Browsing by Subject "expectations"

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  • Michel, Fabienne; Knaapila, Antti; Hartmann, Christina; Siegrist, Michael (2021)
    Within recent years, demand as well as supply of products to replace meat, so called meat alternatives, have increased. For future products, new plant-based protein sources are of high interest. Protein from pea and especially from algae provide huge potential for human nutrition as well as for the environment. To provide insight on consumers' opinions on the development of new meat alternatives, this study investigated consumers' opinions of pea and algae burgers compared to the traditional beef burger in terms of taste, health, and environmental friendliness. It has also explored the influence of factors such as meat commitment, food neophobia, and the attitude towards vegetarians and vegans; it has then compared the findings between three European countries with different culinary backgrounds. The online survey was conducted with meat-eating participants from Germany (N=567), France (N=605), and the United Kingdom (N=562). Participants in all three countries expected pea and algae burgers to be less tasty, but healthier and more environmentally friendly compared to the beef burger. Expectations of taste, health, and environmental friendliness of pea and algae burgers were negatively influenced by higher levels of meat commitment, more negative attitudes towards vegetarian and vegan lifestyles, and higher food neophobia. Although the attitudes towards vegetarian lifestyles were generally negative, pea and algae emerged as promising protein sources because of their favorable health and environmental friendliness expectations. Nevertheless, negative taste expectations and attitudes towards meat-free diets remain a challenge for the adoption of more plant-based diets.
  • Yrttiaho, Pihla (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The subject of the research was the expectations of Finnish consumers in electronic commerce, especially concentrating on electronic products. The goal was to find out which underlying characteristics arise when the valuations of online shopping are surveyed. These dimensions were also compared to the background variables. In addition the point of interest was on expectations on delivery, payment and customer service. The research was conducted with a questionnaire form using a convenience sample. The survey was conducted in the areas of Helsinki, Espoo, Vantaa, Kotka and Turku. The aim was to reach different aged Finnish respondents, who were on the moment of the survey 16 years or older. The final sample consisted of 103 respondents. The data was analysed mainly with a Principle Component Analysis and further tests were made using the Analysis of Variance and t-tests. According to the Principle Component Analysis the characteristics of e-commerce in Finland were: privacy control, delivery, mobile-shopping, complete price, Finnish service language and design & navigation. These components followed mostly the original dimensions that were based on earlier research. However a new component of Finnish service language was found. Based on t-tests women valued privacy, mobile-shopping and design more than men. Differences according to the place of residence were examined in the same way. According to this research respondents living outside the capital area value Finnish service language in ecommerce more the residents of capital area. Approximately half of the respondents preferred to pay their purchases using online banking. The second most popular method was a credit card. Most of the respondents expect the package to arrive in 4 to 5 days from the ordering. Over half would pick up the parcel from the post office and approximately one fifth chose the home delivery. The traditional customer service mediums were the most preferred. Together over 90 percent of the respondents would contact the customer service by phone and by e-mail.
  • Matschoss, Kaisa; Repo, Petteri (2020)
    Experimentation with novel technologies mobilises resources and constructs expectations for systemic transition, yet there is limited research that examines large numbers of energy experiments. Our approach explores an idea of a patchwork of niches and contributes to transitions literature by looking beyond individual experiments. The analysis in this article identifies four clusters of sustainable energy networks (i.e. patchworks of niches), highlighting the roles of urban prosumption, rural production, small towns as integrators, and electric transport in the technological change in the Finnish energy system. The recognition of interconnections between technologies, settings and uses envisages the future scope of patchworks of regimes, and thereby provides an empirically founded, forward-looking knowledge base for political planning and development of social learning. The network analysis of the experiments was executed using Gephi visualisation and exploration software with a specific focus on energy technologies, energy sources, sites, forms of energy use and locality. A large Finnish database on sustainable energy experiments was used to identify and network connections between the core characteristics of such experiments.
