Browsing by Subject "experience"

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  • Kautto, A.; Vehkalahti, M. M.; Ventä, I. (2018)
    The purpose of this study was to assess the age of patients at the time of extraction of third molars. Our data included all routine and surgical extractions of third molars (n = 8199 teeth) performed by general and specialist dentists of the public oral health services of the city of Helsinki over the period 2013-2014. Measurements included patient's age, gender, the identified third molar, the type of anaesthesia, the method of extraction, and the diagnosis at extraction. Patients' ages ranged from 10 to 99 years. We found significant differences between younger and older age groups: third molar extractions occurred more often for women than for men below the age of 30 years (P <0.001) and vice versa for patients older than 30. Extractions were more prevalent for the upper jaw (P <0.001), and surgical extractions were more common than routine extractions (P <0.001) below the age of 40 years, but the corresponding prevalences reversed after the age of 40 years. Diagnoses at extraction differed between younger and older patients. We conclude that the treatment pattern of third molars at public health services varies greatly over a lifetime, and that a greater variety exists than had been reported previously from oral and maxillofacial units.
  • Hoegaerts, Josephine (2018)
    This paper argues for an embodied approach to the scientist’s persona, using ‘experience’ as its focal point. Rather than noting that embodied experiences influenced scientists’ practices and identities amidst (or despite) ideals of objectivity, I want to draw attention to the ways in which personal, embodied experiences were celebrated in nineteenth century science, and presented as primordial for the practice of competent research. I am focusing on those scientists involved in the study of the voice in order to do so. Because the physical workings of the voice are largely hidden inside the body, fields such as laryngology and phoniatry developed a number of touch-based, experiential scientific practices before and alongside tools of visual observation. These non-visual practices were very closely connected to researchers’ sensations of their own bodies, and connected to their identity (as a middle-class amateur singer, a hoarse professor, a stammerer, e.g). As scientific disciplines studying the voice developed over the century, personal ‘experience’ (understood both as particular practices and notions of personal background and identity) was increasingly brought forward as a unique source of understanding and expertise. This resulted in a highly diverse field of experts on the voice, in which otherwise non-elite researchers could participate and even rise to fame. They did so because, and not despite, their physical and social impediments. Studying the experiential practices and memories brought forward by this network of experts allows me to look at the construction of their scientific personae from an intersectional perspective. A focus on the nineteenth century notion of ‘experience’ and its inclusion in scientific discourse allows us an insight into the various constituent elements of a ‘persona’ built within the context of a particular field, and drawing liberally on aspects of identification that do not always fit the classic categories of gender, class, age, health, etc.
  • Birindelli, Pierluca (2019)
    In this article I explore various current myths that lead foreigners, especially North Europeans and North Americans, to choose to visit/live in Florence or Tuscany for a while or forever. Is it possible to discern any shared, collective representations? If so, how do such myths fit into the contemporary everyday life of the city? Can we identify a pathway from the aesthetic quest for “authentic” Italian life to cultural encounters with Italians in the flesh? My hypothesis is that one of the leitmotifs of foreigners’ experiences is a romantic, and to a lesser degree, intellectual approach towards “Florence without Florentines”. If so, there is nothing new “Under the Tuscan Sun”: the Grand Tour narrative is alive and kicking. Contemporary experiences of Florence and Tuscany continue to be shaped by the social imaginary inherited from the early nineteenth century. Travellers and sojourners come to Florence with a set of expectations shaped through filmic and literary representations and see what they expect to see, not least because the Italians are equally complicit in performing their part in this ritualised experience.
