Browsing by Subject "ethics"

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  • Abu, Adeyemi Samuel (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    In his 1951 essay on Auschwitz, “Cultural Criticism and Society,” Theodor Adorno wrote: “To write poetry after Auschwitz is barbaric.” In his 1989 article, “Art and the Holocaust: Trivializing Memory,” Elie Wiesel argues that art should be silent about the Holocaust for Auschwitz defeated both culture and art and only those who lived through it can transform it into knowledge. About art Wiesel says bluntly: “stop insulting the dead.” These views expressed by both Adorno and Wiesel mark an uneasy ethical attitude towards genocide, which is often seen as a constant cause of ethical anxiety. They both understood genocide as untranslatable and unspeakable. To them, therefore, art or imaginative literature should embrace silence. This thesis interrogates these ethical concerns in relation to the Rwandan genocide as an event and writing about the genocide as art. Using a comparative ethical approach, this thesis examines two narratives about Rwandan genocide, namely Philip Gourevitch’s We Wish to Inform You that Tomorrow We Will be Killed with Our Families (1998), a factual report, and Boubacar Boris Diop’s Murambi, the Book of Bones: A Novel (2000), to explore various ethical dimensions concerning genocidal writings as well as to engage criticisms against imaginative literature as being capable of bearing witness to genocide. This thesis raises three fundamental questions that concern ethics and writing about genocide: should or can genocide be the subject of literary enquiry? Can literature bear witness to genocide and at the same time preserve the memory of the victims? Why should literature speak if genocide is considered unspeakable? This thesis argues that art has the psychological and ethical capabilities of capturing the horrors of genocide and must, therefore, bear witness to it. The study reveals that the literary response of the novel to the Rwandan genocide may take the reader closer to the heart of the tragedy than a factual report. The point of writing about genocide is clear: it is to increase our empathy for those affected, to see where we failed in our collective humanity and to say “never again”. Good literature has the creative and psychological power to bear witness to genocide, and at its best, it can confront and express the inexpressible.
  • Virta, Ari (2007)
    The research topic of this thesis is late Milton Friedman's (1912-2006) controversial claim that if corporate officials accept a social responsibility other than to make as much money for their stockholders as possible, they yield to a fundamentally subversive doctrine that amounts to preaching pure and unadulterated socialism and undermining the basis of the free society. Logically this claim means that capitalism is a necessary condition for the existence of the free society. The aim of my study is to find out whether and on what grounds Friedman's claim is justified. The method of my study is philosophical analysis of Friedman's claim and its background on one hand, and of capitalism and the role of private property therein on the other hand, to see whether the claim is justified. The main result of my study is that Friedman's claim is justified. The movement of Business Ethics opposing Friedman and the doctrine of Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) it promotes seem indistinguishable from one version of socialism, i.e. European social democracy. The opposition between the views of Friedman and the Business Ethicists springs from different approaches to the importance of protecting private property, to the free society, to man’s cognitive capacities, and to the concept of freedom. On the bottom of the controversy is man's problematic relationship with wealth: even though he knows that wealth does not bring happiness, he searches it as if it did – and gets disappointed when it does not. Instead of recognising his own unreasonable expectations as the source of his disappointment he has a tendency to find the reason outside of himself and accuse other people for being malevolent. The main sources used are Milton Friedman's book "Capitalism and Freedom" and his essay "The Social Responsibility of Business Is to Increase Its Profits". The roots of Friedman's claim are in capitalism and liberalism. The main sources about capitalism are Adam Smith's books "The Theory of Moral Sentiments" and "The Wealth of Nations", Ronald Coase's essays "Adam Smith's View of Man" and "The Wealth of Nations", Joseph Schumpeter's essays "Capitalism" and "Capitalism in the Postwar World", Mark Roe's book "Political Determinants of Corporate Governance" and Hernando de Soto's book "The Mystery of Capital". The main sources about liberalism are John Stuart Mill's essay "On Liberty" and Isaiah Berlin's essay "Two Concepts of Liberty".
