Browsing by Subject "fatty acid"

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  • Tverin, Malin; Granroth, Janne; Abrahamsson, Alexander; Tang, Patrik Anthony; Pihlström, Henry; Lundström, Karl; Käkelä, Reijo (2021)
    Increased numbers of great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) in the Baltic Sea may have local impacts on fisheries and salmonid hatcheries. We studied spatial and temporal variability in cormorant diet, and potential consumption of hatchery salmonids, by analysing knee subcutaneous adipose tissue fatty acids (FA) of specimens (N = 77) collected along Swedish and Finnish coasts in different seasons during 2013–2017. The FA profiles of the subspecies sinensis and carbo were similar, with large individual variation. The proportion of C18 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs) was the largest in the north, whereas the proportion of C20–22 monounsaturated FAs (MUFAs) increased towards the south, reflecting diminishing freshwater and increasing marine food web characteristics towards the south. As an exception, the C20–22 MUFA percentage was high in sinensis collected in June 2017 from the northern Baltic Sea. The source of C20–22 MUFAs was probably hatchery salmonids, raised on ocean fish hatchery feed and released 10 days before, near the cormorant capture site. The FA profiles of northern and southern cormorants differed from each other both in early and late summer samples, suggesting spatially different diets. The largest individual variation was found in 22:1n-11, characteristic of ocean zooplanktivorous fish, and likely originating from Atlantic wild or Baltic Sea hatchery-reared fish. This study shows that adipose tissue FA profiles can be used as proxies for seabird diet monitoring and indicators of predation on hatchery-reared fish. Obtaining quantitative estimates on the proportions of dietary fish species requires future feeding experiments, allowing calibration between the FA compositions and diet.
  • Dichlberger, Andrea; Schlager, Stefanie; Lappalainen, Jani; Käkelä, Reijo; Hattula, Katarina; Butcher, Sarah J.; Schneider, Wolfgang J.; Kovanen, Petri T. (2011)
  • Makinen, Selina; Nguyen, Yen H.; Skrobuk, Paulina; Koistinen, Heikki A. (2017)
    Saturated fatty acids are implicated in the development of insulin resistance, whereas unsaturated fatty acids may have a protective effect on metabolism. We tested in primary human myotubes if insulin resistance induced by saturated fatty acid palmitate can be ameliorated by concomitant exposure to unsaturated fatty acid oleate. Primary human myotubes were pretreated with palmitate, oleate or their combination for 12 h. Glucose uptake was determined by intracellular accumulation of [H-3]-2-deoxy-d-glucose, insulin signalling and activation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress by Western blotting, and mitochondrial reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by fluorescent dye MitoSOX. Exposure of primary human myotubes to palmitate impaired insulin-stimulated Akt-Ser(473), AS160 and GSK-3 beta phosphorylation, induced ER stress signalling target PERK and stress kinase JNK 54 kDa isoform. These effects were virtually abolished by concomitant exposure of palmitate-treated myotubes to oleate. However, an exposure to palmitate, oleate or their combination reduced insulin-stimulated glucose uptake. This was associated with increased mitochondrial ROS production in palmitate-treated myotubes co-incubated with oleate, and was alleviated by antioxidants MitoTempo and Tempol. Thus, metabolic and intracellular signalling events diverge in myotubes treated with palmitate and oleate. Exposure of human myotubes to excess fatty acids increases ROS production and induces insulin resistance.
  • EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA); Turck, Dominique; Heinonen, Marina (2021)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the safety of Schizochytrium sp. oil as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. Schizochytrium sp. is a single-cell microalga. The strain FCC-3204, used by the applicant (Fermentalg), belongs to the species Schizochytrium limacinum. The NF, an oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is obtained from microalgae after enzymatic lysis. The applicant proposed to increase the use level of the NF as a food supplement, from 250 mg DHA/day (currently authorised for the general population, excluding pregnant and lactating women) to 3 g DHA/day for adults, excluding pregnant and lactating women. S. limacinum was attributed the qualified presumption of safety (QPS) status with the qualification 'for production purposes only'. Data provided by the applicant demonstrated the absence of viable cells in the NF. No toxicological studies were performed with the NF. However, based on the available toxicological data on oils derived from Schizochytrium sp., the QPS status of the source of the NF, the production process, the composition of the NF and the absence of viable cells in the NF, the Panel considers there are no concerns with regard to toxicity of the NF. The Panel considers that the data provided by the applicant are not sufficient to conclude on the safety of the NF at the proposed uses (3 g DHA/day as a food supplement) in adults. However, in 2012, the Panel concluded that supplemental intakes of DHA alone up to about 1 g/day do not raise safety concerns for the general population. The Panel concludes that the NF is safe for the use in food supplements at the maximum intake level of 1 g DHA/day for the target population (adults, excluding pregnant and lactating women). (C) 2021 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA); Turck, Dominique; Heinonen, Marina (2021)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the safety of Schizochytrium sp. oil as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. Schizochytrium sp. is a single-cell microalga. The strain FCC- 3204, used by the applicant (Fermentalg), belongs to the species Schizochytrium limacinum. The NF, an oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is obtained from microalgae after enzymatic lysis. The applicant proposed to use the NF in infant formulae (IF) and follow-on formulae (FOF). The use level defined by the applicant was derived from Regulation (EU) 2016/127, which states the mandatory addition of DHA to IF and FOF at the level of 20-50 mg/100 kcal. The intake of DHA resulting from the use of the NF in IF and FOF is not expected to pose safety concerns. S. limacinum was attributed the qualified presumption of safety (QPS) status with the qualification 'for production purposes only'. Data provided by the applicant demonstrated the absence of viable cells in the NF. No toxicological studies were performed with the NF. However, based on the available toxicological data on oils derived from Schizochytrium sp., the QPS status of the source of the NF, the production process, the composition of the NF and the absence of viable cells in the NF, the Panel considers there are no concerns with regard to toxicity of the NF. The Panel concludes that the NF is safe under the proposed conditions of use. (C) 2021 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • EFSA Panel Nutr Novel Foods Food A; Turck, Dominique; Heinonen, Marina (2020)
    Following a request from the European Commission, the EFSA Panel on Nutrition, Novel Foods and Food Allergens (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the safety of Schizochytrium sp. oil as a novel food (NF) pursuant to Regulation (EU) 2015/2283. Schizochytrium sp. is a single-cell microalga. The strain WZU477, used by the applicant (Progress Biotech by), was found to belong to the species Schizochytrium limacinum and was obtained in a marine environment from rotted mangrove forest leaves. The NF, an oil rich in docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), is isolated from the microalgae by mechanical extraction. The applicant proposed to use the NF in infant formulae (IF) and follow-on formulae (FOF). The use level defined by the applicant was derived from Regulation (EU) 2016/127, which states the mandatory addition of DHA to IF and FOF at the level of 20-50 mg/100 kcal. The intake of DHA resulting from the use of the NF in IF and FOF is not expected to pose safety concerns. The composition of the NF indicates the absence of marine biotoxins in the NF. Furthermore, Schizochytrium limacinum was attributed the qualified presumption of safety (QPS) status with the qualification 'for production purposes only. Based on the information provided, the microalga is not expected to survive the manufacturing process. Toxicological tests conducted with the NF were not performed. However, based on the available toxicological data on various forms of oils derived from Schizochytrium sp., the QPS status of the source of the NF, the production process and the composition of the NF, the Panel considers there are no concerns with regard to toxicity of the NF. The Panel concludes that the NF is safe under the proposed conditions of use. (C) 2020 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Mustonen, Anne-Mari; Käkelä, Reijo; Joukainen, Antti; Lehenkari, Petri; Jaroma, Antti; Kaariainen, Tommi; Kroger, Heikki; Paakkonen, Tommi; Sihvo, Sanna Pauliina; Nieminen, Petteri (2021)
    Simple Summary Anomalies of fatty acid metabolism characterize osteoarthritis and rheumatoid arthritis in the knee joint. No previous study has investigated the synovial fluid fatty acid manifestations in these aging-related inflammatory diseases in the shoulder. The present experiment compared the fatty acid alterations between the shoulder and knee joints in trauma controls and in patients with end-stage osteoarthritis or end-stage rheumatoid arthritis. The fatty acid signatures in the synovial fluid of trauma controls were mostly uniform in both anatomical locations. Shoulders with rheumatoid arthritis were characterized by elevated percentages of arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid and with reduced proportions of oleic acid. The fatty acid profiles of knees with osteoarthritis or rheumatoid arthritis were relatively uniform and displayed lower proportions of linoleic acid, docosahexaenoic acid and total n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids. The results indicate location- and disease-dependent differences in the synovial fluid fatty acid composition. These alterations may affect joint lubrication, synovial inflammation and pannus formation as well as cartilage and bone degradation and contribute to the pathogeneses of inflammatory joint diseases. Anomalies of fatty acid (FA) metabolism characterize osteoarthritis (OA) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in the knee joint. No previous study has investigated the synovial fluid (SF) FA manifestations in these aging-related inflammatory diseases in the shoulder. The present experiment compared the FA alterations between the shoulder and knee joints in patients with end-stage OA or end-stage RA. SF samples were collected during glenohumeral or knee joint surgery from trauma controls and from OA and RA patients (n = 42). The FA composition of SF total lipids was analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization and mass spectrometric detection and compared across cohorts. The FA signatures of trauma controls were mostly uniform in both anatomical locations. RA shoulders were characterized by elevated percentages of 20:4n-6 and 22:6n-3 and with reduced proportions of 18:1n-9. The FA profiles of OA and RA knees were relatively uniform and displayed lower proportions of 18:2n-6, 22:6n-3 and total n-6 polyunsaturated FAs (PUFAs). The results indicate location- and disease-dependent differences in the SF FA composition. These alterations in FA profiles and their potential implications for the production of PUFA-derived lipid mediators may affect joint lubrication, synovial inflammation and pannus formation as well as cartilage and bone degradation and contribute to the pathogeneses of inflammatory joint diseases.