  • Leinonen, Heini; Kivelä, Laura; Lähdeaho, Marja-Leena; Huhtala, Heini; Kaukinen, Katri; Kurppa, Kalle (2019)
    The prevalence and associated factors of daily life restrictions due to a gluten-free diet in adult celiac disease patients diagnosed in childhood are poorly known. We investigated these issues by collecting the medical data of 955 pediatric patients and sending questionnaires evaluating various health outcomes to the 559 patients who had reached adulthood. Of the 231 respondents, 46% reported everyday life restrictions caused by dietary treatment. Compared with those without restrictions, they more often had anemia at diagnosis (37% vs. 22%, p = 0.014), but the groups were comparable in other diagnostic features. In adulthood, patients with restrictions reported more overall symptoms (32% vs. 17%, p = 0.006), although the symptoms measured with the Gastrointestinal Symptom Rating Scale questionnaire were comparable. Despite strict dietary adherence in both groups, the experience of restrictions was associated with dietary challenges (34% vs. 9%, p <0.001), health concerns (22% vs. 13%, p = 0.050), and lower vitality scores in the Psychological General Well-Being questionnaire. The groups did not differ in their current age, socioeconomic status, family history of celiac disease, general health or health-related lifestyle, the presence of co-morbidities, or regular follow up. Our results encourage healthcare professionals to discuss the possible health concerns and dietary challenges with patients to avoid unnecessary daily life restrictions, especially when young patients start to take responsibility for their treatment.
  • Maijala, Seija (Helsingfors universitet, 2001)
    The objective of the study was to understand individuality in Muslim women's dress. The research problems were, how individuality forms and appears in their dress. To answer these questions interviews were made with nine Muslim women who live in Finland. The interviews were analysed with the phenomenologically oriented content analysis method. The research report proceeds in a dialogue between theory and the analysis. In this study individuality in dress was studied as a process. Factors affecting to this process were considered: the individual, the set of identities, personality, self, religion, culture and social relationships. An essential part of the process was searching for a positive experience of self. The experience meant intuitive self-identification and satisfaction with the mirror reflection for the women. Individuality was the result of searching for the positive experience of self-identification, because for each woman different kinds of dress gave a feeling of suitability for the self. For example, for some Muslim women head covering is a way to express the self. They experience this as the right way for the good Muslim woman. For others head covering can mean the loss of positive self experience. Individuality in dress appeared in various ways. Some women cover their whole body including their head in public. Some women do not cover their head and some dress even in tight and revealing clothes. There are also Muslim women who cover their faces, they are not included in this study. Individuality appears also within groups that dress similarly. Individuality appeared with different kind of clothes, hairstyles, make-up, choices, details and colour. However, individuality is not only the noticeable differences in dress, but how each Muslim woman belongs to this reality and expresses herself within dress. This means that in this study individuality in dress is seen in a way that many Finns would not consider as individuality.
  • Tarkiainen, Virpi (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    Goals: The purpose of the study was to describe and analyse the content of online discussions and shared experiences among parents of children who suffer from epilepsy as well as parents' experiences with online peer support and its development. The goal was to deepen understanding of online peer support and the experiences of parents, and to develop the online activities of the Finnish Epilepsy Foundation based on the information gained. Previous studies about peer support have included group manifestations, personal experiences and peer support in community discussions. More and more peer support is available online, which has been seen in peer support studies from 2000 2009. Online peer support has been reported as both supporting and hindering empowering experiences. Previous studies have highlighted the significance of personal experiences. In this study, the concept of "experience" is defined from the standpoint of Dewey. Peer support is approached in the framework of empowerment. The study addresses four research questions. 1) What do parents of children with epilepsy write in online discussions? 2) What kind of experiences do they share in it? 3) What kind of experiences have parents had with online peer support, and which experiences further parents' empowerment? 4) How should online discussions be developed among parents? Methods: Study data was drawn from online discussions written by parents of children with epilepsy (the first message posted and the following message chain) and interviews with six (N = 6) parents who agreed to theme interviews. Web materials were written 15 June 13 December 2012. Data from theme interviews were gathered in February 2013 by interviewing parents by phone or in person. Web postings and interview content were handled using abductive content analysis, such that high rankings in the analysis utilised concepts of Siitonen's empowerment model (1999). Results and conclusions: The Internet offered parents of ill children an opportunity to share their experiences with other parents in similar life situations. In online discussions, parents shared their experiences about their children becoming ill, epilepsy treatments, support they had experienced as well as their emotions and mental images of the future. The significance of experiential data was highlighted in what parents wrote. Parents experienced the discussion environment as friendly, open, matter-of-fact and empathetic. From the standpoint of empowerment, it was significant that parents had the strength to support one another even in very difficult everyday life situations. The significance of experiences was affected by the environment of the online discussion, its content, parents' pre-conceived expectations as well as sharing emotional experiences and mental images of the future. Factors in the development of online discussions were related to briefing of the service, improved availability as well as active facilitation.