  • Janket, Sok-Ja; Meurman, Jukka; Diamandis, Eleftherios P. (2020)
    We teach and practice ethical behavior with all clinical and research activities. Notably, we are well educated to treat the subjects participating in research studies with high ethical standards. However, the ethics of interacting with colleagues, or with junior faculty members, are neither well defined nor taught. Dealing with junior faculty has parallels to dealing with vulnerable research subjects such as children, mentally or physically challenged groups, prison inmates or army recruits. Like any other vulnerable population, lower-ranking faculty members are often at the mercy of department chairs or other higher-ranked faculty members. Herein we present some potentially unethical or unfair examples related to academic research. Our goal is to educate the academic community of conceptual paths and to prevent similar untoward occurrences from happening in the future. Unethical behaviors related to sexual misconduct have already been described elsewhere and are not included in this manuscript. © 2020 Janket SJ et al.
  • Sivonen, Sampo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    While the subject of harm is a large topic in philosophy, often our intuitions seem to be quite well versed in determining when harm is caused and who is responsible. If I can’t be bothered to vaccinate my child and as a consequence, my child gets sick, it’s rather clear that I harmed my child. Even though I didn’t necessarily mean for my child to be infected, if I knowingly refuse a vaccine meant to prevent said illness, I have failed in my parental duties. The situation becomes more troublesome, however, if the child hasn’t been born yet. If a prospective mother is not yet pregnant, but intends to have a child. Do they have a duty to make sure that they don’t have any curable hereditary diseases, before having a child? In other words, would they act immorally if they had such a disease, but nevertheless decided to have a child? This question is at the heart of what is called the non-identity problem, since while intuitively we’d answer yes, there seems to be a good case for claiming the opposite. In the first chapter, I present the non-identity problem, its central claim and some attempts at solving it. Failing to find a suitable one, I move on to anti-natalism – a view claiming that procreation is immoral – which seems to solve the problem rather easily. Considering the extreme nature of the view however, in the second chapter I respond to some common objections the view is often met with. Among these are those which attempt to reject anti-natalism by appealing to the rights of those already existing and those that mistakenly claim the view to be misanthropic. Having responded to these arguments, I move on to discussing anti-natalism more thoroughly in the third chapter. I evaluate the main arguments for the view made by David Benatar, one of the biggest contemporary defenders of anti-natalism, though ultimately I champion Seana Shiffrin’s argument about consent as the most plausible way forward. In the fourth chapter the actual solution is revealed: if procreation with a reasonable expectation of harm is immoral, it’s immoral to reproduce knowing that one has a curable inheritable disease. On the whole, I find that while anti-natalism indeed solves the non-identity problem, it does so with considerable expense. This is due to the fact that even if we are unable to defeat anti-natalism, the view is simply far too demanding to ever be adopted – it would lead to human extinction after all. As such, it solving the non-identity problem is hardly a perk big enough to convince us.
  • Kletter, Raz (Routledge, 2019)
    This volume is a critical study of recent archaeology in the Western Wall Plaza area, Jerusalem. Considered one of the holiest places on Earth for Jews and Muslims, it is also a place of controversy, where the State marks ‘our’ remains for preservation and adoration and ‘theirs’ for silencing. Based on thousands of documents from the Israel Antiquities Authority and other sources, such as protocols of planning committees, readers can explore for the first time this archaeological ‘heart of darkness’ in East Jerusalem. The book follows a series of unique discoveries, reviewing the approval and execution of development plans and excavations, and the use of the sites once excavation has finished. Who decides what and how to excavate, what to preserve – or ‘remove’? Who pays for the archaeology, for what aims? The professional, scientific archaeology of the past happens now: it modifies the present and is modified by it. This book ‘excavates’ the archaeology of East Jerusalem to reveal its social and political contexts, power structures and ethics. Readers interested in the history, archaeology and politics of the Israeli– Palestinian conflict will find this book useful, as well as scholars and students of the history and ethics of archaeology, Jerusalem, conservation, nationalism and heritage.
