Browsing by Subject "evaluation"

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  • Dara, Dahat (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    COVID-19-pandemian myötä vuotta 2020 on varjostanut epävarmuus ja pelko, mikä on havaittavissa sekä perinteisessä että sosiaalisessa mediassa käytävässä keskustelussa. Sosiaalisen median käytössä korostuu eri kanavien rooli sekä tiedon lähteenä että käyttäjien omien näkemysten ilmaisemisen välineenä. Lisäksi sosiaalisessa mediassa korostuu käyttäjien välinen vuorovaikutus. Sosiaalisen median käyttäminen terveyteen liittyvän tiedon lähteenä voi kuitenkin olla ongelmallista, erityisesti jos tieto erkaantuu tieteellisesti todistetusta faktasta. Sosiaalisessa mediassa esiintyvän diskurssin tarkasteleminen voi kuitenkin laajentaa ymmärrystämme käyttäjien suhtautumisesta ja asenteista uhkaavien infektiosairauksien vaaroihin sekä leviämisen estämiseen liittyviin toimenpiteisiin. Tämän tutkimuksen osalta COVID-19-pandemiaa lähestytään kasvomaskien käyttöön liittyvän diskurssin tarkastelulla suhtautumisen näkökulmasta. Analyysissa sovelletaan Martinin ja Whiten suhtautumisen teoriaa (Appraisal theory), jonka avulla voidaan havainnoida puhujien asennoitumista kasvomaskien käyttöön tarkastelemalla kielessä ilmenevää evaluaatiota. Teorian viitekehys koostuu kolmesta järjestelmästä: asennoituminen (attitude), sitoutuminen (engagement) ja asteittaisuus (graduation). Tämä tutkimus on rajattu asennoitumisen järjestelmään, joka jakautuu edelleen kolmeen alajärjestelmään: tunteiden ilmaisuun (affect), toiminnan arvosteluun (judgement) sekä esineiden ja asioiden arvottamiseen (appreciation). Suhtautumisen teoriassa kieli mielletään systeemis-funktionaalisesta kieliteoriasta lainaten merkitysten viestittämisen järjestelmänä, jossa evaluaatio toteutuu puhujan valitessa lukuisien mahdollisten merkitysten välillä. Tutkimuksen aineistona käytetään yhdysvaltalaisessa Washington Post -lehdessä julkaistua kasvomaskien oikeaoppiseen käyttöön ohjeistavan uutisartikkelin kommenttiosiota. Kommenttiosio koostuu yhteensä 137 kommentista, joista 114 sisältää kasvomaskien käyttöön liittyvää asennoitumista. Näissä 114 kommentissa ilmenee asennoitumista yhteensä 147 kertaa. Kommenttien analysoinnissa sovelletaan kvalitatiivista analyysia, jonka avulla kommenteista ensin täsmennetään asennoitumisen esiintymät. Tämän jälkeen analyysissa määritellään tarkemmin mitä kasvomaskeihin liittyvää aspektia arvioidaan, mikä on asennoitumisen polariteetti ja mihin arviointi sijoittuu asennoitumisen alajärjestelmissä. Tulokset osoittavat, että kasvomaskeihin liittyvässä diskurssissa korostuu ihmistoiminnan arvostelu, mikä ilmenee kasvomaskien käyttämättä jättämisen kielteisenä arvosteluna. Myös kasvomaskien sääntöihin sekä sääntöjen toteutumiseen ja valvontaan liittyvät epäjohdonmukaisuudet saavat osakseen kielteistä arvottamista. Tuloksissa ilmenee myös negatiivista asennoitumista poliittisia johtajia ja instituutioita kohtaan sekä näkyvää poliittista vastakkainasettelua, jossa kasvomaskien käyttämättömyys mielletään oikeistolaisen ideologian seuraukseksi. Tulokset viittaavat siihen, että kasvomaskeihin suhtaudutaan myönteisesti ja niiden tärkeys sairauden leviämisen estämiseksi tiedostetaan.
  • Hellén, Katarina (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2010)
    Economics and Society
    A Continuation of the Happiness Success Story: Does Happiness Impact Service Quality? The effects of long-term happiness on various outcomes for the individual and society have been studied extensively in psychology but the concept has so far received limited research attention in marketing. Happiness is defined as a summary judgment of one’s life. Previous research has shown that happiness is a relatively stable perception of happiness in one’s life. Thus, happiness in this thesis is long-term and more global as a phenomenon than in the marketing literature, where happiness is commonly conceptualized as an emotion, feeling or momentary state of happiness. Although there is plenty of research on consumer affect and its impact on service responses, there are no studies on the effect of long-term happiness on service evaluation. As empirical evidence suggests that happy people perceive smaller and bigger events in life more positively than less happy people and that happy people are more prone to experience positive feelings and less of negative feelings it was hypothesized that happiness affects service quality directly but also indirectly through mood. Therefore, in this thesis, it was set out to explore if happiness affects customer-perceived service quality. A survey method was adopted to study the relationship between happiness, mood and service quality. Two studies were conducted with a total of 17 investigated services. Out of the 17 different investigated cases, happiness was found to positively affect service quality in only four cases. The results from the two studies also provide weak support for a positive relationship between mood and service quality. Out of the 17 cases, mood was found to positively affect service quality in only three cases and the results provide additional evidence for the stream of literature arguing that affect plays no or only a minimal role in service quality. Based on the collective results in this study, it can be concluded that the evidence for a positive relationship between happiness, mood and service quality is weak. However, in this thesis, it was recognized that the happiness concept is relevant for marketers and serve potential to explain marketing related phenomena. Marketing researchers who are interested in studying happiness are advised to focus research attention on consumer well-being.
