Browsing by Subject "exposure"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-12 of 12
  • Odeh, Issam; Hussein, Tareq (2016)
    Knowledge of human activity patterns is needed in air pollution exposure and health risk assessment. However, human activity patterns have never been evaluated in the Eastern Mediterranean societies. Therefore, we investigated the activity pattern of 285 subjects (17-63 years) in Amman, Jordan during October to November, 2015. The subjects spent >80% of their time indoors during weekend days and >85% on workdays. They spent similar to 4.8% and similar to 5.7% in transportation during weekend days and workdays, respectively. Males had a different activity pattern than females on weekend days, but both genders had similar activity patterns on workdays. On workdays, males spent less time indoors than females. The activity pattern found in this study is a bit different than that for North Americans and Europeans, who spend more time indoors and in transit. The activity pattern found in this study was very different than that observed for Koreans, who spent about 59% and 67% indoors on workdays and weekend, respectively. The main outcomes of this survey can be utilized in human exposure studies. This study and the upcoming future studies have been encouraged and supported by the regional WHO office in Amman.
  • Bos, Nick; Kankaanpää-Kukkonen, Viljami; Freitak, Dalial; Stucki, Dimitri; Sundström, Liselotte (2019)
    Eusocial insects, such as ants, have access to complex disease defenses both at the individual, and at the colony level. However, different species may be exposed to different diseases, and/or deploy different methods of coping with disease. Here, we studied and compared survival after fungal exposure in 12 species of ants, all of which inhabit similar habitats. We exposed the ants to two entomopathogenic fungi (Beauveria bassiana and Metarhizium brunneum), and measured how exposure to these fungi influenced survival. We furthermore recorded hygienic behaviors, such as autogrooming, allogrooming and trophallaxis, during the days after exposure. We found strong differences in autogrooming behavior between the species, but none of the study species performed extensive allogrooming or trophallaxis under the experimental conditions. Furthermore, we discuss the possible importance of the metapleural gland, and how the secondary loss of this gland in the genus Camponotus could favor a stronger behavioral response against pathogen threats.
  • Schuster, Romina; Strehse, Jennifer S.; Ahvo, Aino; Turja, Raisa; Maser, Edmund; Bickmeyer, Ulf; Lehtonen, Kari K.; Brenner, Matthias (Elsevier, 2021)
    Marine Environmental Research 167 (2021), 105264
    Baltic mussels (Mytilus spp.) were exposed to the explosive trinitrotoluene (TNT) for 96 h (0.31–10.0 mg/L) and 21 d (0.31–2.5 mg/L). Bioaccumulation of TNT and its degradation products (2- and 4-ADNT) as well as biological effects ranging from the gene and cellular levels to behaviour were investigated. Although no mortality occurred in the concentration range tested, uptake and metabolism of TNT and responses in antioxidant enzymes and histochemical biomarkers were observed already at the lowest concentrations. The characteristic shell closure behaviour of bivalves at trigger concentrations led to complex exposure patterns and non-linear responses to the exposure concentrations. Conclusively, exposure to TNT exerts biomarker reponses in mussels already at 0.31 mg/L while effects are recorded also after a prolonged exposure although no mortality occurs. Finally, more attention should be paid on shell closure of bivalves in exposure studies since it plays a marked role in definining toxicity threshold levels.
