Browsing by Subject "feedback"

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  • Lihavainen, Heikki; Asmi, Eija; Aaltonen, Veijo; Makkonen, Ulla; Kerminen, Veli-Matti (2015)
    We used more than five years of continuous aerosol measurements to estimate the direct radiative feedback parameter associated with the formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA) at a remote continental site at the edge of the boreal forest zone in Northern Finland. Our upper-limit estimate for this feedback parameter during the summer period (ambient temperatures above 10 degrees C) was -97 +/- 66 mWm(-2) K-1 (mean +/- STD) when using measurements of the aerosol optical depth (f(AOD)) and -63 +/- 40 mWm(-2) K-1 when using measurements of the 'dry' aerosol scattering coefficient at the ground level (f(sigma)). Here STD represents the variability in f caused by the observed variability in the quantities used to derive the value of f. Compared with our measurement site, the magnitude of the direct radiative feedback associated with BSOA is expected to be larger in warmer continental regions with more abundant biogenic emissions, and even larger in regions where biogenic emissions are mixed with anthropogenic pollution.
  • Ding, A. J.; Huang, X.; Nie, W.; Sun, J. N.; Kerminen, V. -M.; Petäjä, T.; Su, H.; Cheng, Y. F.; Yang, X. -Q.; Wang, M. H.; Chi, X. G.; Wang, J. P.; Virkkula, A.; Guo, W. D.; Yuan, J.; Wang, S. Y.; Zhang, R. J.; Wu, Y. F.; Song, Y.; Zhu, T.; Zilitinkevich, S.; Kulmala, M.; Fu, C. B. (2016)
    Aerosol-planetary boundary layer (PBL) interactions have been found to enhance air pollution in megacities in China. We show that black carbon (BC) aerosols play the key role in modifying the PBL meteorology and hence enhancing the haze pollution. With model simulations and data analysis from various field observations in December 2013, we demonstrate that BC induces heating in the PBL, particularly in the upper PBL, and the resulting decreased surface heat flux substantially depresses the development of PBL and consequently enhances the occurrences of extreme haze pollution episodes. We define this process as the dome effect of BC and suggest an urgent need for reducing BC emissions as an efficient way to mitigate the extreme haze pollution in megacities of China.
  • Rytkönen, Anni (IATED Academy, 2015)
    EDULEARN Proceedings
    Electronic exams taken in specifically equipped electronic exam rooms are growing in popularity in Finnish Higher Education. The systems used for the purpose are provided with the essay question type which requires manual grading, and on the other hand provides the teacher with the opportunity to give students individual, written feedback. When log data from the system used at the University of Helsinki was analysed, the results indicate that teachers do provide their students with individual comments on their submissions. On the other hand, some of the comments could not be defined as feedback in the pedagogical sense. Interviewed teachers perceived that the electronic examining process in whole provided added values for themselves and their students as the eased and flowing process, and as the increased opportunity to give and receive feedback for the exam response.
  • Lindström, Alexandra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    The Finnish National Core Curriculum for Basic Education 2014 stresses the role of formative assessment in student assessment in basic education. The national curriculum offers some guidelines for how to work with formative assessment, but a lot is left unsaid. The aim of this thesis was to describe how teachers in secondary school view formative assessment and how they experience working with it. The research questions were; 1. What kind of profit do subject teachers feel the formative assessment has? 2. Which methods do subject teachers use in working with formative assessment and how do they experience this work? 3. Which challenges do subject teachers experience in connection to formative assessment? A qualitative research approach was used in this study and the data material was collected through semi-structured research interviews with eight subject teachers working in secondary school. The data sample was a selective one, consisting of teachers that felt that they were to some level working with formative assessment, even if the new national curriculum was not yet put in to effect in secondary school when the material was collected (spring 2017). The data material was analyzed trough content analysis. The results showed that subject teachers considered the profit of formative assessment to have various aspects, they felt that formative assessment functioned as a support tool for instruction and as a way to motivate and activate students. Formative assessment functioned as a support for instruction in providing the teacher with information about the students' progress and offering the students more feedback and there for helping them perform better. Working with formative assessment was also seen as a chance to motivate students by steering the instruction towards their interest and skills and making sure that everybody received some sort of positive feedback. The teachers also felt that one aim for formative assessment was to activate students and make them understand and take responsibility for their learning. All teachers had worked with self- and peer assessment as methods for formative assessment. They considered peer assessment to be easier to work with because it was easier for the students to give feedback on somebody else's work than to evaluate their own. Both self- and peer assessment required that the students had some sort of understanding of the criteria for the task they were supposed to give feedback on. The teachers had also worked on making learning intensions and criteria more explicit. This work was appreciated by both teachers and students but the challenge was to find enough time, especially when this required planning together with colleagues. Another method for working with formative assessment was discussing with the students, the discussions could be between teacher and student or a classroom dialog. The teachers experienced general challenges in working with formative assessment to be a lack of time and the need to flexible as a teacher.
  • Mela, Hanna; Peltomaa, Juha; Salo, Marja; Mäkinen, Kirsi; Hildén, Mikael (2018)
    Smart metering is advancing rapidly and consumption feedback from smart meters is expected to help residents to reduce their energy and water consumption. In recent years, more critical views have been expressed based on theories of social practice, arguing that smart meter feedback ignores the role of various mundane practices where energy and water are consumed and instead targets individuals as active decision-makers. We present a review of qualitative studies on smart meter feedback and results of a survey to European smart metering projects. We argue that theories of social practice can be used to reframe the challenges and potentials of smart meter feedback that have been identified in the literature and our survey. This presents challenges of smart meter feedback as resulting from normalised resource intensive practices rather than from uninterested and comfort-loving individuals. Potentials of improving the effectiveness of smart meter feedback relate to supporting communities and peer-learning and combining smart meter feedback with micro-generation of renewable energy. This has implications for how domestic energy and water consumption is targeted by policy.