  • Myllyviita, Tanja; Sironen, Susanna; Saikku, Laura; Holma, Anne; Leskinen, Pekka; Palme, Ulrika (2019)
    Journal of Cleaner Production 236: 117641
    Impacts of bioeconomy on climate have been much discussed, but less attention has been given to biodiversity deterioration. One approach to assess biodiversity impacts is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Finland is a forested country with intensive forest industries, but only coarse biodiversity LCA methods are available. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply approaches to assess the biodiversity impacts of wood use in Finland. With the species richness approach (all taxons included), biodiversity impacts were higher in Southern than in Northern Finland but impacts in Southern and Northern Finland were lower when mammals, birds and molluscs were included. With the ecosystem indicators approach, if the reference situation were forest in its natural state, biodiversity impacts were higher than in the case where the initial state of forest before final felling was used to derive biodiversity loss. In both cases, the biodiversity impacts were higher in Northern Finland. These results were not coherent as the model applying species richness data assesses biodiversity loss based on all species, whereas the ecosystem indicators approach considers vulnerable species. One limitation of the species richness approach was that there were no reliable datasets available. In the ecosystem indicators approach, it was noticed that the biodiversity of managed Finnish forests is substantially lower than in natural forests. Biodiversity LCA approaches are highly sensitive to reference states, applied model and data. It is essential to develop approaches capable of comparing biodiversity impacts of forest management practices, or when looking at multiple environmental impacts simultaneously with the LCA framework.
  • Niemistö, Johanna; Myllyviita, Tanja; Judl, Jáchym; Holma, Anne; Sironen, Susanna; Mattila, Tuomas; Antikainen, Riina; Leskinen, Pekka (2019)
    International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology 26 (7): 625-634
    Small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) have a substantial role in the economy and job creation, but they are a remarkable source of environmental impacts. SMEs often lack skills and resources to compile environmental impact assessments; Streamlined Life Cycle Analysis (LCA) can provide efficient tools for this. An application of streamlined LCA relying heavily on database data, LCA clinic, was developed and tested on 23 SMEs in Finland. The climate change impacts were mainly caused by the production of raw materials, electricity and heating, whereas packaging and transportation were not influential. A significant amount of emissions were indirect, i.e. caused by production of raw materials. Thus, decreasing emissions from raw material production or selecting raw materials with a smaller environmental load could be a more efficient way to decrease emissions than reducing direct emissions such as those from electricity use. Lack of data in the LCA-databases was considered a challenge. An access to regionally customised datasets is important for the implementation of LCA clinics. Company feedback indicated that LCA clinics were useful in climate-friendly product design and increased environmental awareness, but did not lead to immediate actions to reduce emissions because of inadequate investment capabilities. Company managers had limited possibilities to use the results in marketing as comparative assessments would require a full LCA. Many company managers were willing to pay a fee sufficient to cover the costs of an LCA clinic, but some considered that the costs should be covered by external funding sources.
  • Gonçalves, Paula; Vierikko, Kati; Elands, Birgit; Haase, Dagmar; Catarina Luz, Ana; Santos-Reis, Margarida (Elsevier BV, 2021)
    Environmental and Sustainability Indicators 11: 100131
    Cities face growing challenges and urban greenspaces (UGS) play a key role in improving cities liveability. UGS are complex socio-ecological systems and evidence-based and context-sensitive tools are needed to assist planning and manage environmentally sound and socially inclusive UGS. In this paper, we propose an innovative indicator-based tool to operationalize the biocultural diversity (BCD) framework in urban contexts, deriving from its three conceptual layers – materialized, lived and stewardship. Indicators proposed are bundled in themes representing essential components when assessing and analyzing urban BCD from a contextual and sensitizing perspective. The set of indicators highlight key features of socio-cultural and ecological systems, theirs links and interactions, both material and non-material, to capture the essence of biocultural diversity at site-level. By offering a uniform scoring system with the possibility to set site-specific benchmarks, these can be used in any type of greenspace of any city, while allowing different communities/neighborhoods/city councils to embrace different approaches to meet their objectives towards larger scale goals. Twelve urban parks in Lisbon were used as a test-bed for the indicator-based tool and proved its feasibility to gather an overall snapshot of all parks and to demonstrate the possibility to deepen the study to only two parks uncovering self-exclusion processes that otherwise would have remained hidden. The BCD tool brings together essential information scattered over several quality and good practices assessment tools and protocols and, by including indicators specifically addressing governance and stewardship, offers a policy-driven instrument able to capture trade-offs and/or synergies between ecological, social and political domains.
