Browsing by Subject "ethnicity"

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  • Holmqvist, Mats (2010)
    This thesis studies the political process in Pakistan between 1988 and 1999. The aim of the study is to explain why the transition to democracy failed during this period. Three major problems have been singled out for this purpose: the ethnic structure, the political structure and the role of the military. The thesis also shows how similar problems have appeared throughout Pakistan’s history and for this reason the obstacles to democracy are described as long-term, structural problems. Pakistan’s role as a frontline state in global anti-terrorist efforts has prompted a need for fresh perspectives on the country’s political development. Previous research on Pakistan is characterized as lacking historical understanding. Therefore this thesis attempts to provide a historical dimension by tracing the roots of Pakistan’s political problems. The primary sources for the thesis consist of autobiographical material, speeches, interviews and party manifestos, but the argumentation relies heavily on secondary sources. The theoretical sections of the thesis consult e.g. Dahl, Linz and Stepan for definitions of democracy and democratic transitions, Huntington for the concept of political institutionalisation and Koonings & Kruijt for approaches to political armies. The main result of the thesis is that although Pakistan began a democratic transition in 1988, it was never completed and the political process was rather more like a “nontransition”. Above all, the transition was severely constrained from the outset. The greatest obstacle to democratization was arguably the Pakistani military’s consistent interference in politics through a constitutional amendment enacted during military rule in 1985. Moreover, the lack of commitment to democratic values among the political elite puts into question whether there was a movement towards democracy at all during this period. The inability or unwillingness of successive governments to address the ethnic and regional cleavages in Pakistani society as political issues rather than law and order issues also served to undermine the legitimacy of the entire political system. The thesis concludes that the same problems seem to have halted democratic initiatives in Pakistan since the country became independent in 1947; it therefore seems likely that they will also persist unless the underlying issues are specifically addressed.
  • Koskela, Kaisu (2021)
    This article is about self-defined social identities, other people's perceptions of us and the potentially conflictual relationship between these two. Building on a Barthian focus on group boundaries, the article takes the interplay between external categorizations and internal group definitions as its point of departure to examine how individuals negotiate the boundaries of their social identities. Based on a case study of skilled migrants with racialized ethnicities in Finland, I look at how they express their self-defined identity as well-to-do, skilled professionals in the face of contradicting categorizations of them as unskilled , lower-class migrant subjects. I identify two types of complementary approaches employed by the skilled migrants in boundary making strategies to their identity negotiations: those de-emphasizing ethnicity (or its importance), and those emphasizing class status. These approaches are two sides of the same coin; coming from different perspectives, they both aim at a more positively viewed identity, and for individuals to be seen as well-to-do, educated, working professionals, rather than as ethnic migrant subjects. As such, the article also highlights the interconnection of class and ethnicity for the social identities of skilled migrants in Finland.
  • Rukoro, Jeffrey (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This research had the fundamental aim of closely examining the identity negotiation of people who are of bi-racial heritage. Utilizing a combination of the positioning concept and discourse analysis, the objective was to get an in-depth view of how the bi-racial identity is negotiated and situated within four sub-identities or variants, and those four subidentities being referred to are the singular, border, protean and transcendent identities by Rocquemore. The questions used to guide the research goals were the following: How does the identity negotiation take place? What are the discursive resources and tools used to facilitate the negotiation? Are all four sub-identities engaged equally? What is the relationship between the four sub-identities? What role does the media play in the identity negotiation? Through purposive sampling, the text was selected to represent cases from America, Britain, and Finland. Four cases were selected of which two are American. One from Finland and the other from Britain. The cases feature three females and one male. The study mainly utilized discourse analysis techniques with a particular focus on critical discursive psychology, which all form part of the qualitative approach methodologies. The outcomes indicated that for all the cases studied, the identity was observed to be negotiated within the confines of the four sub-identities. However, the ordering, the positioning of the identities, and the discursive tools that were employed to negotiate the identities varied, and this variation was found to be connected to an assigned identity or a challenged asserted identity. As a result, certain negotiations caused stress or cognitive dissonance, and to avoid the stress or minimise the dissonance, various discursive resources were strategically employed to help negotiate or situate other identity variants. As the analysis continued six theoretical themes emerged, that were found to be supported by the discursive works. This six theoretical themes were, self-agency, distant other, cognitive dissonance, emotional repertoires, sense of belonging and altruism. An interconnectedness between the six themes was also noticed, due to the proximity of functionality within which some of them operated. The implication is that the identity, whether assigned or asserted is rather complex, and is not without psycho-social conflict, perhaps its stability is through its continuous negotiations and mobility.