  • Pantti, Mervi Katriina; Ojala, Markus Mikael (2019)
    Personal stories in news reports serve multiple purposes, but at their core lie efforts at illustrating and authenticating a social or political issue through human experience, an illustration that is compelling in its affective appeal. Telling the personal stories of people belonging to minority groups may work as a potent journalistic vehicle in countering negative stereotypes and prejudices against them. This article examines how Finnish journalists incorporate the personal stories of asylum seekers into their coverage of the so-called 'European refugee crisis' of 2015-2016. Drawing on qualitative interviews, we inquire into how journalists understand the meaning and purpose of asylum seekers' personal stories in their news reporting and reflect on the professional values and ethical dilemmas when telling them. Our findings reveal that while journalists tend to sympathise with the vulnerable and see it as important to combat xenophobia and racism, their relationship with asylum seekers becomes increasingly informed and constrained by socio-political and discursive structures that foster a culture of suspicion towards asylum seekers.
  • Saari, Eeva-Kaisa (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The thesis is a study of journalists ethics in health and beauty field. The research is aiming to answers questions as follows. Firstly, how do PR agencies get publicity for their clients and their products by using journalists as a tool? Secondly, how does it affect journalists ethics when a PR company wants to achieve the best results for their clients project? Thirdly, how do journalists experience objectivity towards readers when dealing with PR practitioners? Advertisers influence in the process is also taken into account. The starting point for the study is the hypothesis that British journalists are more biased than their Finnish colleagues because the industry is bigger in the UK and they get more gifts from public relations machinery. My view changed towards the end of the research; the study results indicate that both countries are in a similar situation. The readers are one of the main reasons why this study was conducted. They are the ones that suffer from unethical journalism. Journalism industry has its own code of conduct in both countries and the thesis examines the impact on journalists attitudes. The study is qualitative and the method used is thematic interviews. For this study seven journalists from Finnish and six from British monthly magazines were interviewed. The interview questions were designed to find out what is the public relations practitioners impact on journalists work. The theory of the thesis includes theories of ethics, journalism, journalism ethics and public relations. The concept of ethics used n this research is western. Thematic analysis is used in order to find out research results. Main result is that it is not the amount of gifts that affects journalists ethics but rather the relationship between the journalist and a public relations practitioner. Journalists get harassed by the public relations practitioners to the point that a journalist gives in just that she can have a peace of mind. The relationship between PR people and journalists can also be extremely friendly and as a result a journalist might feature their products. Advertisers play a key role on editorial content. They have power to tell what to feature and which launch event a journalist should attend. The results were similar in both Finland and in the UK other than one exception. A publisher in the UK has its own ethical rules that employees have to obey. The concept is more helpful when resolving ethical issues comparing to codes of conducts that are issued from an institution such as National Union of Journalists.
  • Backman, Jussi (2005)
    The paper discusses Heidegger’s early notion of the “movedness of life” (Lebensbewegtheit) and its intimate connection with Aristotle’s concept of movement (kinesis). Heidegger’s aim in the period of Being and Time was to “overcome” the Greek ideal of being as ousia – constant and complete presence and availability – by showing that the background for all meaningful presence is Dasein, the ecstatically temporal context of human being. Life as the event of finitude is characterized by an essential lack and incompleteness, and the living present therefore gains meaning only in relation to a horizon of un-presence and un-availability. Whereas the “theological” culmination of Aristotle’s Nicomachean Ethics finds the supreme fulfillment of human life in the semi-divine self-immanence and self-sufficiency of the bios theoretikos, a radical Heideggerian interpretation of kinesis may permit us to find in Aristotle the fundamental structures of mortal living as self-transcendent movement.
