Browsing by Subject "food"

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  • Hartikainen, Hanna (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    The environmental impacts of food production and consumption are substantial, and therefore, it’s important that their impacts are investigated and communicated. Life cycle assessment (LCA) is one promising method to assess the environmental impacts of products, like food products. It’s a process to assess products' environmental impacts through their life-cycle, and it’s used, for example, in policy making, companies’ strategic decision making and when communicating products’ environmental impacts. LCA is used actively nowadays, for example, over the past year few Finnish food companies have decided to calculate and communicate their products’ carbon footprints using LCA. LCA methodology has clearly developed during the past decades. However, there isn’t a shared view on all of the methodological issues. In fact, one essential methodological challenge is allocation situation. In allocation situation all inputs and outputs, such as, green house gas emissions produced in the product system are to be distributed between the studied product and its co-products. For instance, when the studied product is milk it should be determined how the inputs and outputs produced in the dairy cattle farm are to be divided between the farm’s products: beef and raw milk. Furthermore, in the dairy factory it needs to be decided how the inputs and outputs are to be divided between the further processed milk and other dairy products produced in the factory. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the allocation situations in the LCAs of food, as well as, to present, compare and find weaknesses and strengths of different ways of handling allocation situations and ways of guiding them. This is done in a literature study and in a LCA case-study made for Finnish farmed rainbow trout. It was calculated that the choice of how to handle the allocation situation has a major impact on the environmental impacts directed to the product under investigation. For example, climate change impacts and eutrophication of water bodies caused by production of a trout fillet can halve or double depending on the choice of the allocation method. Several different allocation methods were indentified, including ways to avoid allocation and ways to allocate the inputs and outputs, for instance, on the basis of the products' prices. To improve the harmonization of food LCAs and to reduce subjectivity it is important that there is guidance when choosing the allocation method. However, the existing LCA guides investigated don’t give enough support for the allocation situations. They provide divergent instructions and recommendations; they aren’t very specific in the allocation instructions and they allow choosing almost any allocation method, and therefore there is clear need for more specific instructions. Thus, it is evident that there is need to discuss and agree on the suitability of allocation methods to be used in LCAs of different food products. Also, because of the existing uncertainty one should be really careful when communicating exact environmental impacts, instead, one should consider presenting environmental impacts in a more coarse scale, for example, by presenting the scale of the results when using different allocation methods.
  • Järviö, Natasha; Maljanen, Netta-Leena; Kobayashi, Yumi; Ryynänen, Toni; Tuomisto, Hanna (2021)
    Novel food production technologies are being developed to address the challenges of securing sustainable and healthy nutrition for the growing global population. This study assessed the environmental impacts of microbial protein (MP) produced by autotrophic hydrogen-oxidizing bacteria (HOB). Data was collected from a company currently producing MP using HOB (hereafter simply referred to as MP) on a small-scale. Earlier studies have performed an environmental assessment of MP on a theoretical basis but no study yet has used empirical data. An attributional life cycle assessment (LCA) with a cradle-to-gate approach was used to quantify global warming potential (GWP), land use, freshwater and marine eutrophication potential, water scarcity, human (non-)carcinogenic toxicity, and the cumulative energy demand (CED) of MP production in Finland. A Monte Carlo analysis was performed to assess uncertainties. The impacts of alternative production options and locations were explored. The impacts were compared with animal- and plant-based protein sources for human consumption as well as protein sources for feed. The results showed that electricity consumption had the highest contribution to environmental impacts. Therefore, the source of energy had a substantial impact on the results. MP production using hydropower as an energy source yielded 87.5% lower GWP compared to using the average Finnish electricity mix. In comparison with animal-based protein sources for food production, MP had 53-100% lower environmental impacts depending on the reference product and the source of energy assumed for MP production. When compared with plant-based protein sources for food production, MP had lower land and water use requirements, and eutrophication potential but GWP was reduced only if low-emission energy sources were used. Compared to protein sources for feed production, MP production often resulted in lower environmental impact for GWP (FHE), land use, and eutrophication and acidification potential, but generally caused high water scarcity and required more energy.
