Browsing by Subject "etymology"

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  • Kaheinen, Kaisla; Leisiö, Larisa; Erkkilä, Riku; Qiu, Toivo E. H. (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)
    Juhlakirja koostuu Tapanin Salmisen ystävien ja kollegoiden kirjoittamista artikkeleista, jotka tavalla tai toisella käsittelevät Tapanin uralla keskeisiksi muodostuneita teemoja. Valtaosa artikkeleista sijoittuu suomalais-ugrilaisen kielentutkimuksen alalle. Näkökulmien kirjo on laaja: artikkelit käsittelevät niin synkronista kuin diakronista kielentutkimusta etenkin Tapanin omissa tutkimuksissaan käsittelemien suomen murteiden ja samojedologian piiristä. Kielitieteellisten artikkeleiden lisäksi kirjaan sisältyy myös folkloristiikan ja etnomusikologian alaan kuuluvia tutkielmia, joiden teemat ovat niin ikään suomalais-ugrilaiselle kielentutkimukselle läheisiä. Tapanin lintuharrastus poiki sekin tieteellisiä artikkeleita tähän kirjaan.
  • Klumpp, Gerson (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)
    This article presents an etymology for the currently unetymologized Kamas kinship term malmi, in older sources manmi, meaning ‘husband of daughter or younger sister’. It is suggested that the term is a compound made up of the two Proto Samoyed in-law terms *wänə̑, meaning ‘in-law’, and *wijə̑, meaning ‘son-in-law’.
  • Palin, Leija (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    English Abstract In the graduation thesis I examine the vocabulary descending from Proto-Indo-European *dʰi̯éh₂- *dʰéi̯h₂- *dʰíh₂-, with a view to the morphology and semantics of the descent vocabulary in Sanskrit, Old Greek and Old Norse. In addition to the undisputed vocabulary descending from *dʰi̯éh₂- *dʰéi̯h₂- *dʰíh₂-, Sanskrit word dhíṣṇya- (m.) ‘altar’, fireplace, ‘hypostasis for twin god Nā́satyā’ is brought up for closer investigation, particularly in terms of noun’s root reconstruction and semantic interpretation. In traditional etymologies (Pokorny, Mayrhofer, Frisk), the reconstruction of the noun dhíṣṇya to the root *dʰḗh₁- (Pokorny I:259) is poorly argued. In addition, the prevalent reconstruction includes inconsistencies in the treatment of root ablaut and suffix morphology. Vedic scholars have disagreed about the semantic value and interpretation of the noun in Rigveda. The thesis argues that the current reconstruction of the Sanskrit dhíṣṇya to the root *dʰḗh₁- by Pokorny, Mayrhofer, Frisk (and Grassmann), is incorrect. Instead, the morphology is based on the root dʰéi̭h₂ > *dʰíh₂ with a rare suffix -sni̭o that can be identified form Indo-Iranian, Baltic and Slavic languages. In the new reconstruction, dhíṣṇya is derived from the /0-grade root *dʰíh₂ (Pokorny I:243). By the updated root reconstruction, the semantics and context of the word dhíṣṇya becomes clarified in Vedic poetry and aligned with the etymologically correlating vocabulary in Homeric and Old Norse diction. Overall, the phraseology and narrative in the three Indo-European poetic traditions are in support of common etymology for the Sanskrit dhíṣṇya, Old Norse dís, and (the -i̭é- grade derivative) Homeric sēma. In the second and third part of the thesis, I seek to demonstrate by means of comparative poetics the consistent phraseological treatment of vocabulary inherited from the root *dʰi̯éh₂- *dʰéi̯h₂- *dʰíh₂ in the three mentioned poetry traditions. Being orally transmitted, the poetry traditions relied on fixed keywords and key phrases as memorizing technique and in conveying the tradition’s core ideology expressed in the diction. The part focusing on textual comparison applies Gregory Nagy’s reductive method for identifying these key keywords from the diction. The concurrent semantic registers of the key vocabulary are discussed for they are essential for understanding the subtle semantics of the vocabulary. From the conducted investigation it can be concluded that the vocabulary descending from the root *dʰi̯éh₂- *dʰéi̯h₂- *dʰíh₂- conveyed two clearly delimited meanings in all three poetic traditions in scope: - The vocabulary produced by the root *dʰi̯éh₂- *dʰéi̯h₂- *dʰíh₂- was applied to describe the acquisition and memorizing