  • Suutarinen, Janne (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    The thesis assesses ethical problems pertaining to a scenario of a mandatory vaccination program against SARS-CoV-2 (“Covid-19”) in Finland, as the epidemic situation stood in the early 2022. The initial research question is whether this kind of a program would be ethically justifiable. The conclusion to this question is reached by describing the epidemic situation, presenting basic ethical norms of public healthcare, and making a synthetizing ethical analysis on their basis. The concluding answer no comes as the result of analyzing the Finnish scenario from the perspectives of eight criteria of ethical justification that would need to be adequately met in order for a mandatory vaccination program to be an ethically sound public health measure. The eight criteria are formed by examining literature of public health ethics and vaccination ethics as well as strong ethical arguments in favor and against mandatory vaccinations, and by combining a ground of shared prerequisites guiding ethical considerations on the topic. The analysis reveals numerous ethical problems present in the Finnish scenario. The mere existence of so many unsolved issues makes the potential mandatory Covid-19 vaccination program an unethical option. The thesis calls for better public discussion on public health ethics, so that the ethical imperatives of protecting public health security and protecting individual bodily autonomy are realized also in emergency situations.
  • Franck, Henrika (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2012)
    Economics and Society – 242
    Strategic management and ethics impose contradictory pressures on managerial sensemaking. Using concepts from Paul Ricoeur’s philosophical work as a theoretical lens, this thesis analyzes a longitudinal data set, produced within strategy meetings and interviews in a multinational corporation undergoing a radical change process. It induces a model of ethical sensemaking in strategic management, founded on the processes of irony, compromise and conflict. The thesis demonstrates how the ethical can become possible and tangible in practice. It is an ethics that prompts reactions with on-going practicalities and acknowledges the unpredictable nature of change.Whereas normative business ethics literature has focused on how strategy is fair, leads to good deeds or is made by virtuous people, this study suggests that ethics is not something separate from the day-to-day, or moment-to-moment activity. It cannot be controlled from a distance. The study shows that business and ethics are not separate – it is about how we live with one another outside of being merely means for one another to gain. Through two interconnected analyses the thesis reveals how strategy work is riddled with tensions and how individuals rely on a number of tactics to navigate in order to live up to the demands of ethics.
  • Jallinoja, Piia (2002)
    The present study focuses on the introduction both of genetic screening and testing and of the related counselling in Finnish health care during the 1990s, i.e. clinical genetics. In addition, the formation of medical ethics as it pertains to clinical genetics is analysed from 1970 onwards. The study consists of five original publications and a summary. The material consists of data collected by means of questionnaires (conducted among lay people, public health nurses and midwives), semistructured interviews (of physicians, public health nurses, midwives and psychologists) and text material collected in connection with four genetic screening and counselling projects carried out in Finland. In general, Finns approve of gene tests, but this general approval is combined with disapproval of certain aspects and prospects of such tests. Furthermore, clinical genetics creates agonizing situations where all options have undesirable consequences. Abortion because of a disorder of the fetus is an especially perplexing issue reflecting the ambivalent status of the fetus. Within the field of medicine, problems related to the increasing number of applications of clinical genetics have been addressed to an increasing extent by developing ethical guidelines and recommendations, by establishing ethics committees and by encouraging public discussion on ethics. In the guidelines, voluntariness and autonomy are repeated principles, and they are also widely accepted principles among lay people and professional groups. Choice may even be regarded as an imperative. What is feared is its opposite, concretized in the fear of eugenics. The situation is paradoxical, however, and characteristic of modern societies: On the on hand there are constant demands for more ethical rules - on the other hand these rules cannot but remain superficial, since they have to be open and flexible in the face of new scientific discoveries and individuals' life situations. A contradiction exists between modern ethics setting the rules for advancing genetic technologies and the real-life situations of clients seeking genetic screening and counselling. Individuals are at the same time struggling to form their own choice and influenced by a plethora of expectations, interests, medical determinants and technological conditions.
