Browsing by Subject "fertilization"

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  • Yli-Halla, Markku; Lumme, Ilari (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • Mattila, Tuomas J.; Rajala, Jukka (Wiley, 2022)
    Soil Use and Management
    Traditionally, locally calibrated soil tests were used for fertilizer and lime recommendations. Farmers and advisors are increasingly using new ‘universal’ soil tests without local calibration. The objective of this study was to compare five commercially available soil tests and to determine whether they would provide similar recommendations. In total, 24 fields in Western Finland were sampled for 4 years while being treated with fertilizers, lime and manure. The soil samples were analysed with Mehlich-3, ammonium acetate, H3A, hydrochloric acid and mild acetic acid (Spurway) extractants. In addition, Soil Health Tool (CO2 burst, water-soluble C and N) and tissue testing were conducted. The different tests extracted different orders of magnitude of nutrients (especially P and Mg), but the results from the different extractions were correlated. Mehlich-3 degree of phosphorus saturation (DPS) presented a threshold, below which soluble phosphorus was not detected. Similar thresholds were found for P, S and Mg. Mehlich-3 and ammonium acetate provided similar results for Ca, Mg and K and can be used interchangeably for liming recommendations. Mehlich-3 identified more fields with Zn, Cu, B and S deficiencies and less fields with Mn deficiencies compared with ammonium acetate + EDTA and tissue testing. The tests had strong correlation, but the determination of nutrient deficiencies needs local calibration of deficiency limits.
  • Finér, Leena; Lepistö, Ahti; Karlsson, Kristian; Räike, Antti; Härkönen, Laura; Huttunen, Markus; Joensuu, Samuli; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Mattsson, Tuija; Piirainen, Sirpa; Sallantaus, Tapani; Sarkkola, Sakari; Tattari, Sirkka; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 762 (2021), 144098
    More reliable assessments of nutrient export to surface waters and the Baltic Sea are required to achieve good ecological status of all water bodies. Previous nutrient export estimates have recently been questioned since they did not include the long-term impacts of drainage for forestry. We made new estimates of the total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P) and total organic carbon (TOC) export from forests to surface waters at different spatial scales in Finland. This was done by formulating statistical equations between streamwater concentrations and climate, soil, forest management and runoff variables and spatial data on catchment characteristics. The equations were based on a large, long-term runoff and streamwater quality dataset, which was collected from 28 pristine and 61 managed boreal forest catchments located around Finland. We found that the concentrations increased with temperature sum (TS), i.e. from north to south. Nitrogen, P and TOC concentrations increased with the proportion of drained areas in the catchment; those of N and TOC also increased with the proportion of peatlands. In contrast, with the increasing concentrations of N and TOC with time, P concentrations showed a decreasing trend over the last few decades. According to our estimates, altogether 47,300 Mg of N, 1780 Mg of P and 1814 Gg of TOC is transported from forest areas to surface waters in Finland. Forest management contributes 17% of the N export, 35% of the P export and 12% of the TOC export. Our new forest management export estimates for N and P are more than two times higher than the old estimates used by the environment authorities. The differences may be explained by the long-term impact of forest drainage. The spatial results indicate that peatland forests are hotspots for N, P and TOC export, especially in the river basins draining to the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Silvola, Jouko; Välijoki, Jukka; Aaltonen, Heikki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
    At sites in SE Finland, hourly respiration varied mainly in the range 100-500 mg CO2/msuperscript 2 with changes following those in soil surface temp. with a time lag of 3 h. After groundwater table was reduced by about 0.5 m, respiration increased 2.5-fold (resulting in a rate of peat decomposition considerably in excess of the rate of production of new organic matter in the peat). Application of fast-dissolving PK or urea rapidly increased soil respiration at the site poorest in nutrients. Ash gave the greatest steady increase. At sites rich in nutrients, fertilizer treatment reduced soil respiration for 1-2 yr. Treatment with micronutrients caused an intial reduction in respiration followed by a pronounced increase.
