Browsing by Subject "food consumption"

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  • Johansson, Edvard (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2000)
    Working Papers
    This paper estimates the extent of income underreporting by the self-employed in Finland using the expenditure based approach developed by Pissarides & Weber (1989). Household spending data are for the years 1994 to 1996. The results suggest that self-employment income in Finland is underreported by some 27% on average. Since income for the self-employed is about 8 % of all incomes in Finland, the size of this part of the black economy in Finland is estimated to be about 2,3% of GDP.
  • Tammi, Rilla (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Added sugar intake has been associated with several adverse health issues, such as obesity, type 2 diabetes, and cardiovascular diseases. However, the knowledge of added sugar intake’s associations with overall diet quality and population subgroups is currently scarce. Our objective was to examine the association of added sugar intake with overall diet quality and population subgroups formed by sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, and obesity measures in the Finnish adult population. We also explored whether the association between added sugar intake and overall diet quality differs in the population subgroups. We applied the data from the cross-sectional population-based national FinHealth 2017 Study, and our analytical sample comprised 5094 Finnish adults. Dietary intake was assessed with a validated food frequency questionnaire and added sugar intake was estimated by a newly developed calculation method utilizing food item disaggregation based on the national food composition database Fineli ®. Overall diet quality was assessed by the modified Baltic Sea Diet Score (mBSDS), depicting a healthy Nordic diet. The analyses were established separately for women and men, and associations were calculated by chi-square tests and linear and logistic regression analyses, adjusting for age, education level, smoking, physical activity, BMI, and energy intake. Interactions were investigated with interaction terms and stratified analyses. Added sugar intake was inversely associated with education (P = 0.032 women; P = 0.001 men), smoking (P = 0.002 women; P < 0.0001 men), and physical activity (P < 0.0001) in both sexes. An inverse association was found with BMI in men (P = 0.003). Higher added sugar intake was associated with lower overall diet quality (P < 0.0001) and lower consumption of healthy perceived mBSDS components (P ≤ 0.001). An inverse association was also found with red and processed meat consumption in men (P = 0.011), while there was no association in women. Of the studied population subgroups, a significant interaction was found in physical activity subgroups in men (P = 0.005), the inverse association between added sugar intake and overall diet quality being stronger among active men compared with moderately active and inactive men. In conclusion, our findings suggest that high added sugar intake was associated with lower overall diet quality, lower education, and unhealthy lifestyle habits. The findings of this study can be utilized as background information when establishing new incentives to reduce added sugar intake or maintain a satisfactory intake level in the Finnish adult population. More research, especially longitudinal studies, is needed of added sugar intake’s associations with sociodemographic factors, lifestyle factors, obesity measures, and overall diet quality in the population and population subgroups.
  • Heikinheimo, Outi; Lehtonen, Hannu; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2018)
    Hansson et al. (2017) concluded that competition between fisheries and piscivorous mammals and birds exists in the Baltic Sea, based on the estimation of biomass of the fish species consumed in the ICES subdivisions. We compared their results to the data and scientific knowledge from the coastal waters of Finland and show that local differences in fisheries, fish assemblages and abundance of predators should be taken into account to reliably assess potential competition. Hansson et al. (2017) did not include the piscivorous fish in their analysis, but these may be the most important predators. In the Archipelago Sea, for instance, the consumption by fish predators is considerably larger than that of cormorants.
  • Hebestreit, Antje; Intemann, Timm; Siani, Alfonso; De Henauw, Stefaan; Eiben, Gabriele; Kourides, Yiannis A.; Kovacs, Eva; Moreno, Luis A.; Veidebaum, Toomas; Krogh, Vittorio; Pala, Valeria; Bogl, Leonie H.; Hunsberger, Monica; Boernhorst, Claudia; Pigeot, Iris; I Family Consortium (2017)
    The aim of this study was to determine whether an association exists between children's and parental dietary patterns (DP), and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability during meals strengthens this association. In 2013/2014 the I. Family study cross-sectionally assessed the dietary intakes of families from eight European countries using 24-h dietary recalls. Usual energy and food intakes from six-to 16-year-old children and their parents were estimated based on the NCI Method. A total of 1662 child-mother and 789 child-father dyads were included; DP were derived using cluster analysis. We investigated the association between children's and parental DP and whether the number of shared meals or soft drink availability moderated this association using mixed effects logistic regression models. Three DP comparable in children and parents were obtained: Sweet & Fat, Refined Cereals, and Animal Products. Children were more likely to be allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP when their fathers were allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when they shared at least one meal per day (OR 3.18; 95% CI 1.84; 5.47). Being allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP increased when the mother or the father was allocated to the Sweet & Fat DP and when soft drinks were available (OR 2.78; 95% CI 1.80; 4.28 or OR 4.26; 95% CI 2.16; 8.41, respectively). Availability of soft drinks and negative parental role modeling are important predictors of children's dietary patterns.