  • Lehtola, Nina (2006)
    Millions of people in the world are affected by extreme poverty. Most of the citizens of the affluent western countries recognise that they have an obligation not to do harm to other people, no matter who they are, or whatever country they happen to live in. In addition, many people have a strong intuition that something should be done to help the people who are suffering in other countries, and that it would be just that everyone would have an adequate standard of living. The aim of this Master's thesis is to examine how the claim that justice should be realised on a global level could be justified. To do this, I will assess the arguments of Peter Singer, John Rawls, and Henry Shue, who base their theories on utilitarianism, contractarianism, and human rights respectively. Singer's argument is expressed in his article 'Famine, Affluence, and Morality' (1972). The basis of John Rawls's theory can be found in his A Theory of Justice (1971), and his later arguments concerning global justice in Law of Peoples (1999). However, expanding Rawls's theory on a global level is done by Charles Beitz and Thomas Pogge, whose arguments have been expressed in a selection of publications. Henry Shue elaborates his theory in his Basic Rights: Subsistence, Affluence, and U.S. Foreign Policy (1980). Even though these philosopher's have very different theoretical backgrounds and justifications for their arguments, their perspectives share the idea of universal humanity and equality between human beings. Thus it will become evident that the same outcome can be reached by very different routes. I will examine the theories, pick up their strong points and weaknesses, and evaluate whether their normative prescriptions could be realistically implemented. The aim is also to try to make the issue of global justice more understandable, clarify the important points, outline the framework of the discussion, and compare the different views taken on the subject. It will become clear that the theories are insufficient to give a justification for the question on global justice, as they face some insurmountable problems both on theoretical and practical level. Their incommensurability also makes it difficult to make comparisons to find out, which of them could be more useful or realisable. However, the theories have an important function, as they provide the framework, without which the conversation on the subject would be difficult, maybe even impossible. At the end of the thesis it will be suggested that perhaps the issue of global justice should be approached from a totally new perspective. The orthodox ways of thinking that have been taken for granted should thus be challenged. Whatever the case, the question and problems of global justice cannot be swept under the carpet, as they are something that become more urgent by day, effecting all human beings.
  • Yli-Karjanmaa, Sami; Uusimäki, Elisa (2022)
    This article examines early Jewish ideas of virtue that are usually ignored in presentations of the history of virtue discourse. We analyze the use of the Greek term alpha rho epsilon tau eta in the Apocrypha of the Septuagint; all the occurrences of the term are in texts that were originally composed in Greek. We argue that the discussion on virtues - ideal human qualities and ways of living - in the Apocrypha has three thematic foci: (1) training, (2) courage, and (3) suffering and its postmortem rewards. Virtue prepares one to live well, encounter grave difficulties and even death with courage, and, finally, earn eternal life. We argue that it is implicit that virtuous Jews surpass, in ways that differ depending on the text, their more-or-less openly Greek antagonists who fail the virtue ideals that they would culturally be expected to uphold. Through their words and deeds, the exemplary Jews demonstrate that true virtue comes from a steadfast commitment to the Jewish tradition and the Mosaic law. Being a good Jew involves training that manifests itself in various desirable traits, but it also means acknowledging the divinity of the Jewish law as the basis of both the good life and the postmortem consequences of virtue.
  • Koskenvuori, Janika; Stolt, Minna; Suhonen, Riitta; Leino-Kilpi, Helena (2019)
    Aim The aim of this study was to examine the extent and nature of the available research literature on healthcare professionals' ethical competence and to summarize the research findings in this field. Design Methods A scoping review guided by Arksey and O'Malleys methodological framework was conducted. Six databases including Pubmed/Medline, CINAHL, Web of Science Core Collection, PsycInfo, Philosophers' Index, and Scopus were searched systematically. Of 1,476 nonduplicate citations, 17 matched the inclusion criteria. Results Findings revealed that healthcare professionals' ethical competence is a limited but topical research area. The focus areas of the studies were conceptualization, measuring, and realization of the ethical competence. The studies provided varying definitions and constructions for ethical competence and a few instruments to measure ethical competence were identified. Research in this area seems to be in a transition phase from theorization to empirical measurement. Methodologically, the research was rather heterogeneous and mainly focused on nurses.