  • Torkko, Jussi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Urban greenery is vital to the people in our increasingly urbanizing societies. It is diverse in nature and provides numerous life improving qualities. Traditionally urban greenery has been assessed with a top-down view through the sensors of aerial vehicles and satellites. This does not equate on what is experienced down at the human level. An alternative viewpoint has emerged, with the introduction of a more human-scale viewpoint. To quantify this human-scale greenery, novel and disparate approaches have been developed. However, there is little knowledge on how these modelling methods and indices manage to capture the greenery we truly experience on the ground level. This thesis is an undertaking to better understand what the greenery experienced by people on the ground level, termed humanscale greenery (HSG), means. The goal was to grasp how the various modelling methods, indices and datasets can be best used to capture this phenomenon. Simultaneously, the study tries to better comprehend how different people experience greenery. To achieve this, human-scale greenery values were collected via interviews at randomly selected study sites across Helsinki. These values were then compared to modelled values at the same sites. The methods and indices tested include modern approaches developed specifically for HSG and traditional greenery assessment methods. Along the greenery values, sociodemographic variables were collected in the interviews and compared to each other in relation to HSG values. The modelled values were on average smaller than HSG values. All methods indicated very strong or strong linear relationships with human-scale greenery. NDVI and semantic segmentation Green View Index (GVI) had the strongest relationships and least deviation. Land use (LU) and color based GVI had the highest error deviations from HSG. The sociodemographic assessment showed hints that age might affect the amount of experienced greenery, but this is uncertain. With a random sampling of interviewees, 25–34-year-olds and less nature visiting people were more common at sites with low HSG. Based on the results obtained here, many different types of novel methods are suitable for modelling HSG with strong linear relationships. However, also traditional greenery assessment methods performed well. It is difficult to curtail the experience of greenery into a single approach. A solution could possibly be obtained via the combination of methods. The results also advocate the usage of machine learning methods for greenery image segmentation. These cannot be applied everywhere due to data coverage problems, but alternative methods can also be used to fill in gaps. The significance of age on the experience of greenery needs further research. Because urban greenery’s benefits are known, attention should also be given onto how different kinds of people are able to experience it. In the future we should also discuss the meaningfulness of assessing absolute greenery in comparison to the types and parts of greenery.
  • Penttinen, Hanne (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    Objectives. Children's food behavior trends in Finland are threaten by snacking, especially increased sweet snack consumption, fewer family meals and alienation from the food source. Encouraging children to health-promoting eating habits is important, as childhood diet has been found to often continue into adulthood. New methods are welcome in addition to traditional Nutrition data sharing, that take into account the child characteristic way to explore food. The topic was based on the question whether the focus on food experiences can be a factor when building the children's interest in food. The aim of this study was to describe and interpret the food experiences received by children. The study focused on the interaction between children and food culture. This study was conducted in cooperation with Centre for Food Culture Ruukku in the project Tiedosta taidoksi. New methods, such as taste classes, were used to involve children in the word of food. Methodology. The research participant group was consisted of fourth grade students (n = 44). The data contained text, observation and visual materials. The methods used were observation, questionnaire, essay writing and photography. The data was collected during the period from October to December in 2011. The analysis had two stages. At the first stage, the data was examined with Experience Triangle model. The goal of the second stage was to build a deeper understanding of children's food experience. Results and conclusions. The results show that the children's food experience requires the use of senses, the child's own participation, joy and interactivity with other people. Children have a natural interest in food, as long as made possible. Children need a stimulating and supportive atmosphere, where they can learn about the world of food. When they get the child-oriented tools, they can develop their skills, which can influence their own well-being.