  • Voorsluis, Nina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tiivistelmä – Referat – Abstract In this Master’s thesis I investigate Non-Governmental Organization (NGO) involvement, experiences and outcomes in Madagascar, including the limiting and enabling factors for impact of conservation interventions driven by NGOs. The focal point of the research is the lived experiences from the field, including identification of processes and forces shaping the preconditions for NGO interventions. As part of the research I explore experiences of NGOs from their interventions and from engaging with local communities, government, policy makers and other NGOs in Madagascar. Many NGOs are active in biodiversity hotspots like Madagascar, but evaluation outcomes and lessons learned tend not to be extensively shared across organizations and thematic focus areas. This in turn affects preconditions to influence outcome determinants not only in isolated interventions but also across organizational borders. This study aims to define the situation and the issues faced by NGOs in Madagascar to suggest how the landscape could be navigated to improve the preconditions for long term intervention impact. The purpose is not to evaluate specific projects, but to assess the mechanisms through which the NGO sector can make a significant contribution to conservation, as well as the challenges in doing so. As the analysis seeks to broaden and contextualize the discussion of NGO involvement in conservation interventions, the theoretical framework for the research is based on theory on Non-Governmental Organizations and grounded theory. The theoretical framework facilitates the analysis of the findings, understanding of the results, as well as structuring and highlighting new insights. The theory is complemented with a background assessment of the environmental context in Madagascar, reviewing other research on conservation and its challenges in the country. This helps to understand the dimensions of the challenges, as well as the avenues open for exploration. Insights are gathered from representatives of long-term in situ NGOs to better understand the wider playing field in which they operate. The empirical research is based on semi-structured interviews conducted with 21 representatives from 12 international and local NGOs working with biodiversity conservation in Madagascar. The data was transcribed and analyzed through thematic network analysis and constructivist grounded theory analysis. The interviews were combined with a literature review, a group interview, a field visit to a project site, and more informal conversations with academic researchers and experts in the field. As part of the study, a two-week field trip to Madagascar was undertaken. To present the findings from this research, thematic categorizations were used to illustrate factors that affect outcomes of conservation interventions driven by NGOs. The categories are related to internal organization specific factors, cooperation with other actors (including other NGOs, government and actors in the local communities), as well as the Malagasy environment and politics (including government, laws and policies). The findings reveal challenges especially with systematic coordination of NGO interventions, NGO evaluation practices, resources, as well as issues with implementing sustainable community involvement in project design and decision making. Local community involvement is considered important, but in practice is not fully scaled up and inclusive in terms of decision making and consistent involvement. Findings indicate that the cooperation between NGOs and their key stakeholders works reasonably well from the NGO perspective, but still has potential to be better utilized in order to improve long-term sustainability. Consideration of external constraints is important to assess the potential of different types of interventions and approaches, allowing NGOs to focus their efforts according to the context and their capacities. While acknowledging and navigating the diversity of viewpoints, it is essential to be aware of the impact of structural challenges, the political complexity and the often-conflicting interests between conservation, the commercial and extractive sector, as well as local livelihoods and practices. Findings indicate issues with policy implementation and harmonization, and with conservation prioritization and law enforcement by the government. Local and national ownership and leadership backing is seen as essential for biodiversity conservation, pushing for stronger leadership from within the society. My research provides insights, recommendations and conclusions from which NGOs and conservation actors can gain better understanding of factors impacting interventions, as well as on the Malagasy playing field and its dynamics. This can be helpful in order to capitalize on opportunities and counter challenges, focusing actions on areas that make a difference. The findings can also be of value to other biodiversity conservation researchers, funding agencies, associations, communities and government stakeholders specifically focused on Madagascar. The research may also benefit NGOs and conservation actors involved in other countries, which confront similar challenges concerning conservation, governance, NGO involvement and interventions.
  • Schumacher, Johanna; Bergqvist, Lisa; van Beest, Floris M.; Carstensen, Jacob; Gustafsson, Bo; Hasler, Berit; Fleming, Vivi; Nygård, Henrik; Pakalniete, Kristîne; Sokolov, Alexander; Zandersen, Marianne; Schernewski, Gerald (Frontiers in Marine Science, 2020)
    Frontiers Marine Science 7 (2020)
    Decision support tools (DSTs), like models, GIS-based planning tools and assessment tools, play an important role in incorporating scientific information into decision-making and facilitating policy implementation. In an interdisciplinary Baltic research group, we compiled 43 DSTs developed to support ecosystem-based management of the Baltic Sea and conducted a thorough review. Analyzed DSTs cover a wide variety of policy issues (e.g., eutrophication, biodiversity, human uses) and address environmental as well as socio-economic aspects. In this study, we aim to identify gaps between existing DSTs and end-user needs for DSTs for supporting coastal and marine policy implementation, and to provide recommendations for future DST development. In two online surveys, we assess the awareness and use of DSTs in general, as well as policy implementation challenges and DST needs of representatives of public authorities from all Baltic countries, in particular. Through a policy review we identify major policy issues, policies, and general implementation steps and requirements and develop the synthesis-matrix, which is used to compare DST demand and supply. Our results show that DSTs are predominantly used by researchers. End-users from public authorities use DSTs mostly as background information. Major obstacles for DST use are lacking awareness and experiences. DST demand is strongest for the policy issue eutrophication. Furthermore, DSTs that support the development of plans or programs of measures and assess their impacts and effectiveness are needed. DST supply is low for recently emerging topics, such as non-indigenous species, marine litter, and underwater noise. To overcome existing obstacles, a common database for DSTs available in the BSR is needed. Furthermore, end-users need guidance and training, and cooperation between DST developers and end-users needs to be enhanced to ensure the practical relevance of DSTs for supporting coastal and marine policy implementation. To fill existing gaps, DSTs that address impacts on human welfare and link environmental and socio-economic aspects should be developed. The Baltic Sea Region serves as a best practice case for studying DSTs and their practical use. Hence, our results can provide insights for DST development in other marine regions. Furthermore, our methodological approach is transferable to other areas.