  • Backman, Jussi; Luoto, Miika; Filosofian laitos (-2009) (Eurooppalaisen filosofian seura, 2006)
    23°45: niin & näin -lehden kirjasarja
    "Outoa tässä olemisen ajattelussa on sen yksinkertaisuus". Näin totesi Martin Heidegger omasta työstään. Heidegger – ajattelun aiheita kokoaa suomalaisten tutkijoiden kirjoituksia Heideggerin avaamilla poluilla. Kokoelma piirtää Heideggerin haastavasta ja syvällisestä ajattelusta rikkaan ja moni-ilmeisen kuvan, joka soveltuu niin tutkijoiden kuin filosofian harrastajienkin käyttöön. Teos on ensimmäinen kattava kokoelma suomalaista Heidegger-tutkimusta. Kirja sisältää myös toimittajien johdatuksen Heideggeriin ja katsauksen aiheen historiaan Suomessa.
  • Valkohaapa, Anna-Mari (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In Finland the elderly residents of long-term care facilities are often prescribed a lot of medications, especially psychotropic drugs. It also happens that a patient or a resident has to be physically or chemically restrained. Chemical restraining can be defined in many ways, for example as using a drug - usually an antipsychotic - to restrict the freedom or movement of a patient and to control his or her behavior. In nursing homes the staff is in a key position when it comes to deciding on the use of chemical restraining or PRN medication. A legislation to guarantee the self-determination of a patient and to define how physical restraining can be used is now being prepared in Finland. Only a few studies on chemical restraining from a nurses' point of view have been made so far. Thus, the aim of this study is to provide more information on the level of knowledge, the attitudes and perceptions of nurses regarding chemical restraining and the effect of those on deciding whether to use chemical restraints or not. Three focus groups with nurses were conducted in Hyvinkää nursing homes (n=13). The groups were recruited both by e-mail and directly from the wards. The focus group discussions were digitally audiotaped and transcribed verbatim. The content of the transcripts was then analyzed using a constant comparative method. According to the study most of the antipsychotics used in long-term care were used daily. However, it is not uncommon for the nurses to be unsure about their knowledge on the use of medicines. It is thus important to help the nursing staff to increase their knowledge and skills in pharmacology. The nurses also wished to get extra training for treating people with dementia. The concept of chemical restraining is quite ambiguous, and the use of chemical restraints is a complex ethical issue because the reasons for and effects of administering it vary depending on the situation. The study shows that the chemical restraining is most often considered justified when it is used to ensure the safety of a patient, relieve anxiety or to keep the working conditions of the staff tolerable. Also a shortage of manpower and a request by the family can influence the decision on using chemical restraints. The lack of proper common guidelines causes confusion and wide variation in the use of chemical restraints. Many interviewees were hoping for more open discussion and cooperation on using chemical restraining. The nurses also mentioned many alternatives to rely on instead of using chemical restraints, such as soothing, comforting and creating a safe feeling for the patients, daily routines and stimulus. One of the key factors for taking to these instead of chemical restraints are the manpower resources in the facilities. Educating the staff can also help them to find more options for chemical restraining and make staff members recognize new or remember forgotten routines for caring for the patients without using psychotropic drugs.
  • Di Minin, Enrico; Fink, Christoph; Hausmann, Anna; Kremer, Jens; Kulkarni, Ritwik (2021)
    Social media data are being increasingly used in conservation science to study human–nature interactions. User-generated content, such as images, video, text, and audio, and the associated metadata can be used to assess such interactions. A number of social media platforms provide free access to user-generated social media content. However, similar to any research involving people, scientific investigations based on social media data require compliance with highest standards of data privacy and data protection, even when data are publicly available. Should social media data be misused, the risks to individual users’ privacy and well-being can be substantial. We investigated the legal basis for using social media data while ensuring data subjects’ rights through a case study based on the European Union’s General Data Protection Regulation. The risks associated with using social media data in research include accidental and purposeful misidentification that has the potential to cause psychological or physical harm to an identified person. To collect, store, protect, share, and manage social media data in a way that prevents potential risks to users involved, one should minimize data, anonymize data, and follow strict data management procedure. Risk-based approaches, such as a data privacy impact assessment, can be used to identify and minimize privacy risks to social media users, to demonstrate accountability and to comply with data protection legislation. We recommend that conservation scientists carefully consider our recommendations in devising their research objectives so as to facilitate responsible use of social media data in conservation science research, for example, in conservation culturomics and investigations of illegal wildlife trade online.
