Browsing by Subject "exclusion"

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  • Hietaniemi, Eila (2003)
    The study has examined the effects of the actions aimed at deterring exclusion especially on the activation, labourmarket placement, and the life control of the aging and inadequately trained unemployed. As the theoretical frame of reference, e.g. Pierre Bordieu's theories about the meanings of capitals and fields to individuals and from the viewpoint of social actors have been used. Under examination has been the social capital manifesting itself as trust or confidence in social relationships. Theoretical background for the study has been found from e.g. the frameworks of exclusion, unemployment research, organizing of social welfare, and from the frameworks of the operational conditions and environments of anticipatory socialpolicies, and activating labourpolicies. The empirical material was collected from the eight development plans targeted towards the people 45 years or older who were unemployed or threatened by unemployment, chosen from the Finnish ESR- program period 1995-1999. The basic population of 377 persons and the standardized control group was collected manually from the registries of the labour administration in February 2002, and the questionnaire as a postal survey also in the spring of 2002. The survey was sent to 196 persons chosen from the basic population. Because of the disparity of the materials and several different methods and theories used, the research methodology was chosen to be triangulation. In the examination of the factor of social capital and life control e.g. the methods of sum variables, means of variable ratios, and variance analysis. The interview material has been utilized as factual information whenever relevant. As one result, the most significator prohibitive factor in trying to employ the aging unemployed people was inadequate vocational training, and not so much aging. The roots of the structural unemployment affecting the current labourmarket are thus located: the post World War II radical change, when the educational requirements of workers were low. Of the factors of anticipation, activation, and the strength of the life control, the trust towards to the institutional actors turned out to be weak. The dominant factor expressing the strength of external and internal life control was the ethos of 'coping on your own'. The study used as source material the works, articles of e.g. the following authors: S. Aho, P. Bourdieu, J. Coleman, I. Culpit, T. Helne, K. Ilmonen, J. Kajanoja, P. Putnam, R. Raitasalo, J. P. Roos, H. Silver, and K. Vähätalo.
  • Quesada, Florencia (2022)
    Living in the city's ravines is the common destiny of thousands of poor urban dwellers in Guatemala City, as is too often the case elsewhere in the Global South. The ravines surrounding the city represent one of the most visible and unjust urban spaces in the nation's capital. At the same time, Guatemala City has been among the most violent cities in the world and is highly vulnerable to climate change. Employing a critical spatial perspective and drawing on interviews in two at-risk communities-Arzu and 5 de Noviembre-this article examines the social production of such peripheral spaces. The levels of exclusion and inequalities are analysed by focusing on the multiple manifestations (visible and invisible) of violence and environmental risks, and deciphering the complex dynamics of both issues, which in turn generate more unequal and harmful conditions for residents. This article draws on the theoretical ideas elaborated by Edward Soja, Mustafa Dikec, and Teresa Caldeira on the contextualisation of spatial injustice and peripheral urbanisation to study the specific conditions of urban life and analyse the collective struggles of people in both communities to improve their current living conditions and mitigate the risk and the precariousness of their existence. The article underlines the need to make the processes of urban exclusion and extreme inequality visible to better understand how they have been socially and politically constructed. The research argues for more socially and ecologically inclusive cities within the process of unequal urbanisation.
  • Nicolson, Marcus (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This Master’s thesis explores sport-for-inclusion programmes in the Helsinki capital region, a subject area which has been lacking critical investigation in Finland. The purpose of this study is to give an overview how these programmes are managed and delivered, as well as presenting possible improvements to the current system. There will be an analysis of the role which local NGOs play in the provision of such activities, alongside a discussion of how local authority and governmental actors are trying to promote work in the sector. The hypothesis of this study is that there is a discord between the various players involved in the delivery of these services, and that there is room for the existing strategy behind these programmes to be improved. International research has taken influence from the work of Pierre Bourdieu and his theory of social capital, which is thought to be generated through participation in inclusionary sports activities. Academics, including Fred Coalter and Ramon Spaaij, have paved the way for future researchers to take a critical approach to the study of these programmes. This, Helsinki-based, study will take inspiration from the international research to conduct an independent, and critical review, of the existing sport-for-inclusion work on-going in the capital region. Qualitative interviews with 11 key players in the Helsinki sport-for-inclusion arena were conducted in the research process of this study. Additionally, a critical examination of the existing Finnish sports legislature and promotional materials from these programmes helped to formulate an impression of how the system is operating. In the final discussion of this study it will be revealed that there is a field of tension between the various practitioners and policymakers in the local sport-for-inclusion sector. This is outlined with reference to the interviews and background research presented throughout the study. It is anticipated that the findings and recommendations given in this investigation can make a meaningful contribution to the healthy development of inclusionary sports programmes in the capital region and beyond.