  • Sutton, David (2003)
    Peacekeeping operations have grown in scope and frequency over the decades since the establishment of the Unite Nations (UN). In particular, the optimism attending the UN’s prospects of greater leadership in conflict resolution in a new season of openness following the end of the Cold War saw increasing UN involvement in varied and complex conflicts – many involving ethnic rivalries that have surfaced amid the turbulence of the formation of new states and the spread of democracy in the last decade. Unfortunately, few of these operations have been widely regarded as successful, and some have ended in absolute disaster. There is a continuing need to search for the factors which hinder success and to evaluate the compatibility of current peacekeeping methods and assumptions with conflicts in which those factors play a significant role. Thus, this paper begins by examining the design, function and doctrine of traditional peacekeeping missions, from which a definition of success is also established. The nature and particular difficulties of ethnicity and ethnic conflict are delineated and a key interaction between these and the current broad UN approach to conflict is explored. From this understanding, two UN missions – the United Nations Operation in Mozambique (ONUMOZ) and the United Nations Assistance Mission for Rwanda (UNAMIR) – are compared to determine whether a substantial ethnic component to a conflict may in fact emerge as a significant hindrance to successful peacekeeping operations given current methods and assumptions. The conclusion drawn is that the success of UN peacekeeping missions, which are designed to facilitate negotiated settlements with the consent of the parties involved, is seriously challenged when the conflict in question is characterized by significant ethnic animosity. It is suggested that UN planners should therefore intervene in ethnic conflict more circumspectly, and that more serious consideration should be given to more robust measures if a peacekeeping mission is undertaken.
  • Dudumi, Olsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    This Master's thesis examines the ethnic relations in the Former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM) through an ethnographic study based on a four-month fieldwork in the city of Kumanovo, where communities have been recently displaced from their traditional neighborhoods. More broadly speaking, this research addresses the increase of everyday life violence and physical separation of the Albanian and Macedonian communities. To this end, it employs two current theoretical developments in social sciences to show the insight into people's actions and everyday life situations: on the one hand, the cognitive turn proposed by Rogers Brubaker in the study of ethnicity, regarding the process as a primary focus of analysis, and the spatial turn of Henri Lefebvre, giving space a crucial role in determining social relations. The thesis analyzes data gathered from a four-month ethnographic fieldwork in Kumanovo, northwest FYROM. In these fourth months data were gathered through a combination of various ethnographic tools. Participant observation was used with young people in the city and during an internship position that I took during the first three months. Formal and informal interviews were used in locations outside the working place. Virtual and spatial ethnography assisted in mapping, recording and understanding more deeply the everyday spatial life of actors. The analysis revealed how ethnicization happens through the production of social space in the city. Despite the state's provisioning of a multiethnic legal framework, ethnic division remains persistent. Top-down multicultural policies have transformed once-existing social relations. My analysis shows that a keener focus on the production of social space gives profound insight in the ethnicization process.