  • Vesalainen, Heidi (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The aim of this study was to understand the experiences of children outside a day-care center. Children photographed moments when they felt that they had exceeded themselves. The photographs were viewed in the day-care center during common morning gatherings. In this study it was examined how visual tools and narration support the mediation of child's experience. In addition it was also examined what kind of experiences were photographs mediating. In this study the experience is defined by the interaction between individual and environment (Vygotksky 1978 & 1998b). When examining experiences different environments are taken into account by using Bronfenbrenner's (1979) theory. The theoretical framework is based on socio-cultural theory. Research material was collected in peer group whose activity was guided by the principles of the positive pedagogy. Positive pedagogy highlights child's active role and participation in different environments. Aim of this orientation is to support children's well-being in everyday life. Children's meaningful experiences and positive feelings are in the center in positive pedagogy. These feelings were tried to be reached by visual methods. The study is qualitative case study that examines the experiences of one group of children. It is based upon 'children as co-researchers' methodology. The study involved 20 three to five year old children from a one peer group. Research material consists of photographs that children have taken at home, captions of the photographs, narration of children and notes of the kindergarten teacher. The material was analyzed by using method of content analysis. The results of the study indicate that visual tools encouraged child to narration. Children photographed themselves and their close relatives at home and in the neighborhood. During the common morning gatherings the child was the expert of the situation because he knew what the photograph was about. The project which was directed by the positive pedagogy also helped parents and the staff of the day-care center to better co-operate. The study indicates that visual tools and narration are valuable methods in the pursuit of child's experience.
  • Helosvuori, Elina (2020)
    For over four decades, feminist studies of assisted reproductive technologies (ART) have been interested in the ethical, political and personal implications of in vitro fertilization (IVF) and other infertility treatments. Most work on the implications of ART for women has focused on the demanding cyclical process of trying to become pregnant by using the technology. However, less attention has been paid to the implications of experiencing IVF after the conception phase. This article tackles the under-researched topic of the aftermath of IVF, and discusses the temporality of affective embodied experiences of infertility after one has stopped IVF. Drawing on an ethnographic study of peer support groups for the involuntarily childless in Finland, and on in-depth interviews with women suffering from infertility, this article juxtaposes two groups of women who have had IVF: those who have had children as a result of the procedure, and those who have not. The article proposes an exploration of experiences of childlessness after IVF as 'lingering technological entanglements' - that is, as affective and embodied experiences of the effects of IVF, including after the cessation of treatment. It argues that the lingering of these entanglements manifests itself in the enactment of childlessness in relation to the available technology. Furthermore, this results in parents identifying themselves as childless, even after they have gained temporal distance from IVF practices.
  • Irwin, Joshua James (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    This thesis is not an analysis of trekking as an activity; rather it is about a specific form of tourism as a type of relationship in the world, which can affect modes being in the world. That is ethnic tourism in Pai village Mae Hong Son province Thailand. By examining so called “Hill Tribe” trekking tours as a point of inquiry into forms of touristic interaction I hope to expand on the notion that the ability to enact and manipulate various social roles opens up new channels for being in the world. The overall focus on guides who lead such tours is intended to help elaborate on the fluid nature of social roles and relations. Being at once local actors and conduits to the outside world, through their interaction with tourists, guides fill a unique role in the specialized network of relations that is modern tourism. The approach this study has towards tourism as a specialized type of encounter offers us the potential to better understand why people actively seek out encounters with other cultures, in other places This thesis attempts to develop the argument that through interaction with tourists trekking guides operating out of Pai village in Thailand sell experiences of place and people where in guides themselves come to be symbolic representations of place for their clients. As a type of commodity these experiences are the manifestations of idealized states of being which become subjectively real through interaction; when actors create one another. Through the mediation of experience and encounters trekking guides develop and enact their social role; during the physical act of guiding they come to embody a local setting as they guide tourists through space and interactions to create a local picture of reality under a foreign gaze. Tourism is approached here as a behavior or activity about forging relations between discreet groups of actors as they encounter one another in places for tourism. It is in this line of thought that I try to move away from such an analytical sphere wherein all social acts are ultimately acts of destruction, to one where we instead view human action as being about the social production of other human beings in relation to the self. The physical activity of “Hill Tribe” trekking tourism from the perspective of the tourists is seen here as a specialized type of behavior which actively produces persons through movement in space and time, and interaction with and relation to idealized others. More than anything tourism must be what it results in, a type of relationship defined by new encounters. What the tourist seeks to gain from any given encounter is an essential building block in the relational process of being which we call tourism. People acting in relation to other people with the goal of effecting particular outcomes creates shared realities, in which persons come to understand the self through its relation to others. Therefore the experiences gained through entering into the relational state of being we call tourism hold higher potentials for the active social production of relations rather than a destructive potential for social consumption when tourists and local actors become engaged in the mutual act of inter-personal creation of the other.
