Browsing by Subject "forest industry"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-17 of 17
  • Stolze, Markus (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    The purpose of this master’s thesis is to evaluate the reliability of forest products forecast information produced by United Nations Economic Commission for Europe member States. The study also aims to answer which dimensions of data quality are the most important when producing these predictions This study is carried out as quantitative research and it focuses on the predictions made by the 27 member States, produced between 2002 and 2017. This research aims to find out what methods are used by different member States and which methods produce the most reliable results. This research also aims to find out if there are any differences in reliability when assessing different product flows (removals, production, exports or imports) of the various products analyzed. There were clear differences visible between different products in the results of this research. In some products, almost all member States had managed to produce reliable predictions, while for others majority of member States didn’t manage that. There were also differences between member States and some were clearly more reliable than others. The biggest factor affecting reliability was volume: for most parts, bigger volumes meant more reliable predictions. Production and removals were more reliable product flow than imports or exports. This is due to the nature of imports and exports, as they are more easily affected by outside impacts. Although all member States were able to be sorted into four groups based on how different product flows looked like, no clear patterns were visible when observing how different member States produce predictions. Almost all of the interviewed representatives of member States reported that they were using almost or exactly the same methods to produce predictions.
  • Myllyviita, Tanja; Sironen, Susanna; Saikku, Laura; Holma, Anne; Leskinen, Pekka; Palme, Ulrika (2019)
    Journal of Cleaner Production 236: 117641
    Impacts of bioeconomy on climate have been much discussed, but less attention has been given to biodiversity deterioration. One approach to assess biodiversity impacts is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Finland is a forested country with intensive forest industries, but only coarse biodiversity LCA methods are available. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply approaches to assess the biodiversity impacts of wood use in Finland. With the species richness approach (all taxons included), biodiversity impacts were higher in Southern than in Northern Finland but impacts in Southern and Northern Finland were lower when mammals, birds and molluscs were included. With the ecosystem indicators approach, if the reference situation were forest in its natural state, biodiversity impacts were higher than in the case where the initial state of forest before final felling was used to derive biodiversity loss. In both cases, the biodiversity impacts were higher in Northern Finland. These results were not coherent as the model applying species richness data assesses biodiversity loss based on all species, whereas the ecosystem indicators approach considers vulnerable species. One limitation of the species richness approach was that there were no reliable datasets available. In the ecosystem indicators approach, it was noticed that the biodiversity of managed Finnish forests is substantially lower than in natural forests. Biodiversity LCA approaches are highly sensitive to reference states, applied model and data. It is essential to develop approaches capable of comparing biodiversity impacts of forest management practices, or when looking at multiple environmental impacts simultaneously with the LCA framework.
  • Yuan, Li (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    This Master thesis belongs to the project of the HELSUS Co-creation Lab. The project topic is about the circular economy and the challenge given by a HELSUS partner UPM-Kymmene Corporation to find opportunities for the circular economy business model from a legal perspective. As an international forest industry company, UPM has developed innovative ways to reduce its waste and to reuse its side in new products, and to use resources sustainably. Circular economy principles already applied in UPM, and develop and implement the technology and innovation of using wood in various new products. However, UPM wants to know what challenges and possibilities the regulations pose in creating new circular business opportunities? At the same time, this thesis chooses Germany and China for comparative research. Both countries have promulgated special circular economy legislation, established the 3R principles of reduce, reuse and recycle, stipulated extended producer responsibility systems, established waste recycling systems, and so on, aim to promote waste treatment and resource recycling legal system. However, the circular economy legal system of these two countries have apparent differences in legislative models, legislative purposes, and institutional arrangements. So, there are two purposes for writing this essay. First, explaining the historical evolution of the circular economy legal system in Germany and China, the objective is to understand the historical evolution of the circular economy law in two counties. Second, evaluative whether they are under circular economic aims in comparative research, the purpose of the comparison is not to determine which country's laws are more suitable for creating new business opportunities. It is to find out the challenges and possibilities of creating new circular business opportunities for UPM. Therefore, the research question is about: What are the challenges and possibilities of creating new business opportunities for UPM when compares the circular economy legal system between Germany and China?
