Browsing by Subject "export"

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  • Xu, Yuan (Helsingfors universitet, 2013)
    The increasing recognition of eco-friendly packaging in the packaging industry makes paperboard one of the most promising green packaging materials. The global demand for paperboard has increased rapidly in the past two decades. The purposes of the study are: firstly, to provide an overview of the consumption, production, imports and exports of paperboard products in different regions worldwide between 1992 and 2010. Secondly, as the Finnish paperboard industry has been highly export-oriented, the study also aims to provide quantitative analysis of the main determinants influencing the demand for Finnish paperboard exports in its main destinations-Germany and Russia by applying economic models from the first quarter of 1995 to the third quarter of 2011. Finally, trends projection for the future development of Finnish paperboard is presented based on results of analysis. The research is both descriptive and explanatory based on secondary data collected from various databases. The regional analysis of paperboard market from 1992 to 2010 revealed that North America and Western Europe’s paperboard production exceeded the consumption, where Asia, Eastern Europe and Latin America’s consumption exceeded the production. The consumption and production growth was extremely fast in Asia and it has been the largest consumer and producer of paperboard products since 2000s. Western Europe has been the largest exporter and importer throughout the years. The empirical modeling of Finnish paperboard export demand showed that the export demand for Finnish paperboard in Germany was highly affected by the total paperboard imports of Germany and its GDP. It also has high sensitivity to the income changes of Germany in long term, but the price effect was not significant. The export demand for Finnish paperboard in Russia has low income elasticity and the price effect was statistically significant. Oil price has also significant influence on Finnish paperboard export demand to Russia. According to the linear trends projection for Finnish paperboard market to 2020, the consumption and imports will grow very slowly or even stagnate, but the production and exports will continuously increase at a faster pace.
  • Wang, Shijun (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The article shows the history of studies of DC, stresses the importance of lateral transport of DC, explores and reviews the factors (vegetation, soil, temperature and precipitation, discharge, pH, weathering, global change and human perturbations) affecting transport of DC from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems and reveals many research gaps, which currently hinder a systematic understanding of lateral transport of DC from aquatic to ecosystems. The inclusion of DIC and DOC in the context of lateral transport of carbon offers more information on studies of DC. This article offers insight into the factors affecting the lateral transport of DC for future studies that focus on constructing models of the global carbon cycle and the estimate of terrestrial/global carbon budget. In addition, the factors affecting the transport of DC from terrestrial to aquatic ecosystems shed some light on the management of forests, peatlands, agricultural activities and land use changes.
  • Löyttyniemi, Kari; Uusvaara, Olli (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Saunders, Matthew; Dengel, Sigrid; Kolari, Pasi; Moureaux, Christine; Montagnani, Leonardo; Ceschia, Eric; Altimir, Nuria; Lopez-Ballesteros, Ana; Maranon-Jimenez, Sara; Acosta, Manuel; Klumpp, Katja; Gielen, Bert; Op de Beeck, Maarten; Hortnagl, Lukas; Merbold, Lutz; Osborne, Bruce; Grunwald, Thomas; Arrouays, Dominique; Boukir, Hakima; Saby, Nicolas; Nicolini, Giacomo; Papale, Dario; Jones, Michael (2018)
    There are many factors that influence ecosystem scale carbon, nitrogen and greenhouse gas dynamics, including the inherent heterogeneity of soils and vegetation, anthropogenic management interventions, and biotic and abiotic disturbance events. It is important therefore, to document the characteristics of the soils and vegetation and to accurately report all management activities, and disturbance events to aid the interpretation of collected data, and to determine whether the ecosystem either amplifies or mitigates climate change. This paper outlines the importance of assessing both the spatial and temporal variability of soils and vegetation and to report all management events, the import or export of C or N from the ecosystem, and the occurrence of biotic/abiotic disturbances at ecosystem stations of the Integrated Carbon Observation System, a pan-European research infrastructure.
  • de Wit, Heleen A.; Lepistö, Ahti; Marttila, Hannu; Wenng, Hannah; Bechmann, Marianne; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Eklöf, Karin; Futter, Martyn N.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Kronvang, Brian; Kyllmar, Katarina; Rakovic, Jelena (Wiley, 2020)
    Hydrological Processes 34, 25 (2020)
    Agricultural, forestry-impacted and natural catchments are all vectors of nutrient loading in the Nordic countries. Here, we present concentrations and fluxes of total nitrogen (totN) and phosphorus (totP) from 69 Nordic headwater catchments (Denmark: 12, Finland:18, Norway:17, Sweden:22) between 2000 and 2018. Catchments span the range of Nordic climatic and environmental conditions and include natural sites and sites impacted by agricultural and forest management. Concentrations and fluxes of totN and totP were highest in agricultural catchments, intermediate in forestry-impacted and lowest in natural catchments, and were positively related %agricultural land cover and summer temperature. Summer temperature may be a proxy for terrestrial productivity, while %agricultural land cover might be a proxy for catchment nutrient inputs. A regional trend analysis showed significant declines in N concentrations and export across agricultural (−15 μg totN L−1 year−1) and natural (−0.4 μg NO3-N L−1 year−1) catchments, but individual sites displayed few long-term trends in concentrations (totN: 22%, totP: 25%) or export (totN: 6%, totP: 9%). Forestry-impacted sites had a significant decline in totP (−0.1 μg P L−1 year−1). A small but significant increase in totP fluxes (+0.4 kg P km−2 year−1) from agricultural catchments was found, and countries showed contrasting patterns. Trends in annual concentrations and fluxes of totP and totN could not be explained in a straightforward way by changes in runoff or climate. Explanations for the totN decline include national mitigation measures in agriculture international policy to reduced air pollution and, possibly, large-scale increases in forest growth. Mitigation to reduce phosphorus appears to be more challenging than for nitrogen. If the green shift entails intensification of agricultural and forest production, new challenges for protection of water quality will emerge possible exacerbated by climate change. Further analysis of headwater totN and totP export should include seasonal trends, aquatic nutrient species and a focus on catchment nutrient inputs.
  • Holopainen, Viljo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1960)
  • Löyttyniemi, Kari (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)