  • Korpinen, Samuli; Laamanen, Leena; Bergström, Lena; Nurmi, Marco; Andersen, Jesper H.; Haapaniemi, Juuso; Harvey, E. Therese; Murray, Ciaran J.; Peterlin, Monika; Kallenbach, Emilie; Klančnik, Katja; Stein, Ulf; Tunesi, Leonardo; Vaughan, David; Reker, Johnny (Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences, 2021)
    Ambio 50 (2021), 1325–1336
    Marine ecosystems are under high demand for human use, giving concerns about how pressures from human activities may affect their structure, function, and status. In Europe, recent developments in mapping of marine habitats and human activities now enable a coherent spatial evaluation of potential combined effects of human activities. Results indicate that combined effects from multiple human pressures are spread to 96% of the European marine area, and more specifically that combined effects from physical disturbance are spread to 86% of the coastal area and 46% of the shelf area. We compare our approach with corresponding assessments at other spatial scales and validate our results with European-scale status assessments for coastal waters. Uncertainties and development points are identified. Still, the results suggest that Europe’s seas are widely disturbed, indicating potential discrepancy between ambitions for Blue Growth and the objective of achieving good environmental status within the Marine Strategy Framework Directive.
  • Gonzalez-Moreno, Pablo; Lazzaro, Lorenzo; Vila, Montserrat; Preda, Cristina; Adriaens, Tim; Bacher, Sven; Brundu, Giuseppe; Copp, Gordon H.; Essl, Franz; García-Berthou, Emili; Katsanevakis, Stelios; Loennechen Moen, Toril; Lucy, Frances E.; Nentwig, Wolfgang; Roy, Helen E.; Srėbalienė, Greta; Talgø, Venche; Vanderhoeven, Sonia; Andjelković, Ana; Arbačiauskas, Kęstutis; Auger-Rozenberg, Marie-Anne; Bae, Mi-Jung; Bariche, Michel; Boets, Pieter; Boieiro, Mário; Borges, Paulo Alexandre; Canning-Clode, João; Cardigos, Federico; Chartosia, Niki; Cottier-Cook, Elizabeth Joanne; Crocetta, Fabio; D'hondt, Bram; Foggi, Bruno; Follak, Swen; Gallardo, Belinda; Gammelmo, Øivind; Giakoumi, Sylvaine; Giuliani, Claudia; Fried, Guillaume; Jelaska, Lucija Šerić; Jeschke, Jonathan M.; Jover, Miquel; Juárez-Escario, Alejandro; Kalogirou, Stefanos; Kočić, Aleksandra; Kytinou, Eleni; Laverty, Ciaran; Lozano, Vanessa; Maceda-Veiga, Alberto; Marchante, Elizabete; Marchante, Hélia; Martinou, Angeliki F.; Meyer, Sandro; Minchin, Dan; Montero-Castaño, Ana; Morais, Maria Cristina; Morales-Rodriguez, Carmen; Muhthassim, Naida; Nagy, Zoltán Á.; Ogris, Nikica; Onen, Huseyin; Pergl, Jan; Puntila, Riikka; Rabitsch, Wolfgang; Ramburn, Triya Tessa; Rego, Carla; Reichenbach, Fabian; Romeralo, Carmen; Saul, Wolf-Christian; Schrader, Gritta; Sheehan, Rory; Simonović, Predrag; Skolka, Marius; Soares, António Onofre; Sundheim, Leif; Tarkan, Ali Serhan; Tomov, Rumen; Tricarico, Elena; Tsiamis, Konstantinos; Uludağ, Ahmet; Valkenburg, Johan van; Verreycken, Hugo; Vettraino, Anna Maria; Vilar, Lluís; Wiig, Øystein; Witzell, Johanna; Zanetta, Andrea; Kenis, Marc (Pensoft, 2019)
    NeoBiota 44: 1-25
    Standardized tools are needed to identify and prioritize the most harmful non-native species (NNS). A plethora of assessment protocols have been developed to evaluate the current and potential impacts of non-native species, but consistency among them has received limited attention. To estimate the consistency across impact assessment protocols, 89 specialists in biological invasions used 11 protocols to screen 57 NNS (2614 assessments). We tested if the consistency in the impact scoring across assessors, quantified as the coefficient of variation (CV), was dependent on the characteristics of the protocol, the taxonomic group and the expertise of the assessor. Mean CV across assessors was 40%, with a maximum of 223%. CV was lower for protocols with a low number of score levels, which demanded high levels of expertise, and when the assessors had greater expertise on the assessed species. The similarity among protocols with respect to the final scores was higher when the protocols considered the same impact types. We conclude that all protocols led to considerable inconsistency among assessors. In order to improve consistency, we highlight the importance of selecting assessors with high expertise, providing clear guidelines and adequate training but also deriving final decisions collaboratively by consensus.
