Browsing by Subject "familial hypercholesterolemia"

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  • Vuorio, Alpo; Kovanen, Petri T. (2018)
    This review covers the current knowledge about plant stanol esters as a dietary treatment option for heterozygous familial hypercholesterolemia (he-FH) children. The current estimation of the prevalence of he-FH is about one out of 200-250 persons. In this autosomal dominant disease, the concentration of plasma low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) is strongly elevated since birth. Quantitative coronary angiography among he-FH patients has revealed that stenosing atherosclerotic plaques start to develop in he-FH males in their twenties and in he-FH females in their thirties, and that the magnitude of the plaque burden predicts future coronary events. The cumulative exposure of coronary arteries to the lifelong LDL-C elevation can be estimated by calculating the LDL-C burden (LDL-C level x years), and it can also be used to demonstrate the usefulness of dietary stanol ester treatment. Thus, when compared with untreated he-FH patients, the LDL-C burden of using statin from the age of 10 is 15% less, and if he-FH patients starts to use dietary stanol from six years onwards and a combination of statin and dietary stanol from 10 years onwards, the LDL-C burden is 21% less compared to non-treated he-FH patients. We consider dietary stanol treatment of he-FH children as a part of the LDL-C-lowering treatment package as safe and cost-effective, and particularly applicable for the family-centered care of the entire he-FH families.
  • Vuorio, A; Ramaswami, U; Holven, KB (2021)
  • Vuorio, A.; Watts, G. F.; Schneider, W. J.; Tsimikas, S.; Kovanen, P. T. (2020)
    Vuorio A, Watts GF, Schneider WJ, Tsimikas S, Kovanen PT (Mehilainen Airport Health Centre, Vantaa; University of Helsinki, Helsinki, Finland; University of Western Australia, Perth, Australia; Royal Perth Hospital, Perth, Australia; Medical University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; University of California San Diego, La Jolla, CA, USA; Wihuri Research Institute, Helsinki, Finland). Familial hypercholesterolemia and elevated lipoprotein(a): double heritable risk and new therapeutic opportunities (Review). J Intern Med 2020; 287: 2-18. There is compelling evidence that the elevated plasma lipoprotein(a) [Lp(a)] levels increase the risk of atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease (ASCVD) in the general population. Like low-density lipoprotein (LDL) particles, Lp(a) particles contain cholesterol and promote atherosclerosis. In addition, Lp(a) particles contain strongly proinflammatory oxidized phospholipids and a unique apoprotein, apo(a), which promotes the growth of an arterial thrombus. At least one in 250 individuals worldwide suffer from the heterozygous form of familial hypercholesterolemia (HeFH), a condition in which LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) is significantly elevated since birth. FH-causing mutations in the LDL receptor gene demonstrate a clear gene-dosage effect on Lp(a) plasma concentrations and elevated Lp(a) levels are present in 30-50% of patients with HeFH. The cumulative burden of two genetically determined pro-atherogenic lipoproteins, LDL and Lp(a), is a potent driver of ASCVD in HeFH patients. Statins are the cornerstone of treatment of HeFH, but they do not lower the plasma concentrations of Lp(a). Emerging therapies effectively lower Lp(a) by as much as 90% using RNA-based approaches that target the transcriptional product of the LPA gene. We are now approaching the dawn of an era, in which permanent and significant lowering of the high cholesterol burden of HeFH patients can be achieved. If outcome trials of novel Lp(a)-lowering therapies prove to be safe and cost-effective, they will provide additional risk reduction needed to effectively treat HeFH and potentially lower the CVD risk in these high-risk patients even more than currently achieved with LDL-C lowering alone.
  • Vuorio, Alpo; Lassila, Riitta; Kovanen, Petri T. (2021)