Browsing by Subject "fear"

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  • Lepola, Heini (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    In this study we investigate the concepts of courage according to Finnish students of different ages, how the conceptualization of courage develops in different age-groups, how the thin boundary between courage and foolhardiness appears in the students' interpretations, and how one can learn courage. The emphasis is on students' own life-world phenomena experiences and interpretations. Our unique data consists of applied storycrafting interviews with 6 to 7-year-old preschoolers and school essays written by students in age groups of 11 to 12, 15 to 16 and 16 to 18-years. The data has been collected in southern Finland. The study is a qualitative study with a narrative approach and phenomenography. Applying both data-driven and theory-driven content analysis, we have classified our findings from different age-groups into four main categories: (a) the role of fear in courage, (b) the concepts of courage as physical, psychological, social and moral courage, (c) the development of conceptualization of courage through age and (d) the thin boundary between courage and foolhardiness. The emphasis is on describing and interpreting students' concepts and conceptualization of courage and relate our findings on the umbrella conceptualization of courage by Rate et al. (2007). We also view students' interpretations on how courage feels like and what emotions are related to it, wether they think that courage can be cultivated and what it is that students think enables one to learn courage. Social context and relationships of students in different ages emerge as important factors on their reflection of courage.
  • Helminen, Vilja (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objective. The aim of this study was to clarify the relationship between fear and anxiety, and political attitudes. It has been suggested that individual differences in political ideology stem from differences in threat sensitivity and that conservative political ideology acts as a defence mechanism against psychological threats. There is tentative evidence from previous studies that from different threat reactions fear specifically but not anxiety influences political attitudes. It is also unclear whether threat is connected to political ideology more broadly or just attitudes concerning some political matters. In this study I assess whether anxiety disorder symptoms that reflect differences is fearfulness and anxiety predict different political attitudes. Methods. The sample of this study consisted of 5,819 people born in Great Britain in 1958. Symptoms of generalized anxiety disorder, phobia, and panic were assessed at the age of 44, and opinions about political issues six years later. Exploratory factor analysis was used to assess how political opinions were structured into different attitude dimensions, and seven broader political attitudes were formed based on this. Finally, a path model was used to assess whether anxiety disorder symptoms predicted political attitudes. Results and discussion. The anxiety disorder symptoms predicted attitudes towards economic inequality and preservation of the environment. More specifically, those with more generalized anxiety disorder symptoms were more concerned about environmental issues and those with more phobic symptoms were more concerned about economic inequality. This difference between generalized anxiety disorder and phobias might be explained by the fact that the former is connected with anxiousness whereas the latter reflects fearfulness. The results support the notion that fear and anxiety are differently connected to political attitudes. They also call into question threat reactions’ connection with political ideology more broadly.
  • Kaakinen, Markus; Oksanen, Atte; Gadarian, Shana Kushner; Solheim, Øyvind Bugge; Herreros, Francisco; Winsvold, Marte Slagsvold; Enjolras, Bernard; Steen-Johnsen, Kari (2021)
    Acts of terror lead to both a rise of an extended sense of fear that goes beyond the physical location of the attacks and to increased expressions of online hate. In this longitudinal study, we analyzed dynamics between the exposure to online hate and the fear of terrorism after the Paris attacks in November 13, 2015. We hypothesized that exposure to online hate is connected to a perceived Zeitgeist of fear (i.e., collective fear). In turn, the perceived Zeitgeist of fear is related to higher personal fear of terrorism both immediately after the attacks and a year later. Hypotheses were tested using path modeling and panel data (N = 2325) from Norway, Finland, Spain, France, and the United States a few weeks after the Paris attacks in November 2015 and again a year later in January 2017. With the exception of Norway, exposure to online hate had a positive association with the perceived Zeitgeist of fear in all our samples. The Zeitgeist of fear was correlated with higher personal fear of terrorism immediately after the attacks and one year later. We conclude that online hate content can contribute to the extended sense of fear after the terrorist attacks by skewing perceptions of social climate.
  • Tiira, Katriina; Sulkama, Sini; Lohi, Hannes (2016)
    Fear is an emotion needed to survive, but when prolonged and frequent, causes suffering in both humans and animals. The most common forms of canine anxiety are as follows: general fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety are responsible for a large proportion of behavioral problems. Information on the prevalence and comorbidity of different anxieties is necessary for breeding, veterinary behavior, and also for behavioral genetic research, where accurate information of the phenotype is essential. We used a validated owner-completed questionnaire to collect information on dogs' fearfulness (toward unfamiliar people, dogs, in new situations), noise sensitivity, separation anxiety, as well as aggressive behavior. We received 3284 answers from 192 breeds. The prevalence estimate for noise sensitivity was 39.2 %, 26.2% for general fearfulness, and 17.2% for separation anxiety. The owner reported the median onset age for noise sensitivity to be 2 years and varied between 8 weeks and 10 years (N = 407). High comorbidity was observed between different anxieties: fearful dogs had a significantly higher noise sensitivity (P <0.001) and separation anxiety (P <0.001) compared with nonfearful dogs. Fearful dogs were also more aggressive compared with nonfearful dogs (P <0.001). Prevalence estimates of fearfulness, noise sensitivity, and separation anxiety are in agreement with earlier studies. Previous studies have suggested early onset of noise sensitivity during the first year of life; however, we found a later onset with large variation in the onset age. High comorbidity between anxieties suggests a genetic overlap. Fearful personality may predispose to specific anxieties such as noise sensitivity or separation anxiety. (C) 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Inc.
  • Valkonen, Merja (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The main objective of this study was to estimate genetic parameters to aggression- and fear-related traits in Rottweiler-breed. We also determined which kind of variables could be useful in genetic studies. We used a questionnaire which was sent to Rottweiler owners. Genetic parameters were estimated from a data including responses from owners of 510 dogs. Analysis were carried out with Restricted Maximum Likelihood method for three different variables: owner impression, behaviour components and single behaviour guestions. Heritability estimates for different types of aggression and fear were low or moderate. Most common aggression was dog-directed aggression while owner-directer aggression was most rare. Aggressive behaviour was divided into three genetic complex: social unsureness, aggression in encounter situations and sharpness. The widest complex, social unsureness, had highest heritability estimate. Dog’s aggression in social situations was related to fear and unsureness. Owner impression –guestions and behaviour components could be useful when studying personality traits because they measure a wider complex than just a single behaviour. In this study social dogs had less aggressive and fearful behaviour. It could be possible to reduce aggression- and fear-related behaviour problems by raising dog’s sociality by breeding. This study showed that owner impressions could be used to measure dog’s sociality.