  • Hyvärinen, Heini; Skyttä, Annaliina; Jernberg, Susanna; Meissner, Kristian; Kuosa, Harri; Uusitalo, Laura (Springer, 2021)
    Environmental Monitoring and Assessment 193: 400
    Global deterioration of marine ecosystems, together with increasing pressure to use them, has created a demand for new, more efficient and cost-efficient monitoring tools that enable assessing changes in the status of marine ecosystems. However, demonstrating the cost-efficiency of a monitoring method is not straightforward as there are no generally applicable guidelines. Our study provides a systematic literature mapping of methods and criteria that have been proposed or used since the year 2000 to evaluate the cost-efficiency of marine monitoring methods. We aimed to investigate these methods but discovered that examples of actual cost-efficiency assessments in literature were rare, contradicting the prevalent use of the term “cost-efficiency.” We identified five different ways to compare the cost-efficiency of a marine monitoring method: (1) the cost–benefit ratio, (2) comparative studies based on an experiment, (3) comparative studies based on a literature review, (4) comparisons with other methods based on literature, and (5) subjective comparisons with other methods based on experience or intuition. Because of the observed high frequency of insufficient cost–benefit assessments, we strongly advise that more attention is paid to the coverage of both cost and efficiency parameters when evaluating the actual cost-efficiency of novel methods. Our results emphasize the need to improve the reliability and comparability of cost-efficiency assessments. We provide guidelines for future initiatives to develop a cost-efficiency assessment framework and suggestions for more unified cost-efficiency criteria.
  • Waylen, Kerry; Blackstock, Kirsty; van Hulst, Freddy; Damian, Carmen; Horváth, Ferenc; Johnson, Richard; Kanka, Robert; Külvik, Mart; Macleod, Christopher J.A.; Meissner, Kristian; Oprina-Pavelescu, Mihaela M.; Pino, Joan; Primmer, Eeva; Rîșnoveanu, Geta; Šatalová, Barbora; Silander, Jari; Špulerová, Jana; Suškevičs, Monika; van Uytvanck, Jan (Elsevier, 2019)
    Data in Brief 23 (2019), 103785
    The data presented in this DiB article provide an overview of Monitoring and Evaluation (M&E) carried out for 3 European environmental policies (the Water Framework Directive, the Natura 2000 network of protected areas, and Agri-Environment Schemes implemented under the Common Agricultural Policy), as implemented in 9 cases (Catalonia (Spain), Estonia, Finland, Flanders (Belgium), Hungary, Romania, Slovakia, Scotland (UK), Sweden). These data are derived from reports and documents about monitoring programs that were publicly-available online in 2017. The literature on M&E to support adaptive management structured the issues that have been extracted and summarized. The data is related to the research article entitled “Policy-driven monitoring and evaluation: does it support adaptive management of socio-ecological systems?” [Stem et al., 2005]. The information provides a first overview of monitoring and evaluation that has been implemented in response to key European environmental policies. It provides a structured overview that permits a comparison of cases and policies and can assist other scholars and practitioners working on monitoring and evaluation.
  • Vehkamäki, Seppo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Kuhn, Thomas; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Miinalainen, Tuuli; Kokkola, Harri; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Laakso, Anton; Tonttila, Juha; Van Dingenen, Rita; Kulovesi, Kati; Karvosenoja, Niko; Lehtonen, Kari E.J. (EGU, 2020)
    Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics 20 9 (2020)
    We use the ECHAM-HAMMOZ aerosol-climate model to assess the effects of black carbon (BC) mitigation measures on Arctic climate. To this end we constructed several mitigation scenarios that implement all currently existing legislation and then implement further reductions of BC in a successively increasing global area, starting from the eight member states of the Arctic Council, expanding to its active observer states, then to all observer states, and finally to the entire globe. These scenarios also account for the reduction of the co-emitted organic carbon (OC) and sulfate (SU). We find that, even though the additional BC emission reductions in the member states of the Arctic Council are small, the resulting reductions in Arctic BC mass burdens can be substantial, especially in the lower troposphere close to the surface. This in turn means that reducing BC emissions only in the Arctic Council member states can reduce BC deposition in the Arctic by about 30 % compared to the current legislation, which is about 60 % of what could be achieved if emissions were reduced globally. Emission reductions further south affect Arctic BC concentrations at higher altitudes and thus only have small additional effects on BC deposition in the Arctic. The direct radiative forcing scales fairly well with the total amount of BC emission reduction, independent of the location of the emission source, with a maximum direct radiative forcing in the Arctic of about −0.4 W m−2 for a global BC emission reduction. On the other hand, the Arctic effective radiative forcing due to the BC emission reductions, which accounts for aerosol–cloud interactions, is small compared to the direct aerosol radiative forcing. This happens because BC- and OC-containing particles can act as cloud condensation nuclei, which affects cloud reflectivity and lifetime and counteracts the direct radiative forcing of BC. Additionally, the effective radiative forcing is accompanied by very large uncertainties that originate from the strong natural variability of meteorology, cloud cover, and surface albedo in the Arctic. We further used the TM5-FASST model to assess the benefits of the aerosol emission reductions for human health. We found that a full implementation in all Arctic Council member and observer states could reduce the annual global number of premature deaths by 329 000 by the year 2030, which amounts to 9 % of the total global premature deaths due to particulate matter.
  • Tyllinen, Mari; Kaipio, Johanna; Lääveri, Tinja; Nieminen, Marko (IOS PRESS, 2017)
    Studies in Health Technology and Informatics
    This paper describes the development of a questionnaire for evaluating usability during EHR system procurement (DPUQ). Established usability questionnaires can be used to gather user feedback after using the systems. However, during procurement, experimenting with real system use is practical only with a limited number of system candidates. There is a need for less resource-demanding usability evaluation in the early stages of procurement in cases with several vendors. DPUQ has been designed for usability evaluation by end-users during special scenario-based vendor demonstrations. The questionnaire includes three sets of questions to be used during and after the vendor demonstration. DPUQ delivers specific usability scores and can be used to compare system candidates in procurement complementing other evaluation methods.