  • Langenskiöld, Johanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Objectives. According to a study commissioned by UNISEF Finland (2012) Finnish students find their teachers distant. The results of the OECD Teaching and Learning International Survey (2013) indicate that Finnish elementary school teachers do not receive enough feedback about their performance. This main objective of this study was to examine elementary school teachers' attitudes towards students' feedback. The research questions were: How do teachers relate to feedback given by students? Which factors have an impact on teacher attitudes? The aim of the study was to introduce a new viewpoint to scrutinizing the current role of teacher and student in the teacher-student relationship. Furthermore, the aim was to provoke discussion about values behind and practices related to interpersonal communication and feedback culture in Finnish schools. The theoretical framework of this study consists of theories in educational psychology and speech communications. As a research topic student feedback on teacher-student relationship is quite new, there is little prior research available. Students' teacher views, expectations and experiences, on the other hand, have started to interest scientists increasingly. Methodology. The study was implemented as a qualitative attitude research. Research data was collected in the spring of 2017 during three group interviews. Nine teachers from three different elementary schools in the Helsinki metropolitan area were interviewed – three teachers from each school. The teachers shared their views on 32 claims presented by the interviewer. The research data was analyzed according to the principles outlined in literature about qualitative attitude research. For instance, an approach of discourse analysis was used. Results and conclusions. All in all, the teacher attitudes towards student feedback were favorable. However, as the teacher attitudes did include some variation, four different attitude profiles were identified. Two of the teachers approached students' feedback daringly, three tolerantly, two neutrally and two with reservation. The results suggest that a student's teacher-related experiences and their effects on the child and teacher-child relationship remain at least partially unidentified. That is why the role of both the teacher and the student as well as the existing communication culture in the Finnish schools should be examined critically and candidly. Student feedback in the student-teacher relationship might help build stronger and healthier pedagogical relationships which, in return, create better conditions for teaching and learning.
  • Rauhala, Carita (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Writing is one of the most important skills learned in school. Studies have indicated that pupils' writing skills need improvement which evokes to observe the practices of teaching writing. This thesis contemplates the teaching of writing from the feedback's point of view. The goal of my thesis is to find out what kind of conceptions the sixth-graders have about the feedback they receive from writing and how pupils describe the meaning and effectiveness of feedback. Research type was qualitative study. Data was gathered from three different classes by using method of empathy-based stories. Data consists of 69 pupils empathy-based stories that deals with response given from the opinion essays. Material was analysed by using qualitative theory-guided content analysis. Study indicated that according to pupils' stories feedback wasn't given until the text was finished. Response consisted mainly of text evaluation. In the pupils' stories the response was given verbally and in writing generally by classmates and the teacher. Besides the content of the text and pupils working effort, the feedback was often focused on opinions in the text. When feedback was given by the classmates it was sometimes targeted at the pupil receiving the response and contained inappropriate features such as mocking. Empathy-based stories showed that feedback clearly had a meaning but experience of the feedback may consist of many different factors. In the story conceptions and expectations considering the feedback had the most influence on pupil's experience. In most cases feedback had an effect on pupil's experience at emotional level. In the stories feedback was also seen to have an influence on future writing, pupil's self-esteem, conception of feedback and person giving it. The results showed that the pupils have lots of resources to reflect the quality of the feedback and its meaning for the writer. According to the stories the benefit of feedback was tangential from the writings point of view and the idea of giving feedback was in accordance with conventional evaluative feedback. I think the results support the idea that feedback should be more firm part of the actual writing process. The person receiving the feedback should be more active and the pupils' aptitudes to utilize the feedback should be supported more.
  • Zhang, Junfeng; Kuusisto, Elina; Nokelainen, Petri; Tirri, Kirsi (2020)
    Given that little is known how peer feedback reflects adolescents’ academic well-being in different cultures, this study investigates, by means of multiple-group structural equation modeling (SEM), the influence of peer feedback on the mindset and academic motivation of Chinese (N = 992) and Finnish (N = 870) students in the fourth to the ninth school grades. Within this investigation, we also explore the culture-invariant and culture-dependent nature of student feedback, mindset and academic motivation. The results indicate that the way students praise their peers in their feedback primes and modifies their mindsets and academic motivation. Person-focused praise reflects a fixed mindset and negative academic motivation (i.e., avoidance), whereas process-focused praise undermines negative academic motivation. The pupils in the two samples had growth mindsets. However, the Finnish students preferred to bestow neutral praise and to be more negative with regard to their academic motivation whereas the Chinese students favored process- and person-focused praise, the former reflecting not only their growth mindset but also their positive academic motivation (i.e., trying).
  • Mäkipää, Toni; Hilden, Raili (2021)
    Our main aim in this study was to compare encouraging feedback practices in Finnish general upper secondary foreign language classes and examine how students perceive language teachers' assessment practices. The participants were 160 students of English, 95 students of Swedish, and 27 students of French from six general upper secondary schools. The data comprised one open-ended question and one Likert scale question with nine items. Both qualitative and quantitate methods were used to analyze the data. The results showed that content was the most important feature in feedback that was perceived as encouraging by students. The results further indicated that students considered teacher assessment practices to be primarily summative, but differences were also found between schools. The evidence from this study suggests that students appreciate teacher feedback, but do not perceive it to be an intrinsic part of teacher assessment practices. The importance of formative assessment and feedback should be more heavily emphasized in foreign language teacher education.