  • Aaltonen, Sirkku (Helsingin yliopisto, 2011)
    Aims. The aim of this thesis is to cover Marilyn Monroe's relationship with food as it appears in literature written about her. The study covers the years from 1942 to 1962, when Marilyn was between ages 16 and 36. As an adult, she was responsible for her own food intake. The emphasis of this study is on the following: what kind of food Marilyn ate, how different stages of her life affected her relationship with food, whether the food she ate was made by her or someone else, how interested she was in food, and what kind of food she liked. The historical context is also an important part of this study. Methods. The research material consists of literature written about Marilyn Monroe. This literature was the analyzed using content analysis. The research material was then divided into categories, which are different times of Marilyn's life. Considering the sources was a very important part when gathering material. Results and conclusions. As a result, Marilyn's relationship with food varied during her lifetime. During her first marriage she had to learn to cook for the first time in her life, and thus she sometimes made mistakes. Food was also gathered by hunting and fishing. As a young starlet in Hollywood Marilyn didn't have a lot of money for food, so she ate very little and very inexpensively. As her career progressed she was able to enjoy food more. Marilyn's second husband was from an Italian-American family, and Marilyn learned to cook Italian food and broil steaks. After moving to New York Marilyn often ate at her friends' homes. When she got married for the third time she really wanted to be a good housewife. During this period her cooking improved considerably. She also learned to cook Jewish dishes. After the marriage ended Marilyn was facing the hardest time of her life, until she moved to Los Angeles and bought her own house. She was planning to invite friends over for food and good times, and also said that she enjoyed champagne and good food.
  • Vuorinen, Anna-Leena; Erkkola, Maijaliisa; Fogelholm, Mikael; Kinnunen, Satu; Saarijärvi, Hannu; Uusitalo, Liisa; Näppilä, Turkka; Nevalainen, Jaakko (2020)
    Background: To date, the evaluation of diet has mostly been based on questionnaires and diaries that have their limitations in terms of being time and resource intensive, and a tendency toward social desirability. Loyalty card data obtained in retailing provides timely and objective information on diet-related behaviors. In Finland, the market is highly concentrated, which provides a unique opportunity to investigate diet through grocery purchases. Objective: The aims of this study were as follows: (1) to investigate and quantify the selection bias in large-scale (n=47,066) loyalty card (LoCard) data and correct the bias by developing weighting schemes and (2) to investigate how the degree of loyalty relates to food purchases. Methods: Members of a loyalty card program from a large retailer in Finland were contacted via email and invited to take part in the study, which involved consenting to the release of their grocery purchase data for research purposes. Participants' sociodemographic background was obtained through a web-based questionnaire and was compared to that of the general Finnish adult population obtained via Statistics Finland. To match the distributions of sociodemographic variables, poststratification weights were constructed by using the raking method. The degree of loyalty was self-estimated on a 5-point rating scale. Results: On comparing our study sample with the general Finnish adult population, in our sample, there were more women (65.25%, 30,696/47,045 vs 51.12%, 2,273,139/4,446,869), individuals with higher education (56.91%, 20,684/36,348 vs 32.21%, 1,432,276/4,446,869), and employed individuals (60.53%, 22,086/36,487 vs 52.35%, 2,327,730/4,446,869). Additionally, in our sample, there was underrepresentation of individuals aged under 30 years (14.44%, 6,791/47,045 vs 18.04%, 802,295/4,446,869) and over 70 years (7.94%, 3,735/47,045 vs 18.20%, 809,317/4,446,869), as well as retired individuals (23.51%, 8,578/36,487 vs 31.82%, 1,414,785/4,446,869). Food purchases differed by the degree of loyalty, with higher shares of vegetable, red meat & processed meat, and fat spread purchases in the higher loyalty groups. Conclusions: Individuals who consented to the use of their loyalty card datafor research purposes tended to diverge from the general Finnish adult population. However, the high volume of data enabled the inclusion of sociodemographically diverse subgroups and successful correction of the differences found in the distributions of sociodemographic variables. In addition, it seems that food purchases differ according to the degree of loyalty, which should be taken into account when researching loyalty card data. Despite the limitations, loyalty card data provide a cost-effective approach to reach large groups of people, including hard-to-reach population subgroups.