  • Pitkänen, Timo P.; Sirro, Laura; Häme, Lauri; Häme, Tuomas; Törmä, Markus; Kangas, Annika (ScienceDirect, 2020)
    International Journal of Applied Earth Observation and Geoinformation 86 (2020)
    The majority of the boreal forests in Finland are regularly thinned or clear-cut, and these actions are regulated by the Forest Act. To generate a near-real time tool for monitoring management actions, an automatic change detection modelling chain was developed using Sentinel-2 satellite images. In this paper, we focus mainly on the error evaluation of this automatized workflow to understand and mitigate incorrect change detections. Validation material related to clear-cut, thinned and unchanged areas was collected by visual evaluation of VHR images, which provided a feasible and relatively accurate way of evaluating forest characteristics without a need for prohibitively expensive fieldwork. This validation data was then compared to model predictions classified in similar change categories. The results indicate that clear-cuts can be distinguished very reliably, but thinned stands exhibit more variation. For thinned stands, coverage of broadleaved trees and detections from certain single dates were found to correlate with the success of the modelling results. In our understanding, this relates mainly to image quality regarding haziness and translucent clouds. However, if the growing season is short and cloudiness frequent, there is a clear trade-off between the availability of good-quality images and their preferred annual span. Gaining optimal results therefore depends both on the targeted change types, and the requirements of the mapping frequency.
  • Bettencourt da Silva, Ricardo J.N; Saame, Jaan; Anes, Bárbara; Heering, Agnes; Leito, Ivo; Näykki, Teemu; Stoica, Daniela; Deleebeeck, Lisa; Bastkowski, Frank; Snedden, Alan; Camões, M. Filomena (Elsevier, 2021)
    Analytica Chimica Acta 1182 (2021), 338923
    The use of the unified pH concept, pHabsH2O, applicable to aqueous and non-aqueous solutions, which allows interpreting and comparison of the acidity of different types of solutions, requires reliable and objective determination. The pHabsH2O can be determined by a single differential potentiometry measurement referenced to an aqueous reference buffer or by a ladder of differential potentiometric measurements that allows minimisation of inconsistencies of various determinations. This work describes and assesses bottom-up evaluations of the uncertainty of these measurements, where uncertainty components are combined by the Monte Carlo Method (MCM) or Taylor Series Approximation (TSM). The MCM allows a detailed simulation of the measurements, including an iterative process involving in minimising ladder deviations. On the other hand, the TSM requires the approximate determination of minimisation uncertainty. The uncertainty evaluation was successfully applied to measuring aqueous buffers with pH of 2.00, 4.00, 7.00, and 10.00, with a standard uncertainty of 0.01. The reference and estimated values from both approaches are metrologically compatible for a 95% confidence level even when a negligible contribution of liquid junction potential uncertainty is assumed. The MCM estimated pH values with an expanded uncertainty, for the 95% confidence level, between 0.26 and 0.51, depending on the pH value and ladder inconsistencies. The minimisation uncertainty is negligible or responsible for up to 87% of the measurement uncertainty. The TSM quantified measurement uncertainties on average only 0.05 units larger than the MCM estimated ones. Additional experimental tests should be performed to test these uncertainty models for analysis performed in other laboratories and on non-aqueous solutions.
  • Snellman, Oliver (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    It has lately become a common practice among national authorities with macroeconomic mandates to build large Dynamic Stochastic General Equilibrium (DSGE) models to assist in forecasting and policy analysis. The Finnish Ministry of Finance has also developed a small open economy New Keynesian DSGE model, “KOOMA”. As DSGE models try to emulate the key features and dynamics of the economy, the crucial question is, how well do they function in accordance with reality? An answer to this question can be searched by using Structural Vector Autoregression (SVAR) models, which are natural econometric counterparts to DSGE models and are better suited for analyzing data. The aim of this study is to evaluate the calibration of KOOMA with a SVAR model, which is identified with sign restrictions. I compare impulse response functions from the SVAR model, which are found both statistically significant and robust to changes in model specifications, to the equivalent impulse response functions from KOOMA. The findings suggest, that KOOMA generally produce impulse responses with same signs as the SVAR model, but there are some differences in the magnitudes and persistence of the responses.