  • Åman, Olli (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Plant cells in plant cell cultures can be used for production of secondary metabolites and recombinant proteins. Producing the desired compounds can be problematic since cells grow slowly, yields can be low and sometimes plant cells do not produce the desired compounds. Yields can be increased by various methods, of which optimisation of growth conditions to favour growth and secondary metabolite biosynthesis is one of various strategies. Light quality is known to have an impact on growth of plants and on accumulation of secondary metabolites. Plants receive information of their environment with photoreceptors, which gives plants ability to alter their morphology and biochemistry to adapt to the prevailing conditions. One of the most important factors involved in controlling morphology and metabolism is activity of bZIP protein HY5, which levels are controlled by degradation by E3 ubiquitin ligase COP1. The photoreceptors are divided to three main groups. A group of Blue/UV-A photoreceptors consists of cryptochromes and phototropins. Phytochromes are photochrome photoreceptors of wavebands of red and far-red. UVR8 photoreceptors are specialized to sense UV-B wavebands. Activated photoreceptors reduce the activity of COP1 individually or inductively. Plant cells contain the same genetic information as intact plants. Object of this study is to investigate effects of different light spectra on plant cell mass pigment accumulation, lipid content and accumulation of secondary metabolites. Additionally, the obtained results can be utilized in designing new artificial light sources to enhance growth and nutritional value of horticultured plants grown under artificial light. VTT's callus cultures established from berries of Rubus (raspberry, cloudberry, arctic bramble) and Vaccinium (lingonberry, bilberry, cranberry) were used in this study. The cell cultures were grown in hormone balanced solid media. For this research Valoya provided four different LED light sources with different spectra, ranging between wavebands 400–800 nm. All berry callus cultures were grown for continuous period of 28–31 days under different light sources. Mass pigments, lipid composition, total phenolic concentration and anthocyanins were analysed from each cell cultures which received different light treatments. Samples were pooled and were by freeze dried and milled. Mass pigments were extracted with acetone and analysis was carried out with UPLC-DAD. Extraction of lipids was carried out with petroleum ether followed with transesterification of glycerolipids and silylation of free fatty acids. The lipid extracts were analysed with GC-MS. Phenolic compounds were extracted with methanol and the extracts were treated with Folin-Ciocalteu's reagent and then analysed with spectrophotometer. Anthocyanins were extracted with acidified methanol and a portion of the extracts were hydrolysed to qualify anthocyanidin moieties of anthocyanins. The extracts and the hydrolysed extract were analysed with UPLC-DAD. Analysis of volatile compounds from each light treated samples was carried out with SPME GC-MS. The obtained results were used to compare concentration differences of the analytes under different light treatments. Correlations between the concentrations of the analytes and different wavebands were possible to establish from the results. Activation of cryptochromes and phytochromes reduced certain lipids that are precursors in LOX-pathway which indicates to increased activity of the pathway. Same wavebands which activated the photoreceptors reduced accumulation of mass pigments, whereas, wavebands of far-red increased the concentrations of mass pigments. In some cases it was observed that small difference in light spectra reduced mass pigment accumulation significantly. The plant cell cultures produced mainly anthocyanins which anthocyanidin moieties were same as in intact plants. Cryptochrome and phytochrome activation increased accumulation of anthocyanins. Yields of anthocyanins can be increased significantly with certain spectra significantly. The effect of light spectra did not have as straightforward effect on total phenolic content. Specie- and linewise differences were observed in light conditions where the highest concentrations of total phenolics were obtained.
  • Kamppari, Kirsi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Meat is a nutrient dense food providing us valuable amounts of fatty acids, minerals and vitamins and it is involved in the synthesis of protein, fat and membranes in the human body. Pork and poultry consumption has increased since 1970’s in Finland. Meat quality traits are affected by several factors such as breed, genotype, sex, rearing conditions, the animal’s age at the time of the slaughter and nutrition to mention few. The current study is part of INNOFEED-project which aims to show how and why ensiled grass should be biorefined into a variety of inventive feed products and that way establish new type of biorefineries from our most abundant field grown biomass. Grass silage can be pressed, and that way produce juice. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the influence of grass silage juice on fatty acid composition and vitamin E content on pork meat and whether it has an effect on lipid oxidation or color in vacuum and MAP packaged pork meat. Grass silage juice did not influence on total fat content or fatty acid composition in pork longissimus thoracis muscle. In vacuum packaged meat, there were no difference between feeding groups when oxidation was measured with TBARS. In MAP packed meat test feed group gave higher TBARS results throughout the storage period. Grass silage juice effected on color, especially on L* and a*-values. Meat color from test feed group was lighter and not as red as meat from control feed group.