  • Haapanen, Tapani; Hari, Pertti; Kellomäki, Seppo (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1979)
  • Heliövaara, Kari; Terho, Eero; Annila, Erkki (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1983)
  • Kellomäki, Seppo; Puttonen, Pasi; Tamminen, Heikki; Westman, Carl Johan (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1982)
  • Jauhiainen, Jyrki; Kerojoki, Otto; Silvennoinen, Hanna; Limin, Suwido; Vasander, Harri (2014)
    Vast areas of deforested tropical peatlands do not receive noteworthy shading by vegetation, which increases the amount of solar radiation reaching the peat surface. Peat temperature dynamics and heterotrophic carbon dioxide (CO2), nitrous oxide (N2O) and methane (CH4) fluxes were monitored under four shading conditions, i.e. unshaded, 28%, 51% and 90% shading at experiment sites established on reclaimed fallow agricultural- and degraded sites in Central Kalimantan, Indonesia. Groundwater tables on the sites were at about 50 cm depth, the sites were maintained vegetation free and root ingrowth to gas flux monitoring locations was prevented. Half of the four shading areas received NPK-fertilization 50 kg ha−1 for each of N, P and K during the experiment and the other half was unfertilized. Increases in shading created a lasting decrease in peat temperatures, and decreased diurnal temperature fluctuations, in comparison to less shaded plots. The largest peat temperature difference in the topmost 50 cm peat profile was between the unshaded and 90% shaded surface, where the average temperatures at 5 cm depth differed up to 3.7 °C, and diurnal temperatures at 5 cm depth varied up to 4.2 °C in the unshaded and 0.4 °C in the 90% shaded conditions. Highest impacts on the heterotrophic CO2 fluxes caused by the treatments were on agricultural land, where 90% shading from the full exposure resulted in a 33% lower CO2 emission average on the unfertilized plots and a 66% lower emission average on the fertilized plots. Correlation between peat temperature and CO2 flux suggested an approximately 8% (unfertilized) and 25% (fertilized) emissions change for each 1 °C temperature change at 5 cm depth on the agricultural land. CO2 flux responses to the treatments remained low on degraded peatland. Fertilized conditions negatively correlated with N2O efflux with increases in temperature, suggesting a 12–36% lower efflux for each 1 °C increase in peat temperature (at 5 cm depth) at the sites. Despite the apparently similar landscapes of fallow agricultural land and degraded peatland sites, the differences in greenhouse gas dynamics are expected to be an outcome of the long-term management differences.
  • Vennelä, Tanja (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa Duch.) is both quantitative and economically most important cultivated berry in Finland. The problem in Finland is low crop yield and short harvest season. During the main season the high supply lower radically the price. The price is highest before and after the main season. Production with everbearing strawberries would give long and even harvest season with more stable price. Everbearing strawberries suit well for table-top production in polythene tunnels with drip irrigation and fertilization. Everbearing strawberries produce flowers and berries during the whole season which affects the nutrient demand. Three different electrical conductivities in the nutrient solution, 1,5 mS/cm, 2,3mS/cm and 3,0 mS/cm, with N:K –ratio 1:1,5 during the ripening, was investigated. The fourth electrical conductivity was 2,3 mS/cm with N:K –ratio 1:2 during the ripening. The vegetative growth, crop yield and quality was evaluated. The amount of drainage water was measures and the amounts of leached nitrogen and phosphorus was analysed. The varieties in the study were ‘Malling Opal’ and ‘Rondo’. Like in previous studies the nutrient demand of strawberry is relatively low. Strongest vegetative growth, highest yield and largest berries was observed with the lowest (1,5 mS/cm) nutrient level. The nutrient level had very little effect on the fruit quality or starting time of the harvest season. The change in the N:K -ratio during ripening did not affect the fruit quality. The uptake of water was highest in the nutrient solution with lowest electrical conductivity. The problem with the water uptake with high electrical conductivity was probably caused by the high ion content in the nutrient solution. The amounts of nitrogen and phosphorus increased significantly in the leaching water with increasing electrical conductivity in the nutrient slution.