  • Nyholm, Sabine (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Universella meningsrepresentationer och flerspråkig språkmodellering är heta ämnen inom språkteknologi, specifikt området som berör förståelse för naturligt språk (natural language understanding). En meningsinbäddning (sentence embedding) är en numerisk skildring av en följd ord som motsvaras av en hel fras eller mening, speficikt som ett resultat av en omkodare (encoder) inom maskininlärning. Dessa representationer behövs för automatiska uppgifter inom språkteknologi som kräver förståelse för betydelsen av en hel mening, till skillnad från kombinationer av enskilda ords betydelser. Till sådana uppgifter kan räknas till exempel inferens (huruvida ett par satser är logiskt anknutna, natural language inference) samt åsiktsanalys (sentiment analysis). Med universalitet avses kodad betydelse som är tillräckligt allmän för att gynna andra relaterade uppgifter, som till exempel klassificering. Det efterfrågas tydligare samförstånd kring strategier som används för att bedöma kvaliteten på dessa inbäddningar, antingen genom att direkt undersöka deras lingvistiska egenskaper eller genom att använda dem som oberoende variabler (features) i relaterade modeller. På grund av att det är kostsamt att skapa resurser av hög kvalitet och upprätthålla sofistikerade system på alla språk som används i världen finns det även ett stort intresse för uppskalering av moderna system till språk med knappa resurser. Tanken med detta är så kallad överföring (transfer) av kunskap inte bara mellan olika uppgifter, utan även mellan olika språk. Trots att behovet av tvärspråkiga överföringsmetoder erkänns i forskningssamhället är utvärderingsverktyg och riktmärken fortfarande i ett tidigt skede. SentEval är ett existerande verktyg för utvärdering av meningsinbäddningar med speciell betoning på deras universalitet. Syftet med detta avhandlingsprojekt är ett försök att utvidga detta verktyg att stödja samtidig bedömning på nya uppgifter som omfattar flera olika språk. Bedömningssättet bygger på strategin att låta kodade meningar fungera som variabler i så kallade downstream-uppgifter och observera huruvida resultaten förbättras. En modern mångspråkig modell baserad på så kallad transformers-arkitektur utvärderas på en etablerad inferensuppgift såväl som en ny känsloanalyssuppgift (emotion detection), av vilka båda omfattar data på en mängd olika språk. Även om det praktiska genomförandet i stor utsträckning förblev experimentellt rapporteras vissa tentativa resultat i denna avhandling.
  • Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Lehosmaa, Kaisa; Aroviita, Jukka; Turunen, Jarno; Rajakallio, Maria; Marttila, Hannu; Tolkkinen, Mikko; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological Indicators 121 (2021), 106986
    Degradation of freshwater ecosystems requires efficient tools for assessing the ecological status of freshwater biota and identifying potential cause(s) for their biological degradation. While diatoms and macroinvertebrates are widely used in stream bioassessment, the potential utility of microbial communities has not been fully harnessed. Using data from 113 Finnish streams, we assessed the performance of aquatic leaf-associated fungal decomposers, relative to benthic macroinvertebrates and diatoms, in modelling-based bioassessment. We built multi-taxon niche -type predictive models for fungal assemblages by using genus-based and sequence-based identification levels. We then compared the models’ precision and accuracy in the prediction of reference conditions (number of native taxa) to corresponding models for macroinvertebrates and diatoms. Genus-based fungal model nearly equalled the accuracy and precision of our best model (macroinvertebrates), whereas the sequence-based model was less accurate and tended to overestimate the number of taxa. However, when the models were applied to streams disturbed by anthropogenic stressors (nutrient enrichment, sedimentation and acidification), alone or in combination, the sequence-based fungal assemblages were more sensitive than other taxonomic groups, especially when multiple stressors were present. Microbial leaf decomposition rates were elevated in sediment-stressed streams whereas decomposition attributable to leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates was accelerated by nutrients and decelerated by sedimentation. Comparison of leaf decomposition results to model output suggested that leaf decomposition rates do not detect effectively the presence of multiple simultaneous disturbances. The rapid development of global microbial database may soon enable species-level identification of leaf-associated fungi, facilitating a more precise and accurate modelling of reference conditions in streams using fungal communities. This development, combined with the sensitivity of aquatic fungi in detecting the presence of multiple human disturbances, makes leaf-associated fungal assemblages an indispensable addition in a stream ecologist’s toolbox.
  • Rask, Mikko; Ertiö, Titiana-Petra; Ahonen, Veronica Lucia; Vase, Susanna; Tuominen, Pekka (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Kansalaisuuden kuilut ja kuplat - tutkimushanke BIBU
