-taught with fellow Dance Pedagogy MA student Mercedes Balarezo. Through this process, I came to clarify that I was focusing on what reflections, perspectives, and/or questions emerged when I aimed to artistically-pedagogically explore states of presence in a way that enabled students to be as they are. I was and am not aiming to somehow describe or phenomenologically research the students' experiences or states of presence, but rather to see what reflections, challenges, possibilities, etc. came from a pedagogical process in which my intention was for the students to do that first-person exploration in a way that didn’t demand a certain way of being. I also do not want to generalize anything within this project to any sort of defined populations. My goal is rather to use the intertwining of mine and the students' reflections with existing discourse to open further conversation amongst dance pedagogues. I will discuss elements around exploration, the unknown, reflective practices, and visibility. I am working within a larger context of disability studies, neurodiversity, and mad studies, as well as existing developments and work around disability and/in dance, not in order to make any claims about disability (which is already something that escapes definition) and dance, but rather to bring to the surface questions or approaches that I believe are important to dance pedagogy in many contexts.