  • Fu, Y; Qiao, W; Zhu, D; Wang, X; Liu, F; Xu, H; Saris, Per Erik Joakim; Kuipers, Osacar; Qiao, Mingqiang (2018)
    Nisin, an important bacteriocin from Lactococcus lactis subsp., is primarily active against various Gram-positive bacteria. Leucocin C, produced by Leuconostoc carnosum 4010, is a class IIa bacteriocin used to inhibit the growth of Listeria monocytogenes. Because two bacteriocins have different modes of action, the combined use of them could be a potential strategy for effective inhibition of foodborne pathogens. In this study, L. lactis N8-r-lecCI (N8 harboring lecCI gene) coexpressing nisin–leucocin C was constructed based on the food-grade carrier L. lactis N8. Production of both bacteriocins was stably maintained. Antimicrobial measurements showed that the recombinant strain is effectively against Listeria monocytogenes and Staphylococcus aureus and moderately against Salmonella enterica serovar Enteritidis and Escherichia coli because of its stronger antibacterial activity than the parental strain, this result first demonstrated that the co-expression of nisin and leucocin C results in highly efficient antimicrobial activity. The checkerboard assay showed that the antibacterial activity of L. lactis N8-r-lecCI supernatant was enhanced in the presence of low concentration of EDTA. Analysis of the scanning electron microscope image showed the biggest cellular morphology change in L. monocytogenes treated with a mixture of EDTA and L. lactis N8-r-lecCI supernatant. The practical effect was verified in pasteurized milk through time-kill assay. The L. lactis N8-r-lecCI strain expressing both nisin and leucocin C has a promising application prospect in pasteurized milk processing and preservation because of its strong antibacterial activity.
  • Rinkinen, Jenny; Shove, Elizabeth; Smits, Mattijs (2017)
    We know that patterns of domestic consumption are situated within broader systems of provision and that home appliances like the fridge freezer bridge between practices of cooking, shopping and eating, on one hand, and increasingly global systems of food production, distribution and diet on the other. In analysing the uses of fridge freezers in Hanoi and Bangkok as expressions, in microcosm, of complex and evolving processes of urbanisation and food provisioning, this article provides new insight into how specific configurations, dependencies and patterns of consumption take hold and how they vary and change. Our analysis of systems and practices in flux has the dual function of showing how household strategies reflect and contribute to more extensive transformations, and of demonstrating how these are shaped by ongoing tensions and relations between new and established forms of urban food supply and associated concepts of freshness and safety. The result is a subtle account of the multiple routes through which consumer 'needs' evolve.
  • Salo, Marja; Nissinen, Ari (Suomen ympäristökeskus, 2017)
    Reports of the Finnish Environment Institute 30/2017
    Climate change mitigation requires action in all spheres of society. The role of household consumption is often overlooked. However, 72% of global greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions are related to household consumption, while the rest stem from government consumption and investments. The result from a Finnish study is quite similar: households accounted for 68% of the GHG emissions of domestic final consumption in Finland, whereas government consumption and investments were responsible for the other 32% The key question in this report is: How much can a typical Finn decrease one’s GHG emissions with consumption decisions? To address this question, we took the average GHG emissions from consumption as a starting point. In Finland in 2010, the average per capita GHG emissions from consumption expenditure was 11.5 tonnes of CO2e. Between 2000 and 2013, the average per capita GHG emissions fluctuated from 9.6 tonnes to 11.8 tonnes. The per capita consumption carbon footprint in Finland is on the high end of the European scale but smaller compared to Australia and the United States, for instance. We listed measures that an ordinary Finnish consumer can use to decrease their GHG emissions with existing technology and solutions, and estimated the potential to avoid emissions with these activities. We focused on the most important sources of GHG emissions in Finland, including housing and especially energy-related emissions, private car travel and food choices. We also examined the consumption of goods and services, although in that particular category the emissions consist of a wide range of goods and services, and the potential of single or small numbers of actions is challenging to define. The GHG emissions include housing, travel, food, consumption of other goods and services. We used the consumption perspective, i.e. the emissions of consumption in Finnish households were taken into account regardless of their geographic origin. Therefore, the embodied emissions of imported goods were included. We estimated that the carbon footprint of an average Finn could be decreased from 11.5 tkg of CO2e to 7.2 tkg. In this paper, we present the measures for housing, travel, food, and goods and services that can be used to reach these savings. While consumption choices have potential in mitigating climate change, we note that there are barriers in reducing GHG emissions with consumption choices. The solutions to overcome the barriers can be market-based, i.e. business models in which the product or service produces less GHG emissions. Informational measures such as labelling help consumers choose products and services with lower GHG emissions. Public policies also play a role in speeding up product development, as shown by the examples of energy labelling of home appliances and phasing out inefficient lighting solutions. Informational measures can also include tools such as carbon footprint calculators and campaigns to raise awareness and engage people to take action. In this report we focused on the GHG emissions. However, other environmental footprints and indicators also show the unsustainability of current consumption patterns.