  • Ristaniemi, Teija (2005)
    The goal of this research is to describe functionality of the psychiatric rehabilitation program from the standpoint of a patient and create a client oriented work strategy. This research examines customer orientation in psychiatric rehabilitation process from the standpoint of patients' experience. The main questions are how do patients experience customer orientation, how do they define customer orientation in their experiences and expectations and, finally, what kind of role customer orientation plays in practise of professionals. This research analyzes the experiences of nine psychiatric rehabilitation patients. I interviewed four men and five women to ensure wider approach and diversity in the results. This research respects the scientific tradition of a phenomenological-hermeneutics research. Interviews were oriented according to phrasing of a question. Collected materials are analysed using method of content-based analysis. First I dissect client orientation as a principle of service in theory. I bring out some of the changes in conception of humankind, of social welfare and public health care systems as well as new structures of unfortunate life. I also examine client orientation as a foundation of values, the changes of professionalism and customer orientation as an ethical obligation. Then I focus on customer orientation as a theoretical construct in pursuance of illustrating some definitions of customer orientation. After this I process implementation of rehabilitation in the psychiatric institutional care. This section covers the structural change of mental health services and rehabilitation of a patient with mental disturbance in the forum of rehabilitation. As the result of the analysis I created four main categories. Main categories are psychiatric hospital in experience, experiencing participating, subjectivity vs. professionalism and experiencing interaction. The contentual classes of psychiatric rehabilitation are the definitions of customer, the goals of rehabilitation and the methods of the rehabilitation. According to the mental patients client oriented rehabilitation is a process including well-planned methods, individual orientation, co-operation and constant evaluation. Implementation of customer-oriented service is good nursing and a way to reach the goals set in cooperation. Customer orientation demands multi-professional cooperation and patients who partake in decision-making. The requirements for customer-oriented service are fluent flow of information between professionals and a patient, empowering co-operation, relevant agency and making time for above-mentioned. The guideline for customer-oriented service can be described with words such as explicitness, integrity, trust, individuality, solidarity, affability, supportive, empathy and discretion. The structure of rehabilitation process seemed to be unclear and without any terse structure. For the mean time the proportion of customers influence in rehabilitation plan was fringe. Customers' role was to be an informant and passive recipient. Target-orientation of rehabilitation was mostly problem-based and strengthens the conception of metal disturbance as a static and chronic phenomenon. Also integration of institutional care and treatment of outpatients appeared to be unclear. But the same token, the patients' slant on professionalism was pretty ambiguous. On the one hand patients were willing to have an influence in the rehabilitation plan, on the other hand they were willing to bow out of decision-making. Professionalism claimed patients' attention and justification regardless. The main obstacle for customer orientation, as experienced in the field of mental health care, was the dominating working culture based on the classical idea of professionalism. The obstacles to better customer orientation were related to the implementation of treatments, the attitudes of nurses and patients, setting and reaching the goals, insufficient interaction and some necessities of treatment. It was obvious that rehabilitation and the principles of customer orientation were always in contradiction in a setting where the possibility of coercive measures exists. While defining customer orientation, the rehabilitation patients do not come out with any expectations or suggestions related with the economical or administrative issues of the hospital. Expectations on decision-making in a wider societal context were also marginal. In consequence customer orientation will always be interpreted through the factual interdependence of a patient and the hospital stuff.