  • Ruokonen, Floora (2002)
    The thesis concerns the relationship between ethics and aesthetics in the context of questions relating to the good life and good character traits of human beings. The thesis consists of six original articles and an introduction. The introduction includes a general reconstruction of the thematic locus of the thesis, a discussion ofsome of its central concepts, the conclusions of the thesis, as well as brief summaries of the articles. The first article concerns the 1811th century notions of "moral beauty" and "beautiful soul", focusing especially on Lord Shaftesbury's and Friedrich Schiller's ideas. Articles 2-5 deal with Iris Murdoch's and Martha Nussbaum's virtue-ethical views. The sixth article is the epilogue of the thesis, and it returns to the theme of the beautiful soul. It is claimed that the above mentioned philosophers make use of aesthetics in their efforts to broaden the scope of ethics. The bodily, discordant, contingent, and tragic aspects of human life are included within ethics with the help of aesthetics. For example, Schiller is, with the concept of the beautiful soul, looking for a moral ideal that, unlike Kantian moral philosophy, would also take into account the sensuous side of the human being. Murdoch and Nussbaum in turn look to aesthetic experience for a model for all moral attention. According to Murdoch aesthetic experiences can make the consciousness turn away from its egoistic needs towards a reality which otherwise is difficult to face. Nussbaum emphasizes the way in which literature can reveal the plurality of values as well as their conflicting nature. Nussbaum takes encounters With literature to be moral experiences, whereas for Murdoch aesthetic and moral experiences are similar when it comes to the disinterested attitude characteristic of both, but different in that aesthetic experiences are accompanied by pleasure, where as pleasure is not an issue when it comes to morality. In the thesis, the relevance of aesthetic experience as a model for all moral attention is emphasized. I lowever, the importance of preserving the difference between aesthetic and moral experience is also stressed. Aesthetic experiences are typically pleasant, whereas in real life practical conflicts such an experience of pleasure would be a sign of moral failure. This is a conclusion which rises from the basic assumptions of both Murdoch's and Nussbaum's moral philosophy, even though the latter does not pay Much attention to this. Observing the difference nevertheless strengthens the argument for the relevance of aesthetic experiences to moral education. It is precisely the pleasure involved in aesthetic experience that makes it such a good path to morals.
  • Klabbers, Johannes Antonius Maria (2019)
    This article suggests that the autonomy of international organisations stems not so much – or not only – from intentional action on the part of international organisations and their member states, but also results well-nigh inevitably from the exercise of autonomy by international organisations. Whenever organisations act, they affirm their autonomy, and their autonomy is affirmed by their audiences. This is illustrated by brief discussions of the three main settings in which international organisations operate: vis-à-vis their member states (discussing the proposed expulsion of Liberia from the League of Nations), their staff (discussing manifestations of McCarthyism in unesco), and the outside world (discussing the immunities of the un in relation to the Haiti cholera affair).
  • Sillander, Kenneth (2021)
    This introduction to the special issue Qualifying Sociality through Values interrogates the relationship between sociality and values, two concepts that have gained increasing traction in anthropology, but which have not previously been jointly considered. It presents the twofold agenda of the special issue which is to explore how sociality is valued and how values affect sociality. It opens up these ambiguous and morally charged concepts and discusses their utility and ethnographic purchase as tools for understanding social life in practice. The introduction also outlines the contributions and the special issue's principal findings. Sociality is rendered as a multilaterally value-shaped and ambiguously valued situated practice which is subject to both extension and contraction. Values come out as multi-purposive evaluative criteria which operate as open-ended social resources to different effects, imparting both direction and contingency.