  • Valve, Helena; Taipale, Kirsi; Ekholm, Petri; Kauppila, Jussi; Koikkalainen, Kauko; Miettinen, Antti (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2022)
    Suomen ympäristökeskuksen raportteja 4/2022
    Maatalouden aiheuttaman vesien rehevöitymisongelman ratkaisemisessa tarvitaan tehokasta maatalouden ympäristösääntelyä. Tätä sääntelyä uudistetaan parhaillaan. Nykyiset rajoitukset lannoitetypen käytölle täydentyvät lannoitelainsäädäntöön tuotavilla, kaikkia viljelijöitä koskevilla säännöksillä fosforilannoituksen enimmäismääristä. Samalla vapaaehtoisen maatalouden ympäristökorvauksen ehdoksi asetetut lannoitusrajat poistuvat. Tämä raportti käsittelee lannoituksen ja maatilan viljelytoimien suunnittelua sekä enimmäislannoitusmäärien valvontaa tukevan peltolohkokohtaisen ravinnetietovarannon tarvetta ja tietosisältöä. Tällaiseen viranomaiskäyttöön tarkoitettuun digitaaliseen ravinnetietovarantoon kerättäisiin kaikkien Suomen peltolohkojen ravinne-, viljely- ja satotiedot. Ravinnetietovarantoa ylläpitäisi Ruokavirasto. Tällä hetkellä lannoitusta ja lannan levitystä valvotaan maatiloilta kerättävien peltolohkokohtaisten muistiinpanojen avulla. Lohkokohtaiset muistiinpanot saadaan viranomaisten käyttöön vuosittain vain pientä osaa tiloista koskevien valvontojen yhteydessä, eikä niitä kerätä tai välitetä järjestelmällisesti viranomaisten käyttöön. Näin ollen tilojen keräämää aineistoa hyödynnetään viranomaistoiminnassa vain vähän. Ravinnetietovarantoon kaikilta peltolohkoilta kerättäväksi suunnitellut viljavuus-, viljely- ja satotiedot tehostaisivat ravinteiden käytön valvontaa ja auttaisivat muodostamaan kokonaiskuvan Suomen peltolohkojen viljavuuden muutoksesta ja ravinnehuuhtoumapotentiaalista. Maanviljelijöiden haastattelut osoittavat, että joillekin viljelijöille lohkokirjanpito on hyvän tilanhoidon työkalu, kun taas toisille se edustaa perusteetonta kontrollia ja tilan toimintaan puuttumista. Fosforirajoihin suhtaudutaan eri tavoin. Tämä osaltaan korostaa valvonnan merkitystä. Jos pelisäännöt ovat selvät ja niiden noudattamista seurataan, ovat säännöt kaikille samat. Osa haastatelluista viljelijöistä epäilee, että näin ei tällä hetkellä ole. Maatalouden ravinnetietovarannon käyttöönotto vaatii viljelijöiltä lisätoimia lähinnä niillä tiloilla, jotka eivät tällä hetkellä tee lohkokohtaisia muistiinpanoja nykyisen ympäristökorvauksen edellyttämässä laajuudessa sekä niillä tiloilla, joilla lohkomuistiinpanoja ei tallenneta digitaalisesti. Muut merkittävimmät käytännön muutostarpeet koskevat viljavuustutkimusten maanäytteiden oton luotettavuuden lisäämistä, kasvirekisterien yhdenmukaistamista sekä reaaliaikaisen lannoitevalmisterekisterin perustamista. Ravinnetietovarannon perustaminen edellyttää uutta lainsäädäntöä. Kaikille viljelijöille tulee säätää velvollisuus pitää ja raportoida viranomaiselle nykyisen ympäristökorvausjärjestelmän tasoista lohkokirjanpitoa tavalla, joka mahdollistaa enimmäislannoitusmäärien valvonnan. Vaikka ravinnetietovaranto on tarkoitettu ensisijaisesti viranomaistarkoituksiin, sen sisältämät tiedot ovat pääosin julkista ympäristötietoa, jonka saatavuuden rajoittamiselle ei ole perusteita. Tietojen luovuttamisesta on kuitenkin säädettävä erikseen joko yleisesti ympäristötietoja koskevalla julkisuuslain muutoksella tai sisällyttämällä ravinnevarantoon sisältyvien ympäristötietojen luovuttamista koskevat säännökset ravinnekuormituksen rajoittamista koskevaan erityislainsäädäntöön.