  • Adusei-Mensah, Frank; Essumang, David Kofi; Agjei, Richard Osei; Kauhanen, Jussi; Tikkanen-Kaukanen, Carina; Ekor, Martins (2019)
  • Korhonen, Antti; Lehtomäki, Heli; Rumrich, Isabell; Karvosenoja, Niko; Paunu, Ville-Veikko; Kupiainen, Kaarle; Sofiev, Mikhail; Palamarchuk, Yuliia; Kukkonen, Jaakko; Kangas, Leena; Karppinen, Ari; Hänninen, Otto (Springer Nature, 2019)
    Air Quality, Atmosphere & Health
    Health effect estimates depend on the methods of evaluating exposures. Due to non-linearities in the exposure-response relationships, both the predicted mean exposures as well as its spatial variability are significant. The aim of this work is to systematically quantify the impact of the spatial resolution on population-weighted mean concentration (PWC), its variance, and mortality attributable to fine particulate matter (PM2.5) exposure in Finland in 2015. The atmospheric chemical transport model SILAM was used to estimate the ambient air PM2.5 concentrations at 0.02° longitudinal × 0.01° latitudinal resolution (ca. 1 km), including both the national PM2.5 emissions and the long-range transport. The decision-support model FRES source-receptor matrices applied at 250-m resolution was used to model the ambient air concentrations of primary fine particulate matter (PPM2.5) from local and regional sources up to 10 km and 20 km distances. Numerical averaging of population and concentrations was used to produce the results for coarser resolutions. Population-weighted PM2.5 concentration was 11% lower at a resolution of 50 km, compared with the corresponding computations at a resolution of 1 km. However, considering only the national emissions, the influences of spatial averaging were substantially larger. The average population-weighted local PPM2.5 concentration originated from Finnish sources was 70% lower at a resolution of 50 km, compared with the corresponding result obtained using a resolution of 250 m. The sensitivity to spatial averaging, between the finest 250-m and the coarsest 50-km resolution, was highest for the emissions of PPM2.5 originated from national vehicular traffic (about 80% decrease) and lowest for the national residential combustion (60% decrease). Exposure estimates in urban areas were more sensitive to the changes of model resolution (14% and 74% decrease for PM2.5 and local PPM2.5, respectively), compared with estimates in rural areas (2% decrease for PM2.5 and 36% decrease for PPM2.5). We conclude that for the evaluation of the health impacts of air pollution, the resolution of the model computations is an important factor, which can potentially influence the predicted health impacts by tens of percent or more, especially when assessing the impacts of national emissions.
  • Suomi, Johanna; Ranta, Jukka; Tuominen, Pirkko; Hallikainen, Anja; Putkonen, Tiina; Bäckman, Christina; Ovaskainen, Marja-Leena; Virtanen, Suvi; Savela, Kirsti (Evira, 2013)
    Eviran tutkimuksia 2/2013
    Nitrate is a natural component of many plants and tap water. A part of the ingested nitrate is transformed into nitrite in the body. Nitrate and nitrite are also used as food additives to prevent growth of dangerous microbes. On the other hand, high exposure to these compounds can cause health damage. This probabilistic risk assessment is based on monitoring and research project samples analysed during the years 2004 – 2012 as well as on literature. The National Institute for Health and Welfare supplied the Findiet 2007 and DIPP food study consumption data for adults and children. Nitrate exposure from food additives is low. Dietary nitrate exposure mainly comes from natural sources, i.e., vegetables, fruit and water. Processing of vegetables and good agricultural practices decrease the intake. High consumers of vegetables with high nitrate content may exceed the acceptable daily intake (ADI) of nitrate. Nitrite exposure from foods and tap water may exceed the ADI for approximately 14% of Finnish 3-year-olds and for 11% of 6-yearolds. The main source of exposure is sausages. If the nitrite content of processed meat were decreased from current levels, the demands on hygiene and temperature control would need to be tightened.