  • Hauta-alus, Helena H.; Korkalo, Liisa; Holmlund-Suila, Elisa M.; Rosendahl, Jenni; Valkama, Saara M.; Enlund-Cerullo, Maria; Helve, Otto M.; Hytinantti, Timo K.; Mäkitie, Outi M.; Andersson, Sture; Viljakainen, Heli T. (2017)
    The infant diet has short- and long-term health consequences. Updated data regarding the dietary intake of Finnish infants are lacking. The objectives of this study were to describe infant food and nutrient intake and to identify food sources of the nutrients. Altogether, 739 healthy infants were studied. Dietary intake and breastfeeding frequency were assessed with a three-day food record at 1 year of age. Dietary intake was calculated separately for non-breastfed and breastfed infants. One-third (36%) of the infants were partially breastfed and 95% consumed mass-produced baby foods. The infants' diet consisted mainly of infant formula, dairy milk, porridges, fruit and berry foods, and meat dishes. The mean vegetable, fruit and berry consumption was 199 g/day. Most nutrient intakes were adequate except for fat, linoleic acid, vitamin D and iron from food. Mean sucrose intake, as a percentage of total energy intake (E%), was 5-6 E%. High protein intake (>20 E%) was observed in 19% of non-breastfed infants. Overall, the infants' diet was favorable since vegetable and fruit consumption was reasonably high and nutrient intake was mostly adequate. However, the fat intake was lower, and protein intake higher than recommended. Increasing the consumption of vegetable oils and reducing the intake of red meat and dairy milk may further improve the diet of 1-year-olds.
  • Christensen, Tue; Nielsen, Cecilie Wirenfeldt; Valsta, Liisa; Aalto, Sanni; Haario, Peppi; Reinivuo, Heli; Virtanen, Suvi; Pastell, Helena; Nieminen, Janne; Reykdal, Ólafur; Axelsson, Cecilia; Petrelius-Sipinen, Jessica; Kielland, Ellen; Østerholt Dalane, Jorån; Hauger Carlsen, Monica; Salupuu, Kristin; Jõgi, Änn (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2020)
    This report describes the activities of two projects that were carried out using the infrastructure of the Nordic Food Analysis Network, i.e. the ‘Nordic Food Composition Data for Labelling (NordCoLa)’ project carried out between 2018 and 2020, and the preceding project ‘Fostering the quality and use of Nordic food composition data’, carried out under the Finnish Presidency of the NCM in 2016. The primary aim of the NordCoLa project was to evaluate the needs, synergies and critical points of the Nordic FCDBs (e.g. food ingredient and nutrient value gaps) in relation to the composition data to be used to implement the new European nutrient labelling legislation. This was to ensure quality food composition data in the Nordic countries for food producers and other users for nutrient labelling purposes. The most important gaps were evaluated and summarised by this project. This project included an exercise comparing calculated and analysed nutrient information of selected Nordic food samples. This information was then compared with the acceptable tolerance limits in use in the EU. As part of the projects, two open seminars were organised in Helsinki; the first one on 16 October 2016 and the second on 17 April 2019. The seminars gathered a total of around 150 participants together to hear about challenges in the area of food composition data and their use in food labelling and related quality issues. In addition, the project included research on food label information in order to evaluate the usefulness of the Mintel Global New Products’ Database (Mintel GNPD) and GS1 in the work of updating and compiling information used in food composition databases. The network’s main conclusions and strategical proposals are as follows: • There is a need for more analyses and continuous compiling work in order to ensure updated FCDBs for the users. Opportunities for Nordic collaboration in food analyses should be carefully evaluated. • More industrial ingredients need to be analysed and added to FCDBs. Obtaining such information is important to keep the databases useful, especially for SMEs in the food business. • The calculated values are of overall good quality when compared with analysed values, with the exception of protein, sugars and salt. This warrants more attention to take carbohydrates and especially simple sugars into account when planning future national food analysis programmes. Collecting more information on salt content and comparing it with the analysed information on food products is also needed. • There is no legislation for the methods to be used in the food analysis. This means that different methods are used and even different components may be measured resulting variation in nutrient contents. Sugars are an example of that, since different techniques measure total sugar content or different 7 sugar components