  • Palmgren, Kristina; Saarsalmi, Anna; Weber, Assi (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1985)
  • Laurén, Ari; Palviainen, Marjo; Page, Susan; Evans, Chris; Urzainki, Inaki; Hökkä, Hannu (2021)
    Responsible management of Acacia plantations requires an improved understanding of trade-offs between maintaining stand production whilst reducing environmental impacts. Intensive drainage and the resulting low water tables (WT) increase carbon emissions, peat subsidence, fire risk and nutrient export to water courses, whilst increasing nutrient availability for plant uptake from peat mineralization. In the plantations, hydrology, stand growth, carbon and nutrient balance, and peat subsidence are connected forming a complex dynamic system, which can be thoroughly understood by dynamic process models. We developed the Plantation Simulator to describe the effect of drainage, silviculture, fertilization, and weed control on the above-mentioned processes and to find production schemes that are environmentally and economically viable. The model successfully predicted measured peat subsidence, which was used as a proxy for stand total mass balance. Computed nutrient balances indicated that the main growth-limiting factor was phosphorus (P) supply, and the P balance was affected by site index, mortality rate and WT. In a scenario assessment, where WT was raised from -0.80 m to -0.40 m the subsidence rate decreased from 4.4 to 3.3 cm yr(-1), and carbon loss from 17 to 9 Mg ha(-1) yr(-1). P balance shifted from marginally positive to negative suggesting that additional P fertilization is needed to maintain stand productivity as a trade-off for reducing C emissions.
  • Rankinen, Katri; Turtola, Eila; Lemola, Riitta; Futter, Martyn; Cano Bernal, José Enrique (Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI), 2021)
    Water 2021, 13(4), 450
    Increased nutrient loading causes deterioration of receiving surface waters in areas of intensive agriculture. While nitrate and particulate phosphorus load can be efficiently controlled by reducing tillage frequency and increasing vegetation cover, many field studies have shown simultaneously increased loading of bioavailable phosphorus. In the latest phase of the Rural Programme of EU agri-environmental measures, the highest potential to reduce the nutrient loading to receiving waters were the maximum limits for fertilization of arable crops and retaining plant cover on fields with, e.g., no-till methods and uncultivated nature management fields. Due to the latter two measures, the area of vegetation cover has increased since 1995, suggesting clear effects on nutrient loading in the catchment scale as well. We modeled the effectiveness of agri-environmental measures to reduce phosphorus and nitrogen loads to waters and additionally tested the performance of the dynamic, process-based INCA-P (Integrated Nutrients in Catchments—Phosphorus) model to simulate P dynamics in an agricultural catchment. We concluded that INCA-P was able to simulate both fast (immediate) and slow (non-immediate) processes that influence P loading from catchments. Based on our model simulations, it was also evident that no-till methods had increased bioavailable P load to receiving waters, even though total P and total N loading were reduced.
  • Huhta, Veikko; Hyvönen, Riitta; Koskenniemi, Antti; Vilkamaa, Pekka; Kaasalainen, Paula; Sulander, Minna (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1986)
  • Mustonen, Arja (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    In Finland 90% of all farmers and 95% of cultivated land are committed to the environmental support program of agriculture. One of the goals of this program is to reduce phosphorus (P) runoff from fields to the water system by limiting the amount of P used in cultivation process. Experiments on P rates allowed in environmental support program and practices of P fertilization were conducted at two sites on ley during 2003-2011. The research aimed to define the effects of annual fertilization, incorporated fertilization and the use of liquid manures on ley yield and P status of the soil. Earlier studies have shown that more water soluble P runs off from leys than from cereal fields and that reserved P hasn’t been sufficient for the whole ley rotation. The experiment consisted of seven different fertilization treatments in which phosphorus treatments were done as incorporate fertilization or annual fertilization. Low or high-release mineral fertilizer was used for incorporate fertilization and either mineral fertilizer or at first mineral fertilizer and liquid manures in next rotation for annual fertilization on the surface. P given as liquid manure was used by three members of the experiment group. The experiment included cultivating ley for seven years and cereal forage for two years. The control group used no P fertilization. P given in fertilization treatments had no effect on ley yields compared with control treatment. Negative P balance in all treatments caused the P rate in ploughed layer of the soil to decrease, however the P levels of surface layer fluctuated greatly regardless of the way P treatments were done. The study indicated that using liquid manures for fertilizing ley cultivations does not pose any greater threat to the environment than mineral fertilizers. However, balanced fertilization, sufficient nitrogen and reducing nitrogen loss of liquid manures are required in order to achieve high yields. The results also indicate that it should be made possible to raise the amount of P fertilization of highly productive leys closer to the zero level of the nutrient balance so that productivity of the soil measured by acid ammonium acetate (PAC) would be preserved. Depending on the other qualities of the soil, this can be done when PAC has reached the value nearby 10 mg l-1. More information on controlling P of the surface soil by means of cultivation management is needed.
  • Tamm, Carl Olof (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1965)