  • Tamminen, Juuda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This master’s thesis is an ethnographic study about everyday urban encounters and social interaction. It explores how residents in the suburban housing estate of Kontula in East Helsinki negotiate social and cultural difference in their everyday lives. The study focuses on the semi-public spaces of the local shopping centre and examines residents’ capacity to live with difference. The study contributes to a multi-vocal and historically informed understanding of the processes that shape the social landscapes of a socially mixed and multi-ethnic neighbourhood. The study is based on fieldwork carried out in two phases between August 2019 and February 2020. The study applies anthropological methods of participant observation and qualitative interviews. The eleven research participants are adults between the ages of 30 and 71 who live in the neighbourhood and have extensive personal experience of the shopping centre. Although the interviews were a crucial aspect of the meaning-making process, the study relies primarily on participant observation in constructing an interpretation and analysis of social interaction at an intimate scale. In order to contextualise everyday encounters at the shopping centre, this thesis assesses how Kontula, as a stigmatised territory in the urban margins, encapsulates a complex interplay between moral claims of a “good” and “bad” neighbourhood. While some residents confirm negative stereotypes about the shopping centre and bring attention to local social problems and issues of unsafety, others downplay these problems and instead emphasise how tolerant and sociable the shopping centre is. Observations of stigmatised territories reveal how the participation of marginalised individuals and ethnic minorities at the shopping centre challenges the processes and discourses that constitute them as objects of fear and nuisance. The concepts of conviviality and cosmopolitan canopies are used to analyse local social interactions. The analysis suggests that the capacity to live with difference is enabled by ordinary meeting places, such as pubs and cafés, where residents come into regular social contact and engage with diverse individuals and groups. While the maintenance of ethnic boundaries remains salient in the way residents negotiate the social landscapes, these ordinary spaces of encounter situationally reconfigure categories of “us” and “them” and thus expand local meanings of who belongs. The analysis concludes that the contested meanings of belonging and the everyday negotiation of difference are attributes of an open multi-ethnic society coming to terms with difference and change. The analysis suggests that an equal right to participate and interact in shared urban spaces, rather than community consensus, is the hallmark of a society’s capacity to live with difference.
  • Abolhassani, Hassan; Azizi, Gholamreza; Sharifi, Laleh; Yazdani, Reza; Mohsenzadegan, Monireh; Delavari, Samaneh; Sohani, Mahsa; Shirmast, Paniz; Chavoshzadeh, Zahra; Mahdaviani, Seyed Alireza; Kalantari, Arash; Tavakol, Marzieh; Jabbari-Azad, Farahzad; Ahanchian, Hamid; Momen, Tooba; Sherkat, Roya; Sadeghi-Shabestari, Mahnaz; Aleyasin, Soheila; Esmaeilzadeh, Hossein; Al-Herz, Waleed; Bousfiha, Ahmed Aziz; Condino-Neto, Antonio; Seppanen, Mikko; Sullivan, Kathleen E.; Hammarstrom, Lennart; Modell, Vicki; Modell, Fred; Quinn, Jessica; Orange, Jordan S.; Aghamohammadi, Asghar (2020)
    Introduction During the last 4 decades, registration of patients with primary immunodeficiencies (PID) has played an essential role in different aspects of these diseases worldwide including epidemiological indexes, policymaking, quality controls of care/life, facilitation of genetic studies and clinical trials as well as improving our understanding about the natural history of the disease and the immune system function. However, due to the limitation of sustainable resources supporting these registries, inconsistency in diagnostic criteria and lack of molecular diagnosis as well as difficulties in the documentation and designing any universal platform, the global perspective of these diseases remains unclear. Areas covered Published and unpublished studies from January 1981 to June 2020 were systematically reviewed on PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus. Additionally, the reference list of all studies was hand-searched for additional studies. This effort identified a total of 104614 registered patients and suggests identification of at least 10590 additional PID patients, mainly from countries located in Asia and Africa. Molecular defects in genes known to cause PID were identified and reported in 13852 (13.2% of all registered) patients. Expert opinion Although these data suggest some progress in the identification and documentation of PID patients worldwide, achieving the basic requirement for the global PID burden estimation and registration of undiagnosed patients will require more reinforcement of the progress, involving both improved diagnostic facilities and neonatal screening.