  • Lehtonen, Saana (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this thesis is to investigate how a poetic metaphor challenges our common sense notions about the world (the estrangement effect) and enables unorthodox ways of thinking and acting (creative imagination). In the study, I will compare and evaluate theories that investigate the role that metaphor has in lived human experience. All the theories discussed share the view that metaphor is epistemologically important for humans. Two different characterisations of this epistemic importance can be identified: 1) the cognitive view, which emphasises the role of metaphor in unconscious, prelinguistic and embodied thought; 2) the pragmatic and phenomenological view of metaphor as a creative activity, a re-imagining of experience and a communicative phenomenon. Defending the latter position, I argue that metaphor has epistemic value, but not because metaphor serves as a cognitive foundation for shared human knowledge, but because it is a creative human pursuit of imagining new possibilities and ways of being. I will criticise the cognitive metaphor theory (CMT), as proposed by Lakoff and Johnson, which holds that metaphors are the foundation of human thought and reasoning. This position advocates ideas about global and fixed ways of interpreting metaphor. As such, it fails to explain novel poetic or scientific metaphors, but fairs better with common everyday metaphors, which already have fixed meanings. I will argue that the existence of universal cognitive metaphors is highly doubtful. As an alternative to the problematic framework of the cognitive metaphor theory, I propose pragmatic and phenomenological theories. The pragmatic view of metaphor, proposed by Davidson and Rorty, succeeds better at describing the experience which a novel metaphor incites in the reader. This position suggests that metaphor has an effect, which cannot be explained by extension of a word’s meaning. Metaphor is a linguistic stimulus, which forces the reader to do some creative guesswork about its intention and meaning. Metaphor has pragmatic potential, because it motivates human innovation and discovery. The phenomenological position, espoused by Ricoeur, describes the sense of wonder and excitement that living metaphor evokes in us. This view suggests that metaphorical estrangement is closely aligned with the phenomenological method of epoché, suspension of everyday judgment. Ricoeur suggests that poetic metaphor, similar to the epoché, can help us distance ourselves from the natural attitude and reveal novel ontological possibilities for humans. Despite their differences, both the pragmatist and the phenomenological position characterise metaphor as a creative use of language and arrive at similar conclusions. Committing metaphoric acts has positive consequences because metaphors motivate critical thought, prompt self-reflection and re-evaluation of our previous thought, and enable creative problem solving, speculation and invention.
  • Kuittinen, Vesa (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The thesis focuses on football from the perspective of experience consumption. Experience consumption is used in this context to describe events and moments when one experiences unusual and memorable emotions. As a counterweight to everyday rationality, consumption of experiences has become ever more popular. The subject is dealt with experience society, sense of community and consumer tribe concepts. Special attention is given to cultural events, spectator sports as a social phenomenon as well as various football-related consumption patterns. The study is a phenomenological-ethnographic descriptive research. The methods used were participant observation and interviews. In the research tradition, understanding and describing of phenomenon as well as writing are essential. Observational data was collected in three different events by monitoring the behavior of spectators and the factors creating the atmosphere. The interviewees have been selected discretionary. Interviews were open by nature. Fascination of sports as a pastime is based on creating strong emotions; therefore spectator sports is experience consumption at its purest form. Sports is an excellent experience product because of its large number of patterns of consumption and because sports events build up an endless continuum. Also my own data indicates that a common history creates a bond with community, and future events help to keep up the enthusiasm. Even the moments of disappointment are essential, because every experience enhances the feelings for the “own” sport and community. In the sports events the experience itself is always subjective, but the existence of the community is necessary. Spectators have ambiguous desire to belong to a group and at the same time to be an outsider. They can choose to observe the game quietly themselves in the middle of the crowd or cheer with other spectators. Evidence suggests that a football fan's enthusiasm can gush from two sources: from the sense of community and from the interest in the game. Sense of community arises from the feeling of belonging to the global football community, to your own team and to a circle of friends. The interest in the game includes football as a sport, regular events watched actively and supporting your own team. Neo-tribe theories are not very relevant in this context, because football supporters are very loyal to the game and to their own club. It is more important to create tight bonds with a small collective, with whom they share a common history and they can share experiences through discussions and by memorizing.