  • Kordelin, Toni Juha (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    The importance of the computer and information technology has increased significantly with the introduction of the Internet. The technologies should not be reduced to selling and purchasing functions but should also be used as research and business intelligence tool, as well as information source. This study compares the performances of the Finnish and German sawmilling & paper industry by evaluating their public communication. The forest sector has been traditionally important for the economy of both countries and they belong to the global players. In conjunction with the performance analysis, a neural network tool is compiled, optimized and tested. It combines a study related categorization application and the Kohonen’s self-organizing map (SOM). The objective of the automated categorization is to lower manual work and to evaluate text contents more accurately – by taking also the possible future use into account. The research includes two interlinked approaches: web page and performance analysis. The web page analysis compares the design and content of the forest industry companies’ Internet sites. In addition, it is used to select and define the relevant enterprises for the performance analysis. 14 Finnish and 10 German sawmills, as well as 5 Finnish and 12 German paper and paperboard producers fulfilled the research requirements (data collection 2013). The performance analysis is implemented by a content analysis and SOM Tool. The word count data of the content analysis is sorted with a customised classification frame based on the Global Reporting Initiative Guideline and evaluated with the SOM. The SOM algorithms reduce multidimensional, large and complex data to lower dimensional maps which visualizes the distribution of the companies’ performance categories. The results indicate that the business cultures of the selected companies are similar. A closer examination reveals that the clustering by sector is more emphasized that by country. The more detailed determination of the SOM divides the paper sector further by their origin. Most obvious are the differences between sawmill and Finnish paper industry. The sawmill sector highlights especially product, service and macro-environment related aspects. Small German sawmills emphasized further tradition and history The paper sector stressed social responsibility, corporate structure, external activities and environmental issues. Inside the paper sector, the Finnish companies point out corporate strategy, development, organizational profile categories and economical performances. The German paper sector highlights in particular environmental issues and public relation. The web page analysis and related studies evaluate the corresponding categories similarly to the present research and thus support the results of the SOM approach.
  • Lempiäinen, Antti (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    Corporate Social Responsibility (CSR) has become increasingly important topic in forest industries, and other global companies, in recent years. Globalisation, faster information delivery and demand for sustainable development have set new challenges for global companies in their business operations. Also the importance of stakeholder relations, and pressure to become more transparent has increased in the forest industries. Three dimensions of corporate responsibility economic, environmental and social, are often included in the concept of CSR. Global companies mostly claim that these dimensions are equally important. This study analyses CSR in forest industry and has focus on reporting and implementation of social responsibility in three international companies. These case-companies are Stora Enso, SCA and Sappi, and they have different geographical base, product portfolios and therefore present interesting differences about forest industry strategy and CSR. Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) has created the most known and used reporting framework in CSR reporting. GRI Guidelines have made CSR reporting a uniform function, which can also be measured between companies and different sectors. GRI Guidelines have also made it possible to record and control CSR data in the companies. In recent years the use of GRI Guidelines has increased substantially. Typically CSR reporting on economic and environmental responsibility have been systematic in the global companies and often driven by legistlation and other regulations. However the social responsibility has been less regulated and more difficult to compare. Therefore it has previously been often less focused in the CSR reporting of the global companies. The implementation and use of GRI Guidelines have also increased dialogue on social responsibility issues and stakeholder management in global companies. This study analyses the use of GRI´s framework in the forest industry companies´ CSR reporting. This is a qualitative study and the disclosure of data is empricially analysed using content analysis. Content analysis has been selected as a method for this study because it makes it possible to use different sources of information. The data of this study consists of existing academic literature of CSR, sustainability reports of thecase-companies during 2005-2009, and the semi-structured interviews with company representatives. Different sources provide the possibility to look at specific subject from more than one viewpoint. The results of the study show that all case-companies have relatively common themes in their CSR disclosure, and the differences rise mainly from their product-portfolios, and geographic base. Social impacts to local communities, in the CSR of the companies, were mainly dominated by issues concerning creating wealth to the society and impacting communities through creation of work. The comparability of the CSR reporting, and especially social indicators increased significally from 2007 onwards in all case-companies. Even though the companies claim that three dimensions of CSR economic, environmental and social are equally important economic issues and profit improvement still seem to drive most of the operations in the global companies. Many issues that are covered by laws and regulations are still essentially presented as social responsibility in CSR. However often the unwelcome issues in companies like closing operations are covered just briefly, and without adequate explanation. To make social responsibility equally important in the CSR it would demand more emphasis from all the case-companies. A lot of emphasis should be put especially on the detail and extensiveness of the social reponsibility content in the CSR.