  • Kasurinen, Jaana (Helsingfors universitet, 2001)
    The purpose of this research is to deepen the understanding of the culture of the veil among Somali women in Finland. The research deals with ethnicity, identity, easing the immigrant's readjustment with the help of one's own culture, and the connection between the religion of Islam and the veil. The veil will be studied from both the historical and religious point of view. The research will also familiarize the reader with the dress code for women in the Koran. The empirical part of the research is carried out as a qualitative study with the help of content analysis, with emphasis in phenomenology. The aim of the phenomenological research method is to reach a person's experience world, and to search for common contents from individual experiences. The material for this study has been collected by interviewing ten Somali women. Some of the women wear veils, some do not. It can be said, on the ground of this research, that the decision about taking on the veil is made by the women themselves. The main cause for wearing the veil is to indicate religiousness. As other motives we can see a search for security, enhancing of solidarity, individual interpretation of the instructions of the religion, covering the ethnic dress while outside, protecting men from the beauty of women, and wearing the veil in the mosque or while praying. As a latent motive we can point out the resisting of Western culture. Not wearing the veil can be justified by the women's need for independence, the veil being unpractical, the want of modernity, the alternation of different ways of dressing, the adaptation of the new culture, abandoning one's own culture, and abandoning the external emphasizing of the religion. Also the veil is not part of the Somali culture; it is a habit adapted from elsewhere.
  • Kletter, Raz (2014)
    Archaeology cannot find ethnicity "independently", but only with the help of written sources. The way one defines "ethnicity" is critical to ones' conclusions. Ethnic groups, as a type of imagined community, most likely existed already in prehistory; but without written sources, at least a collective name, we cannot fish them out. The article reviews a series of papers which try, in vain, to 'get' to ethnicity from material remains; and another series which tries, in vain, to prove (or refute) "Iron I Ethnic Israel". Bagira appears in a photo in the text.
  • Wahlbeck, Östen (Gidlunds förlag, 2015)
    Antalet svenska medborgare som flyttar till Finland har stadigt ökat. Inflyttad från Sverige förklarar dynamiken i den nya svenska migrationen till Finland. Inflyttares erfarenheter analyseras med hjälp av teorier inom migrations- och etnicitetsforskningen. I boken presenteras en intervjustudie med svenska medborgare bosatta i Helsingfors. I fokus för studien står erfarenheter av sociala integrationsprocesser och etniska gränsdragningar i en lokal kontext. I Helsingfors utgör svenskspråkiga en språkminoritet. Analysen ger en förståelse för hur svenskar positionerar och orienterar sig i denna nya sociala och språkliga kontext. Boken är ett unikt bidrag till både invandringsforskningen i Finland och forskningen om utvandring från Sverige.
  • Koskela, Kaisu (2019)
    The aim of this article is to study the experiences of highly skilled migrants from an intersectional perspective. Based on a case study of a group of skilled migrants in Finland, this article explores the interplay of various social identities and categorizations in their everyday life. I argue that although class markers are an important element in the self-defined group identification for skilled migrants, they are also subjected to intersecting social categorizations, stereotyping and assumptions based on gender, ethnicity, race and nationality, creating different experiences and belongings for different skilled migrants. Anthias’ concept of ‘translocational positionality’ is used to highlight how these intersections are highly situational, context specific and relative to other actors in the Finnish context.
  • Sarkia, Matti; Kaidesoja, Tuukka; Hyyryläinen, Mikko (2020)
    Discussions of the relations between the social sciences and the cognitive sciences have proliferated in recent years. Our article contributes to the philosophical and methodological foundations of the cognitive social sciences by proposing a framework based on contemporary mechanistic approaches to the philosophy of science to analyze the epistemological, ontological and methodological aspects of research programs at the intersection of the social sciences and the cognitive sciences. We apply this framework to three case studies which address the phenomena of social coordination, transactive memory, and ethnicity. We also assess how successful these research programs have been in providing mechanistic explanations for these phenomena, and where more work remains to be done.