  • Riitaoja, Anna-Leena; Helakorpi, Jenni; Holm, Gunilla (2019)
    Although Finnish basic education is based on inclusion, 37% of students receiving special support still study in either separate schools or separate classes in comprehensive schools. In this study we explore how policies of inclusion are implemented in a school with separated special educational needs (SEN) and general education (GE) classes. More specifically we conducted a two-year ethnographic study focusing particularly on exclusion and the sense of belonging in a lower secondary school (students aged 13–16) in the capital region of Finland. During the fieldwork, several students attending the SEN-class expressed an interest in changing from the SEN-class to a GE-class, or in breaking the borders between SEN and GE classes in other ways. As part of the negotiations with the school, students who criticised the GE- and SEN-class division were offered an opportunity to transfer to GE-classes but in the end, all of them wanted to stay in the SEN-class. In this investigation, we focus on the students’ reasoning and the teachers’ reactions when students negotiate the borders between SEN and GE-classes. In this study we found a clash between integration and inclusive thinking.
  • Helne, Tuula (2002)
    Stakes, Tutkimuksia ; 123
    The focus in the debate on exclusion is often placed on excluded people and their assumed characteristics: passivity, deviance, helplessness. Less attention has been paid to the society that produces this discourse. This study aims to turn the focus away from the periphery and place it on the centre, on the context in which exclusion is construed as a social problem. It asks what 'the society of exclusion' is like. How does the society that has given rise to discourse on exclusion and that this discourse produces look like? The exclusion debate is understood as a diagnosis of our time, as a horizon for investigating its sore points. The sorest pertain to the issue of community and that of the disappearing social. Exclusion is more than a social problem: it is a problem of 'the social'. This approach has been influenced by French research. The perspective is relational: exclusion is seen to arise in relation to other people, society and its institutions. The study also draws on constructionism, particularly its critical branch. It takes the disputability of the concept of exclusion as its starting point and presumes that exclusion is not a social fact or state but something that is constantly reproduced by social discourses and mechanisms. These mechanisms are ideological, linked with governance. As discourses and politics are not detached from each other, it is appropriate to criticise discourses that legitimate otherness and scapegoating by essentialising excluded people. The goal is to increase the degrees of freedom of those defined as excluded. The exclusion discourse includes numerous paradoxes. Efforts are made to include excluded people within the sphere of society and its normality. The presumption is that community is something existent and unproblematic, which the very fact that we speak about exclusion undermines. Moreover, the discourse on exclusion lays down boundaries, weakening our sense of community. The genuineness of the efforts to include excluded people can be doubted. Nor is the attitude towards the community building of the excluded positive. The concept of exclusion was brought into use as there was a need for a concept that describes processes. Nevertheless, excluded people are localised socially, spatially and symbolically. They are located in the periphery or beyond it, in a moral and spatial otherness. Drawing boundaries is, however, becoming increasingly problematic nowadays, as more and more positions are becoming uncertain. The fact that excluded people are described as passive individuals supports policies in which public policy is replaced with activation efforts. The discourse joins the trends that have undermined faith in social insurance and contributed to the shift towards neoliberal private prudentalism. Society is increasingly governed by individualisation. However, in order for a society to be a society, both a sense of community and a language for it are needed. The exclusion discourse is also aiming at these, but its language may not be ideal for the purpose. The book consists of a summary and five articles.
  • Kimanen, Anuleena; Poulter, Saila (2018)
    This article examines social practices within classroom discourse in two different Finnish religious educational contexts. The article critically observes the construction of certain positions and identities as part of the school discourse and the inclusive vs exclusive practices of language. The research material consists of classroom observations and staff interviews from two separate studies. The first study investigates two cases in separative religious education (RE), Islamic and Lutheran. The second study deals with integrative practices of RE. In this study, discourse analysis as a methodological tool is used to examine discursive practices in RE lessons. The study will explore the following question: What kinds of subjectivities are constructed through teachers' discursive practices in separative and integrative RE? The study will demonstrate that teachers use scientific language to underline the objective nature of RE and use the language of belonging to engage their pupils on a personal level. The former ends up silencing the religious stance, while the latter often excludes those who do not share those specific experiences. The findings reveal some challenges in developing inclusive teaching.
  • Ripatti-Torniainen, Leena; Stachyra, Grazyna (2019)
    The article elaborates Hannah Arendt’s thought on the public realm to analyze the performed ‘radio’ that women prisoners ‘produced’ with their voice at the Majdanek concentration camp, Poland, in Spring 1943. The authors reconstruct the rationale that clarifies why an image of a radio was meaningful at a death camp. The documented memories reveal that the ‘radio’ created a resistant, harm-preventing and despair-relieving space. Mobilizing the meanings Arendt gives to the public realm as the shared reference and shared belonging, the authors show that the memories point towards the prisoners’ efforts to break their exclusion by decisively continuing their belonging to the public world through their own performance. In Arendt’s concepts, ‘broadcasting’ and listening to ‘programmes’ actualized prisoners’ being and subjectivity, the both of which were under constant assaults. Conceptualized through Arendt’s thought, the performed ‘radio’ reveals amid the extreme exclusion, isolation and cruelty of the death camp how profoundly meaningful the public realm is to humans.