    Helsingin kaupungin osallistuva budjetointi (OmaStadi) on kunnianhimoinen ja uskalias hanke, jossa kaupunkilaiset saavat ehdottaa ideoita ja äänestää miten 4,4 miljoonaa euroa jaetaan kaupungin kehittämiseksi. Arviomme mukaan hankkeen alkutaival on toteutunut varsin onnistuneesti mutta tulevaisuudessa on hyvä kiinnittää huomiota seuraaviin toteutuksen osa-alueisiin: toimeenpanon riittävä läpinäkyvyys ja dialogisuus, syrjään jäävien ryhmien nykyistä parempi osallisuus, prosessin virtaviivaisuus, viestinnän sujuvuus ja ehdotusten pelisääntöjen selkeys kaupunkilaisille. Jotta mainittuihin seikkoihin tartuttaisiin, esitämme tutkimuksemme perusteella seuraavat seitsemän suositusta: 1. Toimeenpanon läpinäkyvyyttä ja dialogisuutta voisi kehittää vuosisuunnitelmalla sekä parantamalla OmaStadi-alustaa. Vuosisuunnitelmaan tulisi selkeästi merkitä avoimen kehittämisen vaiheet. OmaStadi-alustan toimivuutta olisi mahdollista parantaa käyttäjätestauksella sekä käyttäjien kanssa tehtävällä yhteiskehittämisellä. Kerätyn datan tulisi olla kaikille avoimesti saatavilla. Parhaiten toimivia osia voisi edelleen hioa osallisuuden “hittituotteiksi”. OmaStadi Raksojen saama, pääosin positiivinen, palaute tarjoaa hyvän lähtökohdan yhteiskehittämistilaisuuksien jatkojalostamiselle. 2. Syrjään jäävien ryhmien osallisuuden tukemisesta kannattaisi tehdä erillinen selvitys. Selvitykseen voisi koota parhaita käytäntöjä syrjään jäävien ryhmien aktivoinnista kotimaisissa ja ulkomaisissa osallistuvan budjetoinnin ja osallistuvan demokratian hankkeissa. 3. OmaStadi-prosessia tulisi parantaa ja virtaviivaistaa mahdollisimman monen idean etenemiseksi äänestykseen. Virkamiesten tekemän karsintavaiheen tilalle voitaisiin etsiä muita ratkaisuja, kuten avoimet asukasfoorumit, joissa kaupunkilaiset ja virkamiehet yhdessä työstävät ja arvioivat ehdotuksia, tai ehdotus- ja suunnitteluvaiheen yhdistäminen ja varsinaisen karsinnan tekeminen myöhemmin prosessissa. 4. Osallisuuden ekosysteemiä tulisi kehittää dynaamisesti ja vuorovaikutteisesti niin kaupunkiorganisaation sisällä kuin sen ulkopuolellakin. Kaupungin sisäisessä yhteistyössä kehitettävää on kaupunginkanslian ja toimialojen välisessä viestinnässä. Samalla tulisi selventää OmaStadin roolia suhteessa muuhun asukasosallisuuteen, esimerkiksi aluesuunnitelmiin. Yritysnäkökulma olisi syytä ottaa nykyistä paremmin huomioon, samoin selventää järjestöjen ja yhdistysten roolia budjetointiprosessissa. 5. Ehdotusten pelisäännöt tulisi kommunikoida selvemmin ja budjetoinnin kohdistamista vuosittain vaihtuviin teemoihin tulisi harkita. Karttapohjaisen havainnollistamisen ja esimerkkien avulla voitaisiin selkeyttää, minkälaiset ehdotukset ovat mahdollisia ja mitä on jo tekeillä kaupungin toimesta. Kohdentamalla budjetointi jatkossa osittain tai kokonaisuudessaan teemoihin, kuten ekologisiin innovaatioihin tai erityisryhmien tarpeisiin, voitaisiin tehostaa uusien ratkaisujen löytämistä strategisesti tärkeisiin kysymyksiin. 6. Arvioinnista kannattaisi tehdä pysyvä osa OmaStadin toteuttamista ja kehittämistä. Sisäisen evaluoinnin lisäksi voisi harkita hankkeen kokonaiskuluista 1–5 % suuruisen määrärahan osoittamista ulkopuolisen arvioinnin toteuttamiseen vuosittain. Arviointia kannattaa toteuttaa eri kanavia pitkin hyödyntäen ja koordinoiden esimerkiksi opinnäytetöitä. 7. Kaupunkilaisilta kerättyjä ideoita tulisi hyödyntää monipuolisesti ja innovatiivisesti. Olisi syytä varmistaa, että kerätyt ehdotukset ja suunnitelmat arkistoidaan ja tehdään avoimesti saataviksi. Myös toteuttamatta jääneet ideat tulisi nähdä arvokkaana tietoresurssina ja ideapankkina, josta voidaan etsiä uusia ratkaisuja tai kehittää kestävää kaupunkikehitystä tukevia indikaattoreita. Läpinäkyvyyden, dialogisuuden ja syrjään jäävien ryhmien aseman parantamiseksi sekä käyttäjätestausta ja selvitystyötä varten tulisi varata lisäresursseja. Mikäli nykyinen ehdotusten karsintavaihe korvataan avoimella asukasfoorumilla, riskinä on, että foorumeiden kokoonpano politisoituu ja osaltaan raskauttaa budjetointiprosessia. Vaarana on myös, että eri alueilla jo valmiiksi aktiiviset kaupunkilaiset alkavat ohjailla prosessia, koska heillä on enemmän kokemusta tämänkaltaisista toimintamalleista. Erilaisten osallisuusmallien toimivuutta kannattaisi kokeilla riskit mielessä pitäen. OmaStadin suhteessa kaupungin muihin osallisuus- ja suunnitteluprosesseihin on jännite, jonka purkaminen vaatii keskusteluja ja prosessointia kaupunginkanslian ja toimialojen välillä. Teemoihin kohdistetuista budjetoinneista on maailmalta myönteisiä kokemuksia, mutta hintana on, että kaupunkilaisilla ei tämän jälkeen ole mahdollisuutta esittää mitä tahansa tärkeäksi kokemaansa ideaa. Ratkaisuna voisi olla rajatun budjettiosuuden jakaminen temaattisesti. Mikäli osallistuvaan budjetointiin liitetään pysyvänä osana arviointi, tutkimus ja kehitystyö, tämä lisää kustannuksia ja pahimmillaan monimutkaistaa budjetointiprosessin toteuttamista. Arvioinnin tavoitteista ja lähtökohdista tulisikin sopia yhdessä järjestävän osapuolen kanssa siten, että tarkasteluun nostetaan kaikkein haasteellisimmat kysymykset. Tutkimusta voidaan tukea pienin kustannuksin avaamalla hankkeen data laajasti kaikkien käyttöön. Tutkimukseen ja kehitystyöhön kannattaa investoida myös ratkaisujen kehittämiseksi edessä oleviin haasteisiin, kuten suuren ehdotusaineiston analyysiin ja hallintaan.