  • Kowlessur, Sudhirsen; Hu, Zhibin; Heecharan, Jaysing; Wang, Jianming; Dai, Juncheng; Tuomilehto, Jaakko O.; Soderberg, Stefan; Zimmet, Paul; Barengo, Noel C. (2018)
    Information on the predictors of future hypertension in Mauritians with prehypertension is scant. The aim of this study was to analyze the 5-year and 11-year risk of hypertension and its predictors in people with normotension and prehypertension at baseline in Mauritius in 1987. This was a retrospective cohort study of 883 men and 1194 women of Mauritian Indian and Mauritian Creole ethnicity, aged 25-74 years old, free of hypertension at baseline in 1987 with follow-up examinations in 1992 and 1998 using the same methodology. The main outcome was 5- and 11-year risk of hypertension. Odds ratios (OR) and corresponding 95% confidence intervals (CI) were calculated. The 5-year risk of hypertension was 5.4-times higher in people with prehypertension compared with normotensive individuals at baseline. The corresponding odds for prehypertensive people at baseline regarding 11-year hypertension risk was 3.39 (95% CI 2.67-4.29) in the adjusted logistic regression models. Being of Creole ethnicity (OR 1.42; 95% CI 1.09-1.86) increased the 11-year odds of hypertension compared with the Indian population. It is of importance to screen for people with prehypertension and implement strategies to reduce their systolic blood pressure levels to the recommended levels of 120/80 mmHg. Special attention needs to be given to Mauritians of Creole ethnicity.
  • Chan, Jessica L.; Kar, Sujata; Vanky, Eszter; Morin-Papunen, Laure; Piltonen, Terhi; Puurunen, Johanna; Tapanainen, Juha S.; Maciel, Gustavo Arantes Rosa; Hayashida, Sylvia Asaka Yamashita; Soares, Jose Maria; Baracat, Edmund Chada; Mellembakken, Jan Roar; Dokras, Anuja (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Polycystic ovary syndrome is a heterogeneous disorder and its presentation varies with race and ethnicity. Reproductive-age women with polycystic ovary syndrome are at increased risk of metabolic syndrome; however, it is not clear if prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of its components differs based on race and ethnicity. Moreover, the majority of these women do not undergo routine screening for metabolic syndrome. OBJECTIVE: We sought to compare the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of its components in women with polycystic ovary syndrome in the United States with women in India, Brazil, Finland, and Norway. STUDY DESIGN: This is a cross-sectional study performed in 1089 women with polycystic ovary syndrome from 1999 through 2016 in 5 outpatient clinics in the United States, India, Brazil, Finland, and Norway. Polycystic ovary syndrome was defined by the Rotterdam criteria. Main outcome measures were: metabolic syndrome prevalence, blood pressure, body mass index, fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, fasting triglycerides, and fasting glucose. Data from all sites were reevaluated for appropriate application of diagnostic criteria for polycystic ovary syndrome, identification of polycystic ovary syndrome phenotype, and complete metabolic workup. The US White women with polycystic ovary syndrome were used as the referent group. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate associations between race and metabolic syndrome prevalence and its components and to adjust for potential confounders, including age and body mass index. RESULTS: The median age of the entire cohort was 28 years. Women from India had the highest mean Ferriman-Gallwey score for clinical hyperandrogenism (15.6 +/- 6.5, P <.001). The age-adjusted odds ratio for metabolic syndrome was highest in US Black women at 4.52 (95% confidence interval, 2.46-8.35) compared with US White women. When adjusted for age and body mass index, the prevalence was similar in the 2 groups. Significantly more Black women met body mass index and blood pressure criteria (P <.001), and fewer met fasting triglycerides criteria (P <.05). The age- and body mass index-adjusted prevalence of metabolic syndrome was highest in Indian women (odds ratio, 6.53; 95% confidence interval, 3.47-12.30) with abnormalities in glucose and fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol criterion and in Norwegian women (odds ratio, 2.16; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-3.98) with abnormalities in blood pressure, glucose, and fasting high-density lipoprotein cholesterol criterion. The Brazilian and Finnish cohorts had similar prevalence of metabolic syndrome and its components compared to US White women. CONCLUSION: Despite a unifying diagnosis of polycystic ovary syndrome, there are significant differences in the prevalence of metabolic syndrome and clustering of its components based on race and ethnicity, which may reflect contributions from both racial and environmental factors. Our findings indicate the prevalence of metabolic syndrome components varies in women with polycystic ovary syndrome, such that compared to White women from the United States, Black US women had the highest prevalence, whereas women from India and Norway had a higher prevalence of metabolic syndrome independent of obesity. The differences in clustering of components of metabolic syndrome based on ethnicity highlight the need to routinely perform complete metabolic screening to identify specific targets for cardiovascular risk reduction strategies in these reproductive-age women.