  • Suojalehto, Hille; Wolff, Henrik; Lindström, Irmeli; Puustinen, Anne (2018)
    Background: The mechanisms of work-related asthma (WRA) are incompletely delineated. Nasal cell samples may be informative about processes in the lower airways. Our aim was to determine the nasal protein expression profiles of WRA caused by different kind of exposures. Methods: We collected nasal brush samples from 82 nonsmoking participants, including healthy controls and WRA patients exposed to (i) protein allergens, (ii) isocyanates and (iii) welding fumes the day after relevant exposure. The proteome changes in samples were analysed by two-dimensional difference gel electrophoresis, and the differentially regulated proteins found were identified by mass spectrometry. Immunological comparison was carried out using Western blot. Results: We detected an average of 2500 spots per protein gel. Altogether, 228 protein spots were chosen for identification, yielding 77 different proteins. Compared to the controls, exposure to protein allergens had the largest effects on the proteome. Hierarchical clustering revealed that protein allergen- and isocyanate-related asthma had similar profiles, whereas asthma related to welding fumes differed. The highly overrepresented functional categories in the asthma groups were defence response, protease inhibitor activity, inflammatory and calcium signalling, complement activation and cellular response to oxidative stress. Immunological analysis confirmed the found abundance differences in galectin 10 and protein S100-A9 between the groups. Conclusions: Work-related asthma patients exposed to protein allergens and isocyanates elicit similar nasal proteome responses and the profiles of welders and healthy controls were alike. Revealed biological activities of the protein expression changes are associated with allergic inflammation and asthma.
  • Hussein, Tareq; Saleh, Shatha Suleiman Ali; dos Santos, Vanessa N.; Boor, Brandon E.; Koivisto, Antti J.; Londahl, Jakob (2019)
    We calculated the regional deposited dose of inhaled particulate matter based on number/mass concentrations in Amman, Jordan. The dose rate was the highest during exercising but was generally lower for females compared to males. The fine particles dose rate was 10(10)-10(11) particles/h (10(1)-10(2) mu g/h). The PM10 dose rate was 49-439 mu g/h for males and 36-381 mu g/h for females. While resting, the PM10 deposited in the head airways was 67-77% and 8-12% in the tracheobronchial region. When exercising, the head airways received 37-44% of the PM10, whereas the tracheobronchial region received 31-35%. About 8% (exercise) and 14-16% (rest) of the PM2.5 was received in the head airways, whereas the alveolar received 74-76% (exercise) and 54-62% (rest). Extending the results for common exposure scenarios in the city revealed alarming results for service workers and police officers; they might receive 50 mu g/h PM2.5 and 220 mu g/h PM10 while doing their duty on main roads adjacent to traffic. This is especially critical for a pregnant police officer. Outdoor athletic activities (e.g., jogging along main roads) are associated with high PM2.5 and PM10 dose rates (100 mu g/h and -425 mu g/h, respectively).
  • Mattila, Tiina; Santonen, Tiina; Andersen, Helle Raun; Katsonouri, Andromachi; Szigeti, Tamas; Uhl, Maria; Wasowicz, Wojciech; Lange, Rosa; Bocca, Beatrice; Ruggieri, Flavia; Kolossa-Gehring, Marike; Sarigiannis, Denis A.; Tolonen, Hanna (2021)
    Asthma is one of the most common chronic diseases worldwide affecting all age groups from children to the elderly. In addition to other factors such as smoking, air pollution and atopy, some environmental chemicals are shown or suspected to increase the risk of asthma, exacerbate asthma symptoms and cause other respiratory symptoms. In this scoping review, we report environmental chemicals, prioritized for investigation in the European Human Biomonitoring Initiative (HBM4EU), which are associated or possibly associated with asthma. The substance groups considered to cause asthma through specific sensitization include: diisocyanates, hexavalent chromium Cr(VI) and possibly p-phenylenediamine (p-PDA). In epidemiological studies, polyaromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and organophosphate insecticides are associated with asthma, and phthalates, per- and polyfluoroalkyl substances (PFASs), pyrethroid insecticides, mercury, cadmium, arsenic and lead are only potentially associated with asthma. As a conclusion, exposure to PAHs and some pesticides are associated with increased risk of asthma. Diisocyanates and Cr(VI) cause asthma with specific sensitization. For many environmental chemicals, current studies have provided contradicting results in relation to increased risk of asthma. Therefore, more research about exposure to environmental chemicals and risk of asthma is needed.