  • Kaljonen, Minna; Salminen, Jani; Alhola, Katriina; Knuuttila, Seppo; Toivonen, Marjaana; Furman, Eeva (Finnish Environment Institute, 2020)
    SYKE POLICY BRIEF / 31.08.2020
  • Lähteenmäki-Uutela, Anu; Rahikainen, Moona; Camarena-Gómez, María Teresa; Piiparinen, Jonna; Spilling, Kristian; Yang, Baoru (Springer Nature, 2021)
    Aquaculture International 29 (2021), 487–509
    Macroalgae-based products are increasing in demand also in Europe. In the European Union, each category of macroalgae-based products is regulated separately. We discuss EU legislation, including the law on medicinal products, foods including food supplements and food additives, feed and feed additives, cosmetics, packaging materials, fertilizers and biostimulants, as well as biofuels. Product safety and consumer protection are the priorities with any new products. Macroalgae products can be sold as traditional herbal medicines. The novel food regulation applies to macroalgae foods that have not previously been used as food, and organic macroalgae are a specific regulatory category. The maximum levels of heavy metals may be a barrier for macroalgae foods, feeds, and fertilizers. Getting health claims approved for foods based on macroalgae is demanding. In addition to the rules on products, the macroalgae business is strongly impacted by the elements of the general regulatory environment such as agricultural/aquacultural subsidies, maritime spatial planning and aquaculture licensing, public procurement criteria, tax schemes, and trade agreements.
  • Jakobsen, Morten (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The present study examines the discursive construction of Nordic identity in a contemporary movement of the twenty-first century known as New Nordic Cuisine (NNC). It contributes to the sparsely researched topic of food and nationalism by uncovering how New Nordic Cuisine relies on a shared history of the Nordic nation-states and roots itself in a primordialist conception of nations in order to create a Nordic identity movement. The thesis incorporates theories and concepts from history, human geography, and political science as its foundation for answering how a Nordic identity is discursively constructed by the movement and what the societal implications are of this construction. The methodology used for this type of interdisciplinary analysis is Critical Discourse Analysis as envisioned by Norman Fairclough. The data consists of two cookbooks, three reports by the Nordic Council of Ministers (NCM), and one promotional brochure also by NCM. This range of material ensures that the main figures and initiators of the movement, meaning the chefs and the politicians of NCM, are represented. The analysis locates three discourses on globalization, terroir, and identity respectively. NNC adopts the French gastronomic term ‘terroir’ in order to explain a close connection between food, nature, and identity. The movement defines terroir as the eternal conditions in which produce grows, meaning all the natural elements of the weather and the soil, which together make a place unique. Due to the produce coming to life in these conditions, it is thought to embody the culture of that location. When humans consume the food, their conception of themselves transforms. Thus, the timeless identity of the land is experienced through food and, at the same time, affects the identity of people. The implications of this idea are that societies, who legitimize themselves based on a shared identity, are at least partly created based on the nature of that location. Such a terroir is argued to exist in Norden. The idea of a Nordic terroir means that the Nordic people, in order to establish a stable identity, need to experience the terroir-dimension in the food they consume. However, according to the movement the emergence of globalization has obfuscated a previously close connection to nature by industrializing and homogenising the production of food. This has resulted in a lack of Nordic identity. This thesis argues that the NNC movement due to their romantic vision of nature and people fail to see the creation of Nordic nation-states and the idea of Norden in a historical perspective. Globalization is not antithetical to nation-states, but was instead an essential facilitator in their emergence during the nineteenth century. Only by acknowledging the historical specificity of Norden and its nation-states as well as the changing nature of terroirs throughout history can we live with a vision of the world that complements history and scientific evidence.