  • Leppänen, Upu (2008)
    This is a study about communal self-perceptions and collective identities that are formed as a response, critique, or contestation to prepositionings from the level of state. The aim of this study is to investigate the way personal narratives are intertwined with accounts of national history. The theoretical contribution of this study is to the anthropological debates on morality and ethnic identity while the ethnographic data presented address Southeast Asian and minority studies. This investigation is based on independent ethnographic research conducted during a total of 20 months (2002-2003, 2006-2007) in Yunnan and Guizhou provinces of the People’s Republic of China. Miao/Hmong areas were also visited in Thailand, Myanmar, Vietnam, and Lao PDR. Chapter 1 (Locating the Field) contextualizes gathered ethnographic data while Chapter 2 (Methodology) expounds on anthropological research methods. The theoretical focus of this study is on the anthropology of morality (Ch. 3-5: themes of moral arenas and traditions) and ethnic identity (Ch. 6-9: themes on belonging, exemplarity, authenticity, and liminality). Questions of structure and agency are considered extensively in Chapters 10 and 11. Key anthropological sources are from White (1981), Urban (1996), the Comaroffs (1992), Schein (2000), Dawson (1978), and Teppo (2004). Primary sources stem from extensive participant-observation, autobiographical writings by two Miao women, and thematic interviews of Chinese minority as well as majority informants. The ethnographic data presented revolve around the lives of two young Miao women. Through this case study the process of narrativization is examined as an impulse to moralize reality. I argue that ethnic meta-narratives highlight where dialogics of othering are at play. The Miao are an external minority “Other” that function as a conceptual confirmation of the existence of the Chinese majority, or Han essence of the state. The Chinese “body ethnic” is conceptualized as an internal other and as a point of tangency where the Chinese state is contiguous with what lies beyond. Rhetoric of moral ethnicity is utilized by the state to implement and justify the process of nationalism as well as to evade or reinterpret it. This study indicates that a identities are at play within several distinct, occasionally overlapping, and, at times, contesting cultural spheres that constitute moral guidelines of “rites and wrongs,” or varying demands and definitions of one’s ethnic identity. Tämä opinnäytetyö koskee Kiinan miao-vähemmistön yhteisöllisiä omakuvia ja kollektiivisia identiteettejä, jotka rakentuvat reaktioina, kritiikkeinä tai vastatoimina valtiotason asetelmille. Tutkimus pohjautuu 20 kuukauden itsenäiseen etnografiseen kenttätyöhön, joka tehtiin Kaakkois-Aasian Kultaisen kolmion alueella (Kiina, Thaimaa, Lao PDR, Vietnam ja Myanmar). Aineisto etnisyyden moraliteeteista kontribuoi poliittisen antropologian, Kaakkois-Aasian tutkimuksen ja vähemmistötutkimuksen diskursseihin.
  • Hazard, Charles James (2002)
    This thesis looks at sectarianism, which is found in central Scotland. I analyse the relationship between Scotland’s two largest ethnic groups, Protestant Lowland Scots and Irish Catholics on both a historical and contemporary period. By looking at what l see as the key points of conflict between the communities, I attempt to explain why sectarianism persists within central Scotland. By looking at the historical, political and sporting aspects of central Scottish society hopefully we can begin to understand the forces which drive sectarianism in this area I put forward the idea that sectarianism in central Scotland has affected the chances for a nationalist political breakthrough in Scotland. As a political decision, I analyse the segregated education issue, which I claim is a major component in the sectarian debate. By looking at the communities involved, I show how the historical past has become a major source for the continuing conflict. I show how religious and national identity has become associated with football to such an extent that ones religious identity is based on which football club one supports. By using the concept of “Telling”, I show how both communities negotiate around the religious issue with the minimum of fuss in order to avoid conflict.
