Browsing by Subject "football"

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  • Kuvaja, Miira (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Tarkastelen pro gradu -tutkimuksessani miten eri ryhmät: tavalliset katsojat, sivulliset – kuten ohikulkijat – ja suuri yleisö suhtautuvat Helsingissä pelattavien jalkapallon miesten pääsarjatason paikallisotteluiden yhteydessä tapahtuviin häiriötilanteisiin. Näiden ryhmien lisäksi tapahtumin osallistuu myös ultria, eli intohimoisesti joukkueeseensa suhtautuvia katsojia sekä pieni määrä huligaaneja, jotka aiheuttavat varsinaiset häiriötilanteet. Eri ryhmien suhtautumisen lisäksi tarkastelen, miten kansainvälisen politiikan tutkimuksessa alkunsa saanut turvallistamisteoria toimii kansatieteellisessä eli etnologisessa tutkimuksessa, kun tutkimuskohteena on paikallinen tapahtuma. Lisäksi tarkoitukseni on saada selville, miten Facebook-yhteisöpalvelua voi käyttää aineistonkeruuvälineenä kansatieteellisessä tutkimuksessa. Tarkastelun kohteena olevia otteluja kutsutaan nimellä Stadin derby. Otteluissa pelaa kaksi perinteistä jalkapalloseuraa, Helsingin Jalkapalloklubi (HJK) ja HIFK. Jälkimmäisen noustua pääsarjatasolle saatiin Helsinkiin pitkään odotetut paikallisottelut, jotka aiheuttavat joukkueiden kannattajissa suuria tunteita. Otteluiden myötä tulivat myös häiriötilanteet – suuren maailman jalkapallokulttuuri saapui Helsinkiin hyvässä ja pahassa. Tutkimusmateriaalini tulee useasta lähteestä: salaisesta Facebook-ryhmästä, ryhmähaastattelusta ja järjestäjien haastatteluista. Lisäksi käytän taustamateriaalina artikkeleita Yleisradiolta ja Ilta-Sanomilta. Facebookissa käytän materiaalin hankintaan ensin julkista tutkimussivua ja sen jälkeen salaista tutkimusryhmää. Odotetusti – sosiaalisen median nykyilmapiirin vuoksi – en saanut ensimmäisessä vaiheessa vastauksia tutkimuskysymyksiini. Esitin ryhmässä seitsemän kysymystä, joista kolmen yhteyteen liitin joko artikkelin tai videon tapahtumista. Käytän tutkimuksessa kriittistä diskurssianalyysiä ja lähilukua eri aineistojen analysoimisessa. Näiden ohella käytän apunani tunteisiin liittyvää teoreettista keskustelua. Kaikki ryhmässä vastanneet tuomitsevat huliganismin Osassa tapahtumat aiheuttavat jopa raivoa, pelkoa ja vihaa. Moni ilmoitti, ettei halua lähteä tällaisissa tilanteissa stadionille katsomaan pelejä. Facebook-ryhmän aineiston avulla tuli selkeästi esiin, että lajia ja itse derbyjä tuntevat suhtautuivat häiriötilanteisiin tyynemmin. Osa heistä on ollut derbyissä, eivätkä he olleet kokeneet oloaan turvattomaksi. Tutkimusaineiston ja vastaajien kirjoittamien tunteiden ja näkemysten avulla pystyy myös jäljittämään derbyihin liittyviä turvallistamisen mekanismeja. Yllättävää on, että voimakkaimmin turvallistamista tuottavat media ja lajia tuntemattomat eli ulkopuoliset, eivätkä toimijat, joilla on asemansa vuoksi valta tehdä päätöksiä tilanteen rauhoittamiseksi. Tutkielman kieli on englanti. Sivumäärä 63 + liitteet 3
  • Iho, Antti; Heikkilä, Jaakko (Helsingin yliopisto, taloustieteen laitos, 2008)
    Discussion Papers
    We analyse the overall determinants of demand and isolate the effect of advance ticket sales on Finnish football league attendances. We postulate a linear OLS model for log-attendance data from the years 1991-2007. Matchday weather, timing of the match, team performance and match characteristics together with team, year, month and stadium specific dummies are used as the explanatory variables. The model is found to explain the data very well. The results suggest that offering the option of buying the tickets in advance has had an isolated positive effect on attendance for associated teams.