  • Christensen, Tue; Nielsen, Cecilie Wirenfeldt; Valsta, Liisa; Aalto, Sanni; Haario, Peppi; Reinivuo, Heli; Virtanen, Suvi; Pastell, Helena; Nieminen, Janne; Reykdal, Ólafur; Axelsson, Cecilia; Petrelius-Sipinen, Jessica; Kielland, Ellen; Østerholt Dalane, Jorån; Hauger Carlsen, Monica; Salupuu, Kristin; Jõgi, Änn (Nordic Council of Ministers, 2020)
    This report describes the activities of two projects that were carried out using the infrastructure of the Nordic Food Analysis Network, i.e. the ‘Nordic Food Composition Data for Labelling (NordCoLa)’ project carried out between 2018 and 2020, and the preceding project ‘Fostering the quality and use of Nordic food composition data’, carried out under the Finnish Presidency of the NCM in 2016. The primary aim of the NordCoLa project was to evaluate the needs, synergies and critical points of the Nordic FCDBs (e.g. food ingredient and nutrient value gaps) in relation to the composition data to be used to implement the new European nutrient labelling legislation. This was to ensure quality food composition data in the Nordic countries for food producers and other users for nutrient labelling purposes. The most important gaps were evaluated and summarised by this project. This project included an exercise comparing calculated and analysed nutrient information of selected Nordic food samples. This information was then compared with the acceptable tolerance limits in use in the EU. As part of the projects, two open seminars were organised in Helsinki; the first one on 16 October 2016 and the second on 17 April 2019. The seminars gathered a total of around 150 participants together to hear about challenges in the area of food composition data and their use in food labelling and related quality issues. In addition, the project included research on food label information in order to evaluate the usefulness of the Mintel Global New Products’ Database (Mintel GNPD) and GS1 in the work of updating and compiling information used in food composition databases. The network’s main conclusions and strategical proposals are as follows: • There is a need for more analyses and continuous compiling work in order to ensure updated FCDBs for the users. Opportunities for Nordic collaboration in food analyses should be carefully evaluated. • More industrial ingredients need to be analysed and added to FCDBs. Obtaining such information is important to keep the databases useful, especially for SMEs in the food business. • The calculated values are of overall good quality when compared with analysed values, with the exception of protein, sugars and salt. This warrants more attention to take carbohydrates and especially simple sugars into account when planning future national food analysis programmes. Collecting more information on salt content and comparing it with the analysed information on food products is also needed. • There is no legislation for the methods to be used in the food analysis. This means that different methods are used and even different components may be measured resulting variation in nutrient contents. Sugars are an example of that, since different techniques measure total sugar content or different 7 sugar components separately and both ways are accepted for labelling purposes. • Calculating nutrient contents of food items according to a standardised method is a good and affordable way of producing values for food composition databases and food labelling purposes, if the data quality of the FCDBs are based on analysed values. • The acceptable variation in nutrient label information based on EC legislation tolerances is very large. The tolerances may even threaten the meaningful reformulation of food products and reliable consumer information due to uncertainties over the labelled nutrient values. • More information is needed regarding the validity of nutrient labelling at the Nordic and European level. To avoid misleading consumer information, food analyses should be used to check the validity of nutrient labelling and to monitor reformulation efforts. • Nutrient label data from commercial food label databases, for example, is not recommended to be used, in general, for updating nutrient values of foods in the national FCDBs. However, such databases were found to be partially useful in updating the coverage, i.e. food lists of national FCDBs, if the used databases cover most of the national market. • Nordic collaboration should be further intensified in the fields of analysing nutrient content of missing ingredients in FCDBs, harmonising nutrient label calculation procedures and proposing improvements to the European legislation concerning tolerances of nutrient values in labelling.
  • Aapio, Fanny (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Food literacy is a noteworthy topic to be studied due to food’s considerable environmental and health effects. When food literacy and its characteristics are known, food literacy can be used as a tool to improve people’s health and the condition of the environment. Thus, this thesis aims to reveal the extent of food literacy among Finnish upper secondary school students. In this context, food literacy emphasises food-related environmental and health knowledge. Environmental knowledge is understanding of the global environmental impact of food. Health knowledge, on the other hand, is the familiarity with the relationship between excessive meat consumption and Finnish common diseases along with beliefs regarding diets and food products as a source of protein. This thesis also aims to identify to what extent does the food literacy differ based on gender, study year and living area. This study was performed as a quantitative sample survey and the data was collected using an online Typeform -questionnaire. The questionnaire reached respondents from many different Finnish localities, mainly from cities. The final data consisted of 1320 individuals and it was analysed using IMB SPSS Statistics 24 software. The following methods were used to analyse data: frequency analysis, an Independent Samples t Test, a One-way ANOVA, and a Post-hoc LSD test. Gender, study year and living area were used as grouping variables to examine the differences between groups. The results show that the students named school as the main source of food literacy. Moreover, the results indicate that awareness regarding food production, dietary health and proteins increase significantly from the first to the third study year. The students acknowledged food production causing environmental problems and that the share of food in the consumer’s climatic impact is considerable. Nevertheless, the students underestimated the climatic impact of cheese and they were unaware of the more specific characteristics of food’s environmental impacts. They also had food-related environmental misconceptions considering packaging, transportation and meat consumption. Moreover, approximately half or more of the students were aware of the connection between excessive meat consumption and the increased risk of distinct common diseases. Most of the students acknowledged a versatile vegetarian diet as being a healthy choice. The study also reveals that female students had notably higher dietary health knowledge than male students. This Master’s thesis study mainly supports the findings of previous studies on food-related knowledge. The results elucidate the extent, characteristics, gaps and misconceptions of students’ food literacy. These findings may be utilized to improve school education on food literacy, alter misconceptions and fill the gaps of knowledge in pursuit of improving the health of people and the condition of the environment.