  • Venäläinen, Satu; Virkki, Tuija (2019)
    The article examines online discussions in Finland that focus on violence committed by Finnish women, on one hand, and non-white migrant men, on the other. Drawing on the perspective of sociology of value, the article illustrates how these discussions function as sites of struggles over moral worth in a contemporary context characterised by crises of both male and white hegemony. The authors suggest that, through the discussions, these current crises are projected on migrant men and certain groups of women, who thereby become construed as morally reprehensible. The analysis sheds light on processes of (re-)legitimating the moral virtue historically attached to both masculinity and whiteness, and thereby shows how gendered and racialised hierarchies are reproduced in the context of meaning-making around the issue of violence. Also discussed is how these dynamics and the process of reproduction via discourse draw upon historically recurring meanings and evaluations while simultaneously tailored to contemporary circumstances. The tailoring is performed via explicit reference to the value of gender equality, which serves a dual function: re-inscribing moral value in white masculinity while excluding from the circuits of value both racialised masculinities and Finnish women portrayed as doing gender and whiteness in the 'wrong' way. These processes give the discussants room for justifying hate and violent exclusion of such women and migrant men while also muting any dissenting voices attempting to resist circulation of the derogatory meanings.
  • Silverberg, Emily L.; Sterling, Trevor W.; Williams, Tyler H.; Castro, Grettel; Rodriguez de la Vega, Pura; Barengo, Noel C. (2021)
    One-third of Americans with diabetes will develop diabetic retinopathy (DR), the leading cause of blindness in working-age Americans. Social determinants of health (SDOHs) are conditions in a person's environment that may impact health. The objective of this study was to determine whether there is an association between SDOHs and DR in patients with type II diabetes. This cross-section study used data from the 2018 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System (BRFSS). This study included people with self-reported diabetes in the US in 2018 (n = 60,703). Exposure variables included homeownership, marital status, income, health care coverage, completed level of education, and urban vs. rural environment. The outcome variable was DR. Logistic regression analysis were applied to calculate odds ratios (ORs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs). Alaskan Native/Native American (OR 2.11; 95% CI: 1.14-3.90), out of work (OR 2.82; 95% CI: 1.62-4.92), unable to work (OR 2.14; 95% CI: 1.57-2.91), did not graduate high school (OR 1.91; 95% CI: 1.30-2.79), only graduated high school (OR 1.43; 95% CI 1.08-1.97), or only attended college or technical school without graduating (OR 1.42; 95% CI: 1.09-1.86) were SDOHs associated with DR in patients with diabetes. Health care providers should identify these possible SDOHs affecting their diabetic patients.
  • Loikkanen, Laura (2005)
    The study analyzes how rape can constitute genocide. The starting premise is that rape has effects and it is through these effects that they can contribute to genocide. The effects of rape are analyzed in light of the provisions listed in Article 2 of the Convention on the Prevention and Punishment of the Crime of Genocide to see whether the effects of rape actually meet the criteria for genocide. The effects are divided into physical and psychological effects on the individual and societal level. A feminist viewpoint is used to highlight concepts such as gender, identity, and ethnicity that are essential in understanding genocide and genocidal rape but that are also ignored by traditional IR theories. According to a feminist view, rape is viewed not as a violation of the victim"s honor but as a violent assault of sexual nature that can cause serious bodily and mental harm to the victim and also have serious societal effects. Genocide functions as a context for genocidal rape, not as a theoretical framework in the traditional sense. Rape was found to fall most clearly under provision (b) (causing serious bodily or mental harm) of Article 2 of the Convention, but rape can also fulfil the criteria for provision (a) (killing members of the group) through the death of the victim as a result of rape, provision (c) (deliberately inflicting on the group conditions of life calculated to bring about its physical destruction in whole or in part) when rape results in serious physical (including reproductive) harm, provision (d) (imposing measures intended to prevent births within the group) through death and physical and/or psychological harm to the victim, and through the societal response to the rapes that can include the ostracizing and abandonment of the victim, and provision (e) (forcibly transferring children of the group to another group) if women are forced to marry into, and ultimately bear children of, different ethnic groups, or through forced impregnation and forced maternity. Genocidal rape needs to be analyzed in its situational context in order to deduce special intent, or dolus specialis, for the rapes. An analysis of the cultural context of genocidal rape is necessary to understand the societal response. Rape that occurs in a genocidal context without special intent does not constitute genocide.