  • Hazard, Charles James (2002)
    This thesis looks at sectarianism, which is found in central Scotland. I analyse the relationship between Scotland’s two largest ethnic groups, Protestant Lowland Scots and Irish Catholics on both a historical and contemporary period. By looking at what l see as the key points of conflict between the communities, I attempt to explain why sectarianism persists within central Scotland. By looking at the historical, political and sporting aspects of central Scottish society hopefully we can begin to understand the forces which drive sectarianism in this area I put forward the idea that sectarianism in central Scotland has affected the chances for a nationalist political breakthrough in Scotland. As a political decision, I analyse the segregated education issue, which I claim is a major component in the sectarian debate. By looking at the communities involved, I show how the historical past has become a major source for the continuing conflict. I show how religious and national identity has become associated with football to such an extent that ones religious identity is based on which football club one supports. By using the concept of “Telling”, I show how both communities negotiate around the religious issue with the minimum of fuss in order to avoid conflict.
  • Barengo, Noel; Francisco Meneses-Echavez, Jose; Ramirez-Velez, Robinson; Dylan Cohen, Daniel; Tovar, Gustavo; Correa Bautista, Jorge Enrique (2014)
  • Ullom, Andrew William (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    This thesis explores representations of Brazil in Argentine print media coverage of the 2014 World Cup. In Argentina, and generally throughout Latin America as a whole, the game of football transcends the boundary of sport and has a significant effect on a societal level. Therefore, what is said within the context of sport can be then analyzed as potentially having significance on a more expansive, profound level. This thesis analyzes statements and portrayals of Brazil made within the context of a sporting competition-the 2014 World Cup- and examines if and how these statements cast Brazil as an inferior Other to Argentina. Theoretically, this thesis uses Edward Said’s Orientalism as a starting point with which to explore how an opposing group can be represented in such a way as to dominate it. Negatively stereotyping and essentializing an opposing group, as outlined by Said in Orientalism is applied to the Latin American context with the help of previous works by Latin American social scientists who have previously decontextualized Said’s work from the Orient and applied it specifically to the case of Argentina and Brazil. With his concept of ‘’banal nationalism’’, Michael Billig describes a type of nationalism which is almost constant and nearly undetectable. This proved highly relevant in relation to Argentine coverage of the World Cup, and also provides a theoretical basis for this thesis. Fieldwork was carried out in Buenos Aires, Argentina in 2014, where ethnographic fieldnotes and print media articles were collected, and semi-structured interviews were conducted. Qualitative content analysis and the application of coding frames to the collected print articles allow for the content of hundreds of articles to be reduced to pertinent reoccurring themes, which are then analyzed in relation to the research questions of this thesis. Within the data several reoccurring trends are found which contribute to the identity of a dominant or superior Argentina and a weak Brazil. Dominant and militaristic language, referred to as ‘’colonizing discourse’’ within this thesis, is employed to describe the interaction Argentine fans have with Brazilians and Brazilian space during the 2014 World Cup. The trend of speaking for the other by defining their mental state and applying negative emotional characteristics to the entire populations of Brazilian cities or even the entire country itself is also found, and it is argued that the assignation of negative emotions or a damaged psyche casts Brazil as weak, and thus, Argentina as strong.
  • Kuittinen, Vesa (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    The thesis focuses on football from the perspective of experience consumption. Experience consumption is used in this context to describe events and moments when one experiences unusual and memorable emotions. As a counterweight to everyday rationality, consumption of experiences has become ever more popular. The subject is dealt with experience society, sense of community and consumer tribe concepts. Special attention is given to cultural events, spectator sports as a social phenomenon as well as various football-related consumption patterns. The study is a phenomenological-ethnographic descriptive research. The methods used were participant observation and interviews. In the research tradition, understanding and describing of phenomenon as well as writing are essential. Observational data was collected in three different events by monitoring the behavior of spectators and the factors creating the atmosphere. The interviewees have been selected discretionary. Interviews were open by nature. Fascination of sports as a pastime is based on creating strong emotions; therefore spectator sports is experience consumption at its purest form. Sports is an excellent experience product because of its large number of patterns of consumption and because sports events build up an endless continuum. Also my own data indicates that a common history creates a bond with community, and future events help to keep up the enthusiasm. Even the moments of disappointment are essential, because every experience enhances the feelings for the “own” sport and community. In the sports events the experience itself is always subjective, but the existence of the community is necessary. Spectators have ambiguous desire to belong to a group and at the same time to be an outsider. They can choose to observe the game quietly themselves in the middle of the crowd or cheer with other spectators. Evidence suggests that a football fan's enthusiasm can gush from two sources: from the sense of community and from the interest in the game. Sense of community arises from the feeling of belonging to the global football community, to your own team and to a circle of friends. The interest in the game includes football as a sport, regular events watched actively and supporting your own team. Neo-tribe theories are not very relevant in this context, because football supporters are very loyal to the game and to their own club. It is more important to create tight bonds with a small collective, with whom they share a common history and they can share experiences through discussions and by memorizing.