separately and both ways are accepted for labelling purposes. • Calculating nutrient contents of food items according to a standardised method is a good and affordable way of producing values for food composition databases and food labelling purposes, if the data quality of the FCDBs are based on analysed values. • The acceptable variation in nutrient label information based on EC legislation tolerances is very large. The tolerances may even threaten the meaningful reformulation of food products and reliable consumer information due to uncertainties over the labelled nutrient values. • More information is needed regarding the validity of nutrient labelling at the Nordic and European level. To avoid misleading consumer information, food analyses should be used to check the validity of nutrient labelling and to monitor reformulation efforts. • Nutrient label data from commercial food label databases, for example, is not recommended to be used, in general, for updating nutrient values of foods in the national FCDBs. However, such databases were found to be partially useful in updating the coverage, i.e. food lists of national FCDBs, if the used databases cover most of the national market. • Nordic collaboration should be further intensified in the fields of analysing nutrient content of missing ingredients in FCDBs, harmonising nutrient label calculation procedures and proposing improvements to the European legislation concerning tolerances of nutrient values in labelling.
  • Jauhiainen, L.; Mannisto, S.; Ylostalo, P.; Vehkalahti, M.; Nordblad, A.; Turunen, A. W.; Suominen, A. L. (2017)
    To study differences in consumption of foods and intake of nutrients attributable to denture status. Data from a cross-sectional, nationally representative Health 2000 Survey, subjects aged 55-84 years (n=2,241). Denture status (edentulous with full dentures, own dentition with removable dentures, own dentition with no removable dentures) was used as an explanatory variable. The consumption of foods and intake of nutrients was used as an outcome variable and was measured using a validated Food Frequency Questionnaire. Denture status associated with food choices. Full denture wearers consumed less vegetables (p = 0.013 among men and p = 0.001 among women) and fruits (p = 0.001 among women), more sugary products (p = 0.012 among men and p = 0.008 among women), and their balance in fatty acids was less favourable than among dentate participants. Among dentate participants, the differences between the two groups were small and statistically significant differences were seen mostly in women. Wearing full dentures appears to be associated with unhealthier food choices, lower consumption of some foodstuffs and lower intake of certain nutrients when compared to the food choices of dentate persons.
  • Miettinen, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Pedunculopontine tegmental nucleus (PPTg) has been connected to many different brain functions. Lesions in this region have been demonstrated to have effects on drug related behavior, learning and locomotion. Furthermore, glutamatergic projections to VTA have been found in earlier studies. VTA is one of the most important brain regions related to feeling of reward. Thus, it is plausible that glutamatergic cells are the ones that are responsible for these alterations in drug related behaviour. Additionally, there are efferents to basal ganglia and regions related to them, which indicates that PPTg is likely to possess some functions related to locomotion. The aim of this study was to explore what kind of differences in food consumption, spontaneous locomotion, morphine induced locomotion and morphine induced conditioned place preference result from modulation of activity of the glutamatergic neurons of the PPTg in mice. In this study DREADD-method was used. This method allowed for both excitation and inhibition of the neurons. This method involves injection viral vector stereotactically to the desired brain region, which leads to expression of artificial receptor in specific type of neurons. These receptors can then be activated by injecting clozapine-Noxide(CNO) intraperitoneally. There were two test groups, one got receptor that activates the neuron when activated, other got one that inhibits the neuron. Control group got receptor that does not react to CNO. In the tests conducted, there was no difference in the amount of food consumed or distance moved spontaneously. In the conditioned place preference experiment, there was no significant difference in distance moved between groups. However, both of the test groups expressed weaker preference to the morphine-paired environment when compared to the control group. This could be explained by reinforcing effects of morphine being mediated through glutamatergic neurons of the PPTg.
