Browsing by Subject "fat"

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  • Fogelholm, Mikael; Anderssen, Sigmund; Gunnarsdottir, Ingibjorg; Lahti-Koski, Marjaana (2012)
  • Helminen, Pirjo (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Thesis literature review deals with composition of cow´s milk, yogurt manufacturing, composition and process attributes affecting textural properties of yogurt and measuring textural properties of yogurt. Plain, stirred yogurts (kg) were manufactured at Valio Riihimäki and Oulu Dairies. The aim of the research was to find out attributes that affect yogurt quality. First milk base composition was determined and, yogurt textural properties were determined (viscosity, graininess, syneresis) using different techniques. Finally yogurt statistical relationships or Pearson correlations and statistical significance between yogurt textural properties and milk base composition and manufacturing process were determined. Additional objective was to determine common specification limits to yogurt textural properties. Statistical analysis; pearson correlation coefficients, p-value and specification limits were carried out using MINITAB®16 statistical software. Good yogurt texture is viscous, free from grains and syneresis. This study showed that yogurt textural properties (viscosity, graininess and syneresis) were affected significantly by yogurt manufacturing plant. There were a lot of fluctuations in yogurt textural properties. Consequently yogurt viscosity fluctuated over 50%, graininess approx. 25% and syneresis approx. 30%. According to this study, yogurts standing a long time before packaging, were less viscose or watery compared to those with shorter standing time prior to packaging. Graininess and evaporating process were found to correlate positively. Yogurts were with more grains when manufacturing process`s evaporating temperature and evaporating rate (l/h) were higher. The higher milk base fat and dry matter content (%) were found to correlate lesser whey separation in yogurt. In addition the higher evaporating rate was in the yogurt manufacturing process, the lesser whey separation was observed. Results from this research are useful for developing dairy processes concerning yogurt manufacturing.
  • Syrjäläinen, Pasi (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In this thesis the public debate of dietary fats is analysed from a discourse analytical point of view. The study constitutes an interpretation of the fat debate by examining cultural meanings reproduced in the representations of fat. The data was collected from the newspaper Helsingin Sanomat. The data set contains a total of 121 articles about dietary fats and health, published in 2010 and 2011. The public debate of dietary fats is analysed by applying critical discourse analysis developed by Norman Fairclough. Discourses can be seen as social practices that reproduce the way the social world is formed. The aim of the study is to analyse how the meanings are reproduced in the representations of fat and to clarify the relationships between the discourses identified from the data. In the findings of this study the debate of dietary fats constitutes of three key discourses. Official discourse represents dietary fats by classifying them either good or bad based on the healthiness of the fat. The unsaturated fats are classified as good and saturated fats as bad. Official discourse is based on the well-established concept of healthy eating defined by expertise and nutrition science. In the public debate of dietary fats the official discourse is set against a critical discourse, which classifies healthy fats contrary when compared to the official discourse. The representations of fat reproduced in the critical discourse are often based on classifications between naturalness and artificiality. The third discourse identified from the data emphasizes mental well-being over physical health. The discourse of taste and pleasure represents fats as a source of pleasure. In these representations fats are categorized by their naturalness and artificiality as well as by their authenticity. In the public debate of dietary fats the official discourse can be seen as a hegemonic discourse, which is set against with the critical discourse and the discourse of taste and pleasure. The interpretation presented in this study describes the fat debate in Helsingin Sanomat in 2010 and 2011. The analysis shows that fat means more than just nutrition. In the representations formed in the discourses fats are associated not only with health but also nostalgia, taste, pleasure and mental health. Cultural categorizations and ritualistic distinctions are essential in the way the meanings of fat are reproduced in the public debate of dietary fats.