  • Miettunen, Pertti (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The operation environment in the roundwood trade in Finland in the 1990’s include several changes. They are changes in the structure of non-industrial private forest (NIPF) ownership, forest taxation, in forest legislation, in price recommendation agreement, diminishing resources of forestry extension services, etc. At the same time, the roundwood demand has been rising. All these developments cause uncertainty in wood procurement organisations, and call for research to find out how to adapt into the changing environment. The objective of this study is to produce information for roundwood purchasing planning and cus-tomer satisfaction management to be used by Stora Enso Metsä Customer Service, Helsinki. For this pur-pose, data needs to be gathered about the urban NIPFs and their forest estates, behaviour related to forestry and timber-selling, customer satisfaction in their latest timber selling transaction, and their opinions about Enso’s new customer service office and its service concept. To fulfil the objective of the study, a NIPF -owner -survey (N=1064, response rate 39,7%) was con-ducted in October 1998-January 1999. The sample was made on the basis of the marketing database of Stora Enso Oyj Forest Customer Service in Helsinki. In planning the frame of reference of the empirical study, the model of service quality by Grönroos was applied. The following aspects were included in the 7-page questionnaire: demographic, sosio-economic and forest estate background, relation to the forest service supply, behaviour related to forestry, timber-selling motives and behaviour, last contact organisation and its image in forestry business, expectations and percep-tions in the latest timber-selling transactions, and behavioural intentions. The results revealed that the share of women, pensioners and academically educated people among forest owners was quite high. The majority of the forest estates of the metropolitan forest owners were situ-ated in the provinces of South Finland and East Finland. The average forest estate area was considerably smaller than in a previous study. Economic and recreational objectives were most important in the use of forests. Forest Associations were involved in half of the roundwood sales transactions of the respondents in the metropolitan area. The wood quantity of transactions was considerably higher than the average in the whole country. Bank-organised forest-related activities, taxation infos and trips to the forest were the most popular activities. Among the services, silvicultural advices were needed mostly and stub treatment least. Brochure material related to stumpage timber sales and taxation were considered most important compared to material related to delivery sales. The service expectations were at highest for women and they were less satisfied with the service than men. 2nd and 3rd generation residents of the metropolitan area thought about the new customer service concept more positively than the 1st generation residents. Internet users under 60 years thought more positively about new satellite picture-based woodlot search concept. Cross-tabulation of factor scores against background variables indicated that women with relatively low education level a greater need to sell roundwood than entrepreneurs, white-collar workers and directors, and Internet users. Suspiciousness towards timber procurement organisations was relatively strong among women and those whose forest income share of the total income was either null or over 20 %. The average customer satisfaction score was negative in all nine questions. Statistical differences be-tween different companies did not exist in the average satisfaction scores. Stora Enso’s Helsinki forest cus-tomer service could choose the ability to purchase all timber grades as its competitive advantage. Out of nine service dimension included in the questionnaire, in this particular service dimension, Enso’s Helsinki forest customer service’s score exceeded most all organisations’ average customer satisfaction score. On the basis of importance – performance matrix, advice and quidance could have been provided more to the forest owners in their latest timber–selling transaction.
  • Hutri, Juhani (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Aim of this study was to find out consumers expectations about electric vehicles (EV) range, charging and price. In addition, aim was to identify Finnish EVs early adopters, based on Everett Rogers (2003 [1962]) Diffusion of Innovation theory. Data was collected using an online survey. Questionnaire was published in several web pages and on Facebook. Total sample was 1871 responses. This study’s target group was people over the age of 20 or older and target area was Helsinki region. 938 responses of all sample belong to the target group. Data was analyzed with quantitative research methods. EVs current driving range 150 kilometers seem be to too short. The respondents expect about 300 kilometers range for EV. For daily movement 150 kilometers range is enough for most of the respondents. 150 kilometers driving range is also enough for households’ second car. Besides limited range, slow charging and lack of charging points are seen as barriers for EVs market penetration. In this study it was found that 58 per cent of the respondents have possibility to charge EV at home and the charging time at home (6–8 hours) is not significant problem. There is less than 20 public charging points in Finland. Increase of public charging point will increase the respondents’ interest in EV. There was a significant difference between males and females expectations of EVs range and charging. Males were more demanding. Females appreciate more EVs green values. According to the respondents EVs current price seem to be too high. With a lower price the respondents are willing to buy EVs. EVs early adopters accept higher price than other the respondents. In this study, as in previous international studies, green consumers and technical enthusiasts are the early adopters of EV. A stereotypical early adopter is a 30–35-years-old person who lives in a house. Suchlike person drivers under 50 kilometers per day and tries to be environmentally friendly and/or keen on new technologies.
  • Paloviita, Maritta (2004)
    This paper examines empirical performance of three different Phillips curve specifications in the euro area. Instead of imposing rational expectations, direct measures, ie OECD forecasts, are used to proxy for economic agents' inflation expectations. Real marginal costs are measured in three different ways. The results suggest that with directly measured expectations the estimated New Classical Phillips curve has satisfactory statistical properties. Moreover, the driving variable enters the estimated purely forward-looking New Keynesian Phillips curve with a correct sign, but it is definitely outperformed by the New Classical and the Hybrid Phillips curve. We interpret our results as indicating that the European inflation process is not purely forward-looking, so that inflation cannot instantaneously adjust to new information. Consequently, even allowing for possible non-rationality in expectations, a lagged inflation term enters the New Keynesian Phillips curve for the European inflation dynamics. The inflation process seems to have become more forward-looking in the recent years of low and stable inflation. Furthermore, in the New Keynesian Phillips curve relationship the output gap turns out to be at least as good a proxy for real marginal costs as the labour income share.