  • Koponen, Sami; Niva, Mari (2020)
    This paper analyzes the blurring boundaries between food and art in the West by examining the contemporary field of upmarket dining. The study adopts a practice theoretical view, conceptualizes artful dining as a large-scale cultural formation (?teleoaffective formation?), and explores the configurations of artful dining in the context of New Nordic Upmarket Bistros (NNUBs). Based on blog texts, chef interview and participant observation at a Finnish NNUB, the study demonstrates how the local restaurant enthusiasts adopted and adjusted artful dining in a specific, ?everyday? context of upmarket dining. The study presents dining at NNUBs as one of the many practices that have substantially expanded the art-oriented dining ideals beyond modernist cuisine. It discusses artful dining within the contemporary (gourmet) food culture and encourages further diversification of approaches in studies examining artful dining and the intersection of food and art.
  • Bäck, Sari (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Background: The EAT-Lancet Commission proposed a healthy dietary pattern from environmentally sustainable food production systems to guide food system transformation. The EAT-Lancet reference diet comprises mass-based food consumption targets (both point estimates and ranges) for different food groups. Baseline assessments are required to inform the planning of the national food system transformation. Therefore, it is important to identify gaps between the targets and local food consumption. Objectives: The present study aimed to assess the current state of Finnish pre-schoolers’ diet by comparison with the reference diet’s food group level targets. Specifically, the Finnish pre-schoolers’ food consumption was estimated in the food groups of the reference diet. Methods: Data from 807 children (3- to 6-year-olds, 48% girls), were collected in the Increased Health and Wellbeing in Preschools (DAGIS) cross-sectional survey in 2015–2016. Food records, covering from one up to five complete days, were kept by parents and pre-school personnel. Detailed information on foods, such as ingredients of composite dishes and product names for packed foods were recorded. Food record data were decomposed into ingredients by AivoDiet dietary software. Industrial products, such as sausages and biscuits, were manually decomposed into ingredients by estimating the shares of ingredients using product information available on a retailer’s online database and food manufacturers’ webpages. Formulas were developed to calculate the consumption of added sugars. The consumption of dairy products was converted into milk equivalents using factors from the literature. Finally, the ingredients were manually classified into the reference diet’s food groups. The target amounts were set (separately for two age groups) in grams by proportioning the published target amounts (that assume a 2500 kcal diet) to the children’s average reported energy intake. The National Cancer Institute (NCI) method was used to calculate the daily average food consumption and the proportion of children who met targets in each food group. Results: Compared to the point estimate targets, on average, the daily food consumption for 3- to 4-year-olds (n 462) and 5- to 6-year-olds (n 345) differed for vegetables (60% of the target in both age groups); legumes and nuts (below a tenth of the target); whole grains (less than a third of the target); red meat (approximately 5.5 times the target); dairy foods (approximately 5 times the target); tubers (over 2.5 times the target) and added sugar (close to double of the target). Discussion: To enable comparison with the EAT-Lancet reference diet’s food group level targets, an approach for disaggregating children’s food record data was developed. To achieve a more sustainable diet and comply with the EAT-Lancet targets, the Finnish pre-schoolers would need to consume more plant-based foods i.e. vegetables, legumes and nuts, and whole grains, which should replace the refined grains. The consumption of animal proteins, especially red meat and dairy products, would need to be decreased, as well as the consumption of tubers (mainly potato) and added sugar.
  • Korkalo, Liisa; Nissinen, Kaija M; Skaffari, Essi; Vepsäläinen, Henna; Lehto, Reetta; Kaukonen, Riikka Elisa; Koivusilta, Leena; Sajaniemi, Nina; Roos, Eva; Erkkola, Maijaliisa (2019)
    Preschool meals may influence the formation of children's dietary habits and health. We assessed the contribution of preschool meals to the diet of Finnish children. We used food record data from the cross-sectional DAGIS survey and selected recording days which included all three meals (breakfast, lunch, afternoon snack) at preschool. We analyzed the diet of three- to four-year-olds (n = 324) and five- to six-year-olds (n = 233). Preschool meals accounted for 54% of the weekday's energy intake in both age groups, and provided >= 60% of total fiber, polyunsaturated fatty acids, and vitamins D and E. More than 60% of fish dishes but only one third of total daily fresh fruit were consumed at preschool. The mean (SD) percentages of energy from protein and fat at preschool were 17% (3%) and 30% (7%) in the younger and 17% (3%) and 31% (6%) in the older age group, respectively. The mean proportions of energy from added sugar at preschool were below 5% in both age groups. On average, salt intake exceeded recommendations and 60% of salt came from preschool food. Tackling high salt intake should be a future goal of guidance for early childhood education and care food services.