  • Keipi, Teo; Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte; Räsänen, Pekka (2017)
    Online interaction through the use of social networking sites (SNS) continues to be a significant component of the socialization of young people today, yet little research exists toward linking various relational forms to prevalent and much-studied online risks cross-nationally. This article provides a link between relational dynamics and online risks identified in previous research toward a new perspective on how social tie strength is related to experiences of hate victimization and harassment online. The analysis is based on survey data of Finnish (n = 555), American (n = 1033), German (n = 978), and British (n = 999) young people aged 15-30 years. Variables, including age, gender, main activity, SNS use, quantity, and extent of online and offline social networks including social tie strength and online community identification, were analyzed toward finding their associations with online hate victimization and harassment. Results showed that experiences of hate victimization and harassment were similar cross-nationally and that those who were personally harassed online also reported high SNS activity. Furthermore, no association was found between social network size and negative experiences. Notable cross-national differences were also detected in the results. Findings emphasize the importance of understanding variables fostering online risks for young people while providing a new perspective on what aspects of social life may help negate negative effects online.
  • Appleton, K. M.; Tuorila, H.; Bertenshaw, E. J.; de Graaf, C.; Mela, D. J. (2018)
    Background: There are consistent, evidence-based global public health recommendations to reduce intakes of free sugars. However, the corresponding evidence for recommending reduced exposure to sweetness is less clear. Objective: Our aim was to identify and review the published evidence investigating the impact of dietary exposure to sweet-tasting foods or beverages on the subsequent generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweet foods and beverages in the diet. Design: Systematic searches were conducted to identify all studies testing relations of variation in exposure to sweetness through foods and beverages with subsequent variation in the generalized acceptance, preference, or choice of sweetened foods or beverages, in humans aged >6 mo. Results: Twenty-one studies met our inclusion criteria, comprising 7 population cohort studies involving 2320 children and 14 controlled trials involving 1113 individuals. These studies were heterogeneous in study design, population, exposure, and outcomes measured, and few were explicitly designed to address our research question. The findings from these were inconsistent. We found equivocal evidence from population cohort studies. The evidence from controlled studies suggests that a higher sweet taste exposure tends to lead to reduced preferences for sweetness in the shorter term, but very limited effects were found in the longer term. Conclusions: A small and heterogeneous body of research currently has considered the impact of varying exposure to sweet taste on subsequent generalized sweet taste preferences, and this evidence is equivocal regarding the presence and possible direction of a relation. Future work should focus on adequately powered studies with well-characterized exposures of sufficient duration.
  • Hisinger-Mölkänen, Hanna; Kankaanranta, Hannu; Haahtela, Tari; Sovijärvi, Anssi; Tuomisto, Leena; Andersen, Heidi; Lindqvist, Ari; Backman, Helena; Langhammer, Arnulf; Rönmark, Eva; Ilmarinen, Pinja; Pallasaho, Paula; Piirila, Paivi (2022)
    Smoking, exposure to environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) and occupational exposure to vapours, gases, dusts or fumes (VGDF) increase asthma symptoms. The impact of combined exposure is less well established. We aimed to evaluate the risk of combined exposure to smoking, ETS and VGDF on the prevalence of current asthma and asthma-related symptoms with a postal survey among a random population of 16,000 adults, aged 20-69 years (response rate 51.5%). The 836 responders with physician-diagnosed asthma were included in the analysis. Of them, 81.9% had current asthma defined as physician-diagnosed asthma with current asthma medication use or reported symptoms. There was a consistently increasing trend in the prevalence of current asthma by increased exposure. The highest prevalence of multiple symptoms was in smokers with VGDF exposure (92.1%) compared to the unexposed (73.9%, p = 0.001). In logistic regression analysis, combined exposure to several exposures increased the risk in all analysed symptoms (p = 0.002-0.007). In conclusion, smoking and exposure to ETS or VGDF increased the prevalence of current asthma and multiple symptoms. The combined exposure carried the highest risk. Preventive strategies are called for to mitigate exposure to tobacco smoke and VGDF.