Browsing by Subject "financial markets"

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  • Gronow, Jukka (Helsinki University Press, 2020)
    Jukka Gronow’s book Deciphering Markets and Money solves the problem of the specific social conditions of an economic order based on money and the equal exchange of commodities. Gronow scrutinizes the relation of sociology to neoclassical economics and reflects on how sociology can contribute to the analyses of the major economic institutions. The question of the comparability and commensuration of economic objects runs through the chapters of the book. The author shows that due to the multidimensionality and principal quality uncertainty of products, markets would collapse without market devices that are either procedural, consisting of technical standards and measuring instruments, or aesthetic, relying on the judgements of taste, or both. In his book, Gronow demonstrates that in this respect, financial markets share the same problem as the markets of wines, movies, or PCs and mobile phones, and hence offer a highly actual case to study their social constitution in the process of coming into being. Jukka Gronow is professor emeritus of sociology at Uppsala University, Sweden, and docent at the University of Helsinki, Finland. He has published on sociology of consumption, history of sociology and social theory.
  • Al-Khail, Mohammed Aba (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2003)
    Economics and Society
    Investors significantly overweight domestic assets in their portfolios. This behavior which is commonly called “home bias” contradicts the prescriptions of portfolio theory. This thesis explores potential reasons for the “home bias” by examining the characteristics of the investing and the target countries and features of the interaction between them. A common theme of the four essays is a focus on the importance of information about foreign markets in explaining the share of these markets in investors’ portfolios. The results indicate that the size of the equity ownership in another country strongly relates to the distance to the financial capital of that country, and to trade in goods with and direct investments (FDI) to that country. The first essay empirically investigates the relationship between trade in real goods and portfolio investments. Overall, the evidence indicates a substantial role for trade in reducing the information cost relating to portfolio investments. The second essay examines the implications of the launch of the European Monetary Union (EMU) on international portfolio investments. The evidence on the allocation of Finnish international portfolio investments is more consistent with an information-based than a diversification motive explanation. The third essay employs new data for a large number of countries and further explores the role of trade on international portfolio investments. The results indicate that trade provides important information especially on firms in countries in which the corporate governance structure and the information environment of firms generate less reliable information. The fourth essay examines the relationship between direct investments (FDI) and portfolio investments. In contrast to the predications of portfolio theory, it provides evidence that FDI is a complement rather than a substitute for portfolio investments.
  • Nyberg, Henri (2018)
    This paper introduces a regime switching vector autoregressive model with time-varying regime probabilities, where the regime switching dynamics is described by an observable binary response variable predicted simultaneously with the variables subject to regime changes. Dependence on the observed binary variable distinguishes the model from various previously proposed multivariate regime switching models, facilitating a handy simulation-based multistep forecasting method. An empirical application shows a strong bidirectional predictive linkage between US interest rates and NBER business cycle recession and expansion periods. Due to the predictability of the business cycle regimes, the proposed model yields superior out-of-sample forecasts of the US short-term interest rate and the term spread compared with the linear and nonlinear vector autoregressive (VAR) models, including the Markov switching VAR model.
  • Cullen, Jay; Mähönen, Jukka Tapio (Cambridge University Press, 2019)
    Cambridge Law Handbooks
    A traditional response to information asymmetries in financial markets has been to require disclosure and heightened transparency in investment chains. We argue in this chapter that the trust placed in such regulatory techniques will fail to deliver sustainable investment for two reasons. The first is the structure of equity markets, which are focused on shareholder returns and excessive turnover of portfolios, preventing meaningful engagement with companies. The second is that both investors and intermediaries make a category error in placing trust in modern risk management to quantify the financial risks from climate change and other environmental changes. Our analysis leads us logically to three micro- and macroprudential policy prescriptions, namely: increasing the capital requirements on assets with so-called ‘brown’ credentials; reforming bank stress tests to reflect the uncertain financial implications of environmental damage; and pivoting central bank bond buying programmes toward green financial assets.
  • Yliheljo, Emilie (2021)
    The article analyses the impact of the origins of emission units in transnational climate policy on market participants in the EU ETS and the extension of financial-market regulation to the European carbon market. To assess the consequences of the public-private nature of emission units, a broad view of ownership is taken. Ownership is understood as the legal position of the holder of emission units, being an aggregate of elements of private law but also climate law and financial-market regulation. As a consequence, a picture emerges of a legal position variable in the personal, temporal, and spatial dimensions, following policy-design choices and the evolution of regulation of carbon markets. The ownership of emission units reflects the ongoing balancing of the different public-policy goals of the EU ETS and differs from economic theories laying the foundations of emission trading. Due to the necessity for a proactive management of the scheme, regulatory intervention and risk have become inherent features of the ownership of the units, and the impact of changes will vary across different market participants.