technique of oral poetry as well as its situational presentation and transmission among the band of poets. - The vocabulary produced by the root *dʰi̯éh₂- *dʰéi̯h₂- *dʰíh₂- was applied to describe the consecrated spaces, buildings and objects associated to the Indo-European ancestor cult, such as fire-altars, graves, and surrounding buildings. In addition, the noun denoted anthropomorphic spirit that was thought to guard these consecrated spaces, buildings and altars. Resulting from the morphological examination of the vocabulary and from the comparative study of the traditions of diction in scope, the following vocabulary and phraseology could be reconstructed to descent from Proto-Indo-European: Nouns produced by the /0-ablaut *dʰíh₂-: - *dʰíh₂-sni̯o Ved. dhíṣṇya; *dʰih₂-sé-no Ved. dhiṣáṇā; *dʰíh₂-sn̥- ON dís, (pl. dísir) Compounds and phrases: - [*dʰíh₂-sni̯o *séd-os / *dʰih₂-séno *séd-os / *dʰíh₂-sn̥ *séd-lo] [*stéh₂-]: Ved. dhíṣṇya-sadas / dhiṣáṇā-sádas … upa√sthā-; ON á (stallhelgum) stað … i dísarsal - [*dʰíh₂-sni̯o / *dʰíh₂-sn̥ *ḱoph₂-ó] [*stéh₂-]: Ved. dhíṣṇya- śapha-… práti√sthā-; ON Loga dís at lopti hof; ON *dísar-hof… (í þeim stað) … stóðu. - [*dʰi̯éh₂- *dʰéi̯h₂- *dʰíh₂-] [*ph₂tḗr] [*men-]: Hom. σῆμα… Πατρόκλοιο ... μνῆμ᾽ ἔμμεναι; Ved. cákṣuṣaḥ pitā́ mánasā hí dhīro; ON (dísa)blota ... svá at föðurleifð hafi (ok) ǫll muni orð. The reconstructions are summarized in the concluding chapter V of the thesis. The phraseology from the diction in support of the reconstruction is collected with source references in Appendix 2.
  • Ahlqvist, Arja (Helsingin yliopiston kirjasto, 2022)
  • Björklöf, Sofia (Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, 2019)
    Uralica Helsingiensia
    The aim of this article is 1) to describe the historical language contact situation between the genetically closely related Finnic varieties of western Ingria, 2) to give examples of the numerous loanwords originating from mutual contacts among local Finnic varieties as well as areal diffusion, and 3) to discuss the method of investigating contacts and borrowing among closely related varieties. The data are taken from old dialectal materials published in vocabularies and dictionaries as well as preserved in archives. The words that are analysed and discussed etymologically in more detail are drawn from Vote, Ingrian, and Estonian. Although it is often difficult to confirm the direction of borrowing among closely related varieties, I seek to determine the direction of diffusion in the varieties whose development cannot be described merely in terms of a traditional binary family tree model. Examples of mutual borrowing between Vote, Ingrian, Estonian, and Finnish are presented. Estonian loanwords in Vote and Ingrian can usually be recognised by their distribution. Most vocabulary originating as loans (in Vote, Ingrian, and Estonian) has been borrowed from Finnish. Loans in both Vote and Estonian often have a distribution not only in Ingrian but also in Finnish. Because of the phonetic similarity of these varieties, the donor variety usually cannot be defined. Vote loanwords occur only sporadically in Ingrian and Estonian: they may also form a substratum. The speakers of Finnic varieties in western Ingria used to live in old rural communities with long-term plurilingualism, villages with a mixed population, and vague language boundaries. The arrival of new inhabitants from the countries, which ruled this area and the foundation of St. Petersburg in 1703 changed the ethnographic balance between different peoples in Ingria. This increased linguistic diversity and altered the hierarchy of the languages leading gradually to accelerating language and identity shift of the local peoples of Ingria. [Summary in Finnish and in Estonian]
  • Kuokkala, Juha (Kallion etymologiseura, 2019)
  • Björklöf, Sofia (Helsingfors universitet, Finska, finskugriska och nordiska institutionen, Nordica, 2017)
    Nordica Helsingiensia
