Browsing by Subject "foreign trade"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-10 of 10
  • Parviainen, Simo-Pekka (Helsingfors universitet, 2000)
    Certain software products employing digital techniques for encryption of data are subject to export controls in the EU Member States pursuant to Community law and relevant laws in the Member States. These controls are agreed globally in the framework of the so-called Wassenaar Arrangement. Wassenaar is an informal non-proliferation regime aimed at promoting international stability and responsibility in transfers of strategic (dual-use) products and technology. This thesis covers provisions of Wassenaar, Community export control laws and export control laws of Finland, Sweden, Germany, France and United Kingdom. This thesis consists of five chapters. The first chapter discusses the ratio of export control laws and the impact they have on global trade. The ratio is originally defence-related - in general to prevent potential adversaries of participating States from having the same tools, and in particular in the case of cryptographic software to enable signals intelligence efforts. Increasingly as the use of cryptography in a civilian context has mushroomed, export restrictions can have negative effects on civilian trade. Information security solutions may also be took weak because of export restrictions on cryptography. The second chapter covers the OECD's Cryptography Policy, which had a significant effect on its member nations' national cryptography policies and legislation. The OECD is a significant organization,because it acts as a meeting forum for most important industrialized nations. The third chapter covers the Wassenaar Arrangement. The Arrangement is covered from the viewpoint of international law and politics. The Wassenaar control list provisions affecting cryptographic software transfers are also covered in detail. Control lists in the EU and in Member States are usually directly copied from Wassenaar control lists. Controls agreed in its framework set only a minimum level for participating States. However, Wassenaar countries can adopt stricter controls. The fourth chapter covers Community export control law. Export controls are viewed in Community law as falling within the domain of Common Commercial Policy pursuant to Article 133 of the EC Treaty. Therefore the Community has exclusive competence in export matters, save where a national measure is authorized by the Community or falls under foreign or security policy derogations established in Community law. The Member States still have a considerable amount of power in the domain of Common Foreign and Security Policy. They are able to maintain national export controls because export control laws are not fully harmonized. This can also have possible detrimental effects on the functioning of internal market and common export policies. In 1995 the EU adopted Dual-Use Regulation 3381/94/EC, which sets common rules for exports in Member States. Provisions of this regulation receive detailed coverage in this chapter. The fifth chapter covers national legislation and export authorization practices in five different Member States - in Finland, Sweden, Germany, France and in United Kingdom. Export control laws of those Member States are covered when the national laws differ from the uniform approach of the Community's acquis communautaire.
  • Jiang, Yanqing (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2009)
    Economics and Society
    Growth and Convergence: The Case of China Since the initiation of economic reforms in 1978, China has become one of the world’s fast-growing economies. The rapid growth, however, has not been shared equally across the different regions in China. The prominent feature of substantial differences in incomes and growth rates across the different Chinese regions has attracted the attention of many researchers. This book focuses on issues related to economic growth and convergence across the Chinese regions over the past three decades. The book has eight chapters. Apart from an introduction chapter and a concluding chapter, all the other chapters each deal with some certain aspects of the central issue of regional growth and convergence across China over the past three decades. The whole book is organized as follows. Chapter 1 provides an introduction to the basic issues involved in this book. Chapter 2 tests economic growth and convergence across 31 Chinese provinces during 1981-2005, based on the theoretical framework of the Solow growth model. Chapter 3 investigates the relationship between openness to foreign economic activities, such as foreign trade and foreign direct investment, and the regional economic growth in the case of China during 1981-2005. Chapter 4, based on data of 31 Chinese provinces over the period 1980-2004, presents new evidence on the effects of structural shocks and structural transformation on growth and convergence among the Chinese regions. Chapter 5, by building up an empirical model that takes account of different potential effects of foreign direct investment, focuses on the impacts of foreign direct investment on China’s regional economic performance and growth. Chapter 6 reconsiders the growth and convergence problem of the Chinese regions in an alternative theoretical framework with endogenous saving behavior and capital mobility across regions. Chapter 7, by building up a theoretical model concerning comparative advantage and transaction efficiency, focuses on one of the potential mechanisms through which China achieves its fast economic growth over the past few decades. Chapter 8 concludes the book by summarizing the results from the previous chapters and suggesting directions for further studies.
  • Oiva, Mila (Routledge, 2014)
    Routledge Studies in the History of Russia and Eastern Europe
  • Runeberg, L. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1950)
  • Runeberg, L. (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1946)
  • Kaira, Wezi (2006)
    The aim of this study is to analyse the discourses on trade liberalization in Zambia. In 1991, the Zambian government embarked on a series of structural adjustment reforms which included the opening up of the economy to international trade through the dismantling of the then existing trade barriers. Since then, poverty levels in the country have increased and industry has failed to tick. Various opposing reasons have been given as to why the country has failed to benefit from a liberalised economy. The analysis of this discourse is done through Michael Foucault’s discourse analysis. This assumes that the discourses that the parties engage in are actually power relations. The study does a text analysis of the World Bank country assistance strategy paper (2004), IMF Country Report (2006), Ministry of commerce policy communication, and civil societies’ policy analysis papers among other documents. I have identified seven main groups engaged in the discourse. In this paper, it was found that the participants in the discourse on trade liberalisation in Zambia are basically reacting to the main discourses supplied by the international financial institutions and that the discourses are basically hegemonic influences of the international financial institutions on the local discussants. The paper also finds that there are dissenting views which are trying to change the focus of the discourse on trade liberalisation to focus more on poverty reduction. The study also finds that there are only few individuals and organisations taking part in the discourse this is because most of the people are economically and politically excluded from taking part in the discourse.
  • Jensen-Eriksen, Niklas (2008)
    Albert O. Hirschman argued in 1945 that asymmetrical interdependence is an important source of power for the less-dependent country. Since then, many scholars have supported this argument. However, students of asymmetrical interdependence have given little attention to the administrative aspects of trade or to the significance of trade regimes. Most have assumed that governments can manipulate trade relations if they wish in order to use them as tools of policy. In this thesis it will be argued that the ability of a government to do this is crucially dependent on institutional factors, particularly regarding its ability to control foreign trade. A government that has inadequate regulatory tools to direct the flow of trade cannot benefit from asymmetrical dependence. This kind of dependence is therefore not as important a source of economic power to the government of a larger country as most scholars seem to think. During the period looked at in this study, Argentina, Denmark and Finland were all strongly dependent on the UK for trade. Based on the theories of asymmetrical interdependence, one could conclude that the British government must have been capable of putting effective pressure on these smaller countries. In the 1930s this was certainly the case, but after the war the British influence declined dramatically. In the cases of Finland and Argentina, this initially reflected a British need to buy primary products from these countries. However, in the long run, the main factor that reduced the British government’s bargaining power was the liberalisation of foreign trade that occurred during the 1950s and 1960s. After liberalisation, most foreign goods entered the UK without government involvement; it was difficult for the authorities to cut or limit this trade simply because they wanted to put pressure on those countries that were reluctant to buy enough British goods. Furthermore, as the other governments similarly relinquished control of their foreign trade, their ability to implement policies beneficial to the British declined. This study is mostly based on the previously classified internal records of the British government, as well as on published works.