Browsing by Subject "etanoli"

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  • Michallik, Heli (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Inhibitory GABAergic neurotransmission seems to play a central role in the effects of ethanol on the central nervous system. However, the exact mechanism of ethanol action as well as the role of the GABAA subunits in this mechanism remains unclear. The imidazobenzodiazepine Ro 15-4513 acts as a partial inverse agonist of the GABAA receptors by binding to their benzodiazepine sites which contain a γ2 subunit. In addition, ethanol and Ro 15-4513 seem to bind in a competitive manner and with high affinity to δ subunit-containing extrasynaptic GABAA receptors that mediate tonic inhibition. There exists conflicting evidence about the role of the δ subunit in the mechanism of antialcohol effects of Ro 15-4513. Clinical evidence of the efficacy of γ-hydroxybutyric acid (GHB) in suppressing alcohol withdrawal syndrome has been shown, even though only little preclinical research has been done on this subject. GHB has agonistic effect on the GABAB receptors and on the putative GHB receptors. GHB seems to share a very similar pharmacological profile with ethanol and there is also some proof of their synergistic effects. However, the exact mechanism of ethanol consumption suppressing action of GHB is not exactly known. The aim of this study was to determine the role of the γ2 and δ subunits in the effects of Ro 15-4513 (0, 3 mg/kg) on voluntary ethanol drinking and on the motor coordination suppression by ethanol (1.5 g/kg). In addition the effects of nonselective benzodiazepine flurazepam (0, 6 mg/kg) and GHB (0, 100, 150 mg/kg) on ethanol drinking and the effects of GHB on motor coordination were examined. The rotarod method (∅ 6 cm, fixed speed 6 r.p.m.) was chosen to determine the motor coordination. The drinking-in-the-dark (DID) method was applied to study the drinking effects. In this method the water bottle in the home cage of each mouse was replaced with an ethanol dilution (20 % v/v) for a certain time in the beginning of the dark phase of the light/dark cycle. A knock in mouse line γ2I77-lox with a point mutation in the γ2 subunit gene was used in the experiments. The mutation decreases the affinity of the receptor for certain benzodiazepine structures like that of Ro 15-4513 in the brain. The C57BL/6J mouse line was used as control. Both Ro 15-4513 (3 mg/kg) and GHB (150 mg/kg) significantly reduced ethanol drinking. The GHB dose of 100 mg/kg failed to reach significance probably due to the relatively long drinking time (1 h) used in the experiment in comparison to the short half-life of this drug. Flurazepam (6 mg/kg) significantly enhanced ethanol drinking which as expected was not affected by the mutation of the γ2I77-lox mouse line. Ro 15-4513 (3 mg/kg) failed to reduce the ethanol-induced suppression of motor coordination probably due to a too low dose. The GHB rotarod experiments suggest that the GHB (150 mg/kg) ethanol drinking suppressing effect may have been partly caused by its sedative effects. There was no significant difference between the used mouse lines in the effects of Ro 15-4513. This would suggest that the γ2 subunit does not play a significant role in the effects of Ro 15-4513. However, in order to draw a final conclusion more experiments must be done with the γ2I77-lox as well as with the δ subunit knockout mouse line, which we were unfortunately not able to include in this study as originally planned.
  • Ylitalo, Merja (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Ethanol intake and the use of several drugs of abuse lead to the activation of the endogenous opioid system which has an important role in reward and reinforcement. Ethanol can affect also many other neurotransmitter systems, for example the dopaminergic, GABAergic and glutamatergic systems. The ability of opioid antagonists to decrease ethanol intake refers to the important role of the opioidergic system in mediating the reinforcement from ethanol. Important brain areas in the mesolimbic reward system are the ventral tegmental area, nucleus accumbens and ventral pallidum. The ventral pallidum is regarded as the endpoint of the mesolimbic reward system and as the cross point of the motivational circuit and reward circuit. The role of the ventral pallidum and its GABAergic and opioidergic systems in ethanol reinforcement has been proven in many studies. This review goes through the brain areas involved in the reward circuit and ethanol's effects on the neurotransmitter systems connected to the reward system. This review concentrates especially on the opioidergic system and on the role of the ventral pallidum in ethanol reinforcement. The aim of this study was to research the role µ-opioid receptors in the ventral pallidum on ethanol intake using an ethanol-preferring AA (Alko, Alcohol) rat line. The hypothesis of the study was that local inhibition of the ventral pallidum with an excess of µ-opioid receptors effects ethanol intake. We infused µ-opioid receptor gene overexpressing viral vectors (AAV-MOR), control vectors or vehicle into the ventral pallidum of rats. Ethanol drinking of the rats was examined in the limited access paradigm. After the ethanol drinking study rats received injections of an opioid receptor antagonist, naltrexone (0.1 mg/kg and 0.3 mg/kg, s.c) and an opioid receptor agonist, morphine (3 mg/kg, repeatedly, s.c) before the ethanol drinking session to see what effect the drugs have on ethanol drinking. The biological activity of the viral vectors was confirmed with immunohistochemical staining and qPCR. In the ethanol drinking study there were no statistically significant differences between the groups. Naltrexone 0.1 mg/kg dose decreased statistically significantly ethanol drinking only in AAV-MOR group and caused statistically significant difference in ethanol drinking between the AAV-MOR and control vector groups when proportionate to the control. These results suggest that possibly part of to that naltrexone's ethanol intake decreasing effects are mediated via the ventral pallidum. Morphine did not cause statistically significant differences in ethanol drinking between the groups. The results of this study do not exclude the role of the ventral pallidum in controlling ethanol drinking.