    In the focus of this article are Swedish loanwords in the western subgroup of the coastal dialect of the Estonian north-eastern coastal dialects. The article is based on the material collected for the dictionary of Estonian dialects. The material studied consists of 225 words, which occur in all three or only two of the parishes (Jõelähtme, Kuusalu, Haljala) of the dialectal area. Half of the words are loanwords from neighbouring languages around the Baltic Sea. Most of the loanwords are borrowed from Finnish, the second biggest group being Swedish loanwords. A part of the latter originate from the Swedish dialects in Finland and some from other varieties of Swedish. Some words with a Swedish origin have probably been borrowed via Finnish. There are also loanwords that may have been borrowed either via Finnish or straight from Swedish dialects in Finland. In the studied Estonian regional dialect there are local derivations of the Swedish loanwords, hybrid compound words consisting of a Swedish loanword and an Estonian word, accompanied by one possible loan translation. Some of the loanwords are adapted to the phonological system of the receiving dialect: as a result of language contacts there are word-initial consonant clusters – a feature not typical for Finnic languages. Initial-syllable secondary diphtongs are a typical feature which the Finnish contact has supported, and they occur also in Swedish loanwords (as well as in the dialect’s own words). Semantically the Swedish loanwords include almost exclusively maritime vocabulary. All of the Finland-Swedish source words are known in the dialects of Eastern Nyland in Finland and some even only there. The data supports the concept of close contacts between Estonians and Finns, but at the same time it shows that the Finns were not only Finnish-speaking but also Swedish-speaking. Twelve entirely new loan etymologies are given and three prior etymologies are rectified.
  • Björklöf, Sofia (Suomalais-Ugrilainen Seura, 2018)
    Uralica Helsingiensia
    The vocabulary of the Estonian North-Eastern coastal dialect group reflects the historical contact between Estonians and Finns across the Gulf of Finland. New loan etymologies in the western subgroup of the Estonian Coast dialect are at the focus of the present article. This article is based on material collected for the Dictionary of Estonian Dialects. The analysed data comprises 225 words, which are attested in all three or at least two of the parishes (Jõelähtme, Kuusalu, Haljala) where the subdialect was spoken. Half of the words are loanwords from neighbouring languages around the Baltic Sea borrowed between the beginning of the modern age all the way up to the first decades of the 20th century. A considerable amount, about 38% of the analysed words, are of Finnish origin. As a result of language contacts in the analysed Estonian dialect, word-initial consonant clusters – a feature not typical of Finnic languages – and some new suffixes emerge. In this article, all the new etymologies found in the data are presented: 40 completely new etymologies and 19 revised etymologies altogether. Almost all of the Finnish source words are known in South-Eastern Finland in Kymenlaakso and on the Karelian Isthmus; one fourth of them are attested only in both of these areas or in one of them. Some of the Swedish source words are attested only in the dialects of Eastern Nyland in Finland (the Kymenlaakso area). The results show that Estonians have had contacts mostly with the aforementioned areas and also support the concept of close contacts between Estonians and Finnish as well as Swedish-speaking Finns. Thus, there seems to be strong evidence that the contacts with Finnish-speaking Finns have been the most intense: the loanwords are mostly of Finnish origin and the thematic variability of these is as wide as in the vocabulary of Estonian origin, while the Swedish, (Low) German, and Russian loanwords are nouns concerning almost exclusively semantically maritime-related vocabulary. Furthermore, the Finnish loans emerging in all the word classes demonstrate close relations. Although the mutual intelligibility of Estonian and Finnish, two genetically relatively closely-related Finnic varieties, is somewhat limited, the receptive multilingualism seems to have supported not only the borrowing process in general but the borrowing of numerous expressive words.