  • Deptula, Paulina; Chamlagain, Bhawani; Edelmann, Minnamari; Sangsuwan, Panchanit; Nyman, Tuula A.; Savijoki, Kirsi; Piironen, Vieno; Varmanen, Pekka (2017)
    Propionibacterium freudenreichii is a traditional dairy bacterium and a producer of short chain fatty acids (propionic and acetic acids) as well as vitamin B12. In food applications, it is a promising organism for in situ fortification with B12 vitamin since it is generally recognized as safe (GRAS) and it is able to synthesize biologically active form of the vitamin. In the present study, vitamin B12 and pseudovitamin biosynthesis by P. freudenreichii was monitored by UHPLC as a function of growth in food-like conditions using a medium mimicking cheese environment, without cobalt or 5,6-dimethylbenzimidazole (DMBI) supplementation. Parallel growth experiments were performed in industrial-type medium known to support the biosynthesis of vitamin B12. The production of other key metabolites in the two media were determined by HPLC, while the global protein production was compared by gel-based proteomics to assess the effect of growth conditions on the physiological status of the strain and on the synthesis of different forms of vitamin. The results revealed distinct protein andmetabolite production, which reflected the growth conditions and the potential of P. freudenreichii for synthesizing nutritionally relevant amounts of active vitamin B12 regardless of the metabolic state of the cells.
  • Kaljonen, Minna; Salo, Marja; Lyytimäki, Jari; Furman, Eeva (Emerald Publishing Limited, 2020)
    British Food Journal 122 (11), 3313-3329
    Purpose The critical role of diet in climate change mitigation has raised behavioural approaches to the top of the agenda. In this paper, the authors take a critical look at these behavioural approaches and call for a more dynamic, practice-oriented understanding of long-term changes in sustainable food consumption and supply. Design/methodology/approach This approach is based on the experiences from a long-term experiment promoting sustainable eating in a workplace lunch restaurant using a series of informational and nudging techniques. In the experiment, the authors found that focussing solely on eating behaviours did not help to capture the multi-level change processes mobilised. The authors therefore propose a more dynamic, practice-oriented methodology for examining long-term changes in sustainable eating. The emprical data of the experiment are based on qualitative and quantitative data, consisting of customer survey, customer and kitchen personnel focus group discussions and monitoring data on the use of food items in the restaurant and their climate impacts. Findings The results draw attention to a series of practical challenges restaurants face when promoting sustainable eating. Directing analytical attention to tinkering helped to reveal the tensions brought about by labelling and nudging in menu planning and recipe development. The results show how tinkering required attentiveness to customers' wishes in both cases. Nudging offered more freedom for the restaurant to develop menus and recipes. In the case scrutinised, however, nudging customers towards tastier and more satiating vegetarian dishes included the use of dairy. This partly watered down the climate benefits gained from reduced meat consumption. Originality/value Rather than looking separately at changes in consumer behaviour and in the supply of food, the authors show how we need analytical concepts that enable the evaluation of their mutual evolution. Tinkering can assist us in this endeavour. Its adaptive, adjustive character, however, calls for caution. The development of praxis in food services and catering requires critical companions from the transdisciplinary research community. Research can provide systematic knowledge on the impacts of labels and nudges on kitchen praxis. However, research itself also needs to tinker and learn from experiments. This necessitates long-term speculative research strategies.
  • Roukka, Matti (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The chemesthesis perception needs to be researched so that we can better understand how it works in different individuals and affects them. Chemesthesis, smell and taste chemical senses have an important role in individual food choices and health. The primary goal was to study the individual differences in perception of chemesthesis. The data for this study was collected at the University of Turku Functional Food Forum sensory laboratory (ISO 8589). The data includes sensory study results about chemesthetic properties such as astringency, burning and cooling, which are the properties analysed in this study. Study subjects (N=196) evaluated the intensity of these three properties. Every property had five sensory samples presented in different concentrations. Based on the results, the intensity rate was classified into three groups (non-sensitive, semi-sensitive, most sensitive) with Hierarchical clustering. The differences of the formed groups were analysed with the one-way multivariate analysis of variance which gave statistically significant results (F = 10.0; p ≤ 0.001). Mean values of the cluster groups from three different chemesthetic properties were combined into chemesthesis scores. Age didn’t affect the chemesthesis score (F = 0.5; p > 0.05). Female subjects’ chemesthesis scores differ from the male subjects’ scores (F = 5.1; p ≤ 0.01). The correlation between chemesthesis and taste was tested from Puputti et al. (2018) created taste score with data from the same subjects, and chemesthesis score. Chemesthesis score and taste score had a positive correlation (r = +0.561; p ≤ 0.01). The results show that individuals differ in the perception of chemesthesis. The chemesthesis score can classify individuals to different sensitivity groups and chemesthesis appears to correlate with taste. There are many chemesthetic sensations whose properties and mechanisms are unknown. The objectives of the research were achieved. The research is a part of Professor Mari Sandell’s the Academy of Finland funded Food Taste research program and was done during the COVID-19 pandemic.
  • Katto, Jonna (2020)
    This article focuses on the sensory and affective dimension of food, cooking and eating in ex-combatants’ life narratives in northern Mozambique. It explores the polytemporality reflected in food memories, and the ways in which the past, present and future are connected in the present experience of remembering. For the ex-combatants, food is strongly linked to their memories of the liberation struggle (1964–74). Drawing on life history research with Ciyaawo-speaking ex-combatants in the north-western province of Niassa between 2012 and 2014, this article traces the changing ideas and meanings of food and eating in their life narratives from their childhood, through wartime to the period of ‘liberation’. After independence, most ex-combatants settled down as subsistence farmers with the expectation that ‘finally’ they would ‘eat well’. Yet, for many, their experience of independent Mozambique has been that of socio-economic and political marginalisation. While food is crucial to survival, this article looks at how food is so much more than just nutrition. In the ex-combatants’ memories, aesthetic aspects of food are closely intertwined with the revolutionary ideas of liberation and socio-economic justice. The meaning of food in the ex-combatants’ narratives, as the article argues, is shaped simultaneously and in complex ways through their personal aesthetic experiences and memories of food as well as the changing political aesthetics.
  • Maskulin, Viivi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Tavoitteet. Ilmaston lämpeneminen on yksi suurimpia tulevaisuuden haasteita, jonka ehkäise-miseksi muutokset kulutuskäyttäytymisessä, yhteiskuntarakenteissa sekä yritystoiminnassa ovat tutkimustiedon mukaan välttämättömiä. Ruoka sekä ruoantuotanto ovat yksi merkittävim-mistä maapallon kantokykyä kuormittavista tekijöistä. Muutokset päästöjen vähentämisessä tai vaihtoehtoisesti seuraukset, joita ilmaston lämpeneminen aiheuttaa, tulevat koskettamaan erityi-sesti nuorten sukupolvia. Tässä tutkielmassa tavoitteena on pyrkiä ymmärtämään nuorten nä-kemyksiä ruoan valintaan vaikuttavista tekijöistä etenkin kestävyyden näkökulmasta. Samalla tavoitteena on tutkia, miten nuoret kokevat erilaiset keinot ja niiden vaikuttavuuden osana il-mastonmuutosta ehkäiseviä toimia. Tämän tutkimuksen tutkimuskysymykset ovat: millä tavoin ruoanvalintaan ja -käyttöön liittyvät tekijät jäsentyvät nuorten mielipiteissä sekä mitkä ovat ne tekijät, jotka nuoret kokevat edistävän tai estävän kestävyyttä ruoan tai syömisen näkökulmas-ta? Ruokavalintoja käsitellään yksilön valintojen, kuten poliittisen kulutuksen teorisointien sekä yhteiskunnallisten ohjauskeinojen ja -rakenteiden näkökulmasta. Menetelmät. Tutkimusasetelmassa hyödynnetään sekä laadullisia että määrällisiä menetelmiä. Kyselyllä kerättyä aineistoa analysoidaan pääosin laadullisin menetelmin, eli aineistolähtöisellä sisällönanalyysilla ja teemoittelulla. Analyysia täydennetään aineiston mahdollistaman määrälli-sen tarkastelun keinoin. Kyselyaineisto koostuu 44 nuoren aikuisen (15–29-vuotiaan) vastauk-sista. Tulokset ja johtopäätökset. Tämän tutkimuksen tuloksina ruoan valintaan vaikuttavina yksittäi-sinä tekijöinä määritti erityisesti elämäntilanne, ruoan hinta sekä kotimaisen ruoan suosiminen mahdollisuuksien mukaan. Ruokaan liittyvät ympäristöä kuormittavat tekijät nähtiin erityisesti rakenteellisena ongelmana, mutta omilla kulutusvalinnoilla koettiin olevan yhtä lailla merkitystä tulevaisuuden haasteita ratkottaessa. Ilmastonmuutoksen sekä ruokavalintojen yhteys koettiin olemassa olevana ongelmana, johon nuorten mielestä tulisi löytää ratkaisu. Nuoret kokevat ruo-kaan ja kulutukseen liittyvät tekijät moniulotteisena kokonaisuutena ja miettivät tulevaisuutta. Nuoret tiedostavat ruoan yhteyden ilmastokriisiin ja tahtoisivat oppia lisää ruokaan liittyvistä tekijöistä, jotta kestävämpien kulutusvalintojen tekeminen olisi helpompaa. Nuoret ovat valmiita muuttamaan omaa kulutustaan, mutta odottavat aktiivisia toimia myös vallanpitäjiltä.
  • Hemida, Manal B. M.; Salin, Siru; Vuori, Kristiina A.; Moore, Robin; Anturaniemi, Johanna; Rosendahl, Sarah; Barrouin-Melo, Stella Maria; Hielm-Bjorkman, Anna (2021)
    Background The increased prevalence of atopic dermatitis (AD) in dogs necessitates research in its disease etiology. Objectives To explore the association between puppyhood dietary exposures and prevalence of owner-reported allergy/atopy skin signs (AASS) after the age of 1 year. Animals Four thousand and twenty-two dogs were eligible, 1158 cases, and 2864 controls. Methods This cross-sectional hypothesis-driven observational study was extracted from the DogRisk food frequency questionnaire. Forty-six food items and the ratio of 4 major diet types were tested for their association with AASS incidence later in life. Potential puppyhood dietary risk factors for AASS incidence were specified using binary multivariable logistic regression. The model was adjusted for age and sex. Results Eating raw tripe (odds ratio, 95% confidence intervals OR, 95% CI = 0.36, 0.16-0.79; P = .01), raw organ meats (OR, 95% CI = 0.23, 0.08-0.67; P = .007), human meal leftovers, and fish oil supplements as well as eating more that 20% of the diet as raw and/or
  • EFSA Panel Contaminants Food Chain; Knutsen, Helle; Alexander, Jan; Barregård, Lars; Bignami; Bruschweiler; Ceccatelli; Cottrill; Dinovi; Edler; Grasl-Kraupp; Hogstrand; Nebbia; Oswald; Petersen; Rose; Roudot; Schwerdtle; Vleminckx; Vollmer; Wallace; Furst; Håkansson, Helen; Halldorsson; Lundebye; Pohjanvirta, Raimo Kalevi; Rylander; Smith; van Loveren; Waalkens-Berendsen; Zeilmaker; Binaglia; Gomez Ruiz; Horvath; Christoph; Ciccolallo; Ramos Bordajandi; Steinkellner; Hoogenboom, Ron (2018)
    The European Commission asked EFSA for a scientific opinion on the risks for animal and human health related to the presence of dioxins (PCDD/Fs) and DL-PCBs in feed and food. The data from experimental animal and epidemiological studies were reviewed and it was decided to base the human risk assessment on effects observed in humans and to use animal data as supportive evidence. The critical effect was on semen quality, following pre- and postnatal exposure. The critical study showed a NOAEL of 7.0 pg WHO2005-TEQ/g fat in blood sampled at age 9 years based on PCDD/F-TEQs. No association was observed when including DL-PCB-TEQs. Using toxicokinetic modelling and taking into account the exposure from breastfeeding and a twofold higher intake during childhood, it was estimated that daily exposure in adolescents and adults should be below 0.25 pg TEQ/kg bw/day. The CONTAM Panel established a TWI of 2 pg TEQ/kg bw/week. With occurrence and consumption data from European countries, the mean and P95 intake of total TEQ by Adolescents, Adults, Elderly and Very Elderly varied between, respectively, 2.1 to 10.5, and 5.3 to 30.4 pg TEQ/kg bw/week, implying a considerable exceedance of the TWI. Toddlers and Other Children showed a higher exposure than older age groups, but this was accounted for when deriving the TWI. Exposure to PCDD/F-TEQ only was on average 2.4- and 2.7-fold lower for mean and P95 exposure than for total TEQ. PCDD/Fs and DL-PCBs are transferred to milk and eggs, and accumulate in fatty tissues and liver. Transfer rates and bioconcentration factors were identified for various species. The CONTAM Panel was not able to identify reference values in most farm and companion animals with the exception of NOAELs for mink, chicken and some fish species. The estimated exposure from feed for these species does not imply a risk.