  • Xiong, Ying (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    As the global economy grows rapidly, certain environmental and societal problems have become challenges. This pushes more and more global companies to integrate those concerns in their business operations, in the form of corporate social responsibility (CSR). This thesis analyzes leading global companies’ CSR performance by using forest and IT industry as comparable cases, in order to point out the strength and weakness of CSR practice, and to indicate the proposal for CSR development. The study also describes the differences in emphasizing CSR between forest industry and IT industry, and between globally and in China market. The method of content analysis is introduced to the study. Based on the Global Reporting Initiative (GRI) guidelines as classification frame, relevant information from the CSR reports of analyzed sampling units was classified into corresponding indicators and then transformed into the numbers that represent companies’ CSR performance. The result of the study shows that on a global scale environmental and economic responsibilities are the mainly focused areas of CSR by global companies while companies’ performance of human rights responsibility is very poor. In the future, global companies should work harder on human rights by taking actions to analyze violent risks and prevent discrimination instead of only releasing policies. Concerning differences between industries, forest product companies emphasize economic, environmental and labor practice responsibilities much more than IT companies do. IT industry is able to learn the experience from forest industry to improve its weak areas. The other finding in the study is that nearly no global companies publish separate unit CSR reports in China or sufficient information of CSR activities in China. It indicates that CSR is still at the very beginning status in China and global companies are recommended to take more responsibility for its development.
  • Joutsenvirta, Maria; Vaara, Eero (Scandinavian Journal of Management (2009) 25, 85—96, 2009)
    Despite the central role of legitimacy in corporate social responsibility debate, little is known of subtle meaning-making processes through which social actors attempt to establish or de-establish legitimacy for socially contested corporate undertakings, and through which they, at the same time, struggle to define the proper social role and responsibility of corporations. We investigated these processes in the context of the intense socio-political conflict around the Finnish forest industry company Metsa¨-Botnia’s world-scale pulp mill in Uruguay. A critical discursive analysis of Finnish media texts highlights three types of struggle that characterized the media coverage: legalistic argumentation, truth fights, and political battles. Interestingly, this case illustrates how the corporate representatives — with the help of the national media — tend to frame the issue in legalistic terms, emphasize their expert knowledge in technical and environmental evaluations, and distance themselves from political disputes. We argue that similar tendencies are likely to characterize corporate social responsibility debates more generally.
  • Hurmekoski, Elias; Jonsson, Ragnar; Korhonen, Jaana; Jänis, Janne; Mäkinen, Marko; Leskinen, Pekka; Hetemäki, Lauri (2018)
    This study identifies new wood-based products with considerable potential and attractive markets, including textiles, liquid biofuels, platform chemicals, plastics, and packaging. We apply a mixed-methods review to examine how the position of the forest industry in a given value chain determines the respective production value. An assessment is provided as to the degree to which these emerging wood-based products could compensate for the foreseen decline of graphic paper markets in four major forest industry countries: USA, Canada, Sweden, and Finland. A 1%-2% market share in selected global markets implies a potential increase in revenues of 18-75 billion euros per annum in the four selected countries by 2030. This corresponds to 10%-43% of the production value of forest industries in 2016 and compares with a projected decline of graphic paper industry revenue of 5.5 billion euros by 2030. The respective impacts on wood use are manifold, as many of the new products utilize by-products as feedstock. The increase in primary wood use, which is almost entirely attributed to construction and to some extent textiles markets, would be in the range of 15-133 million m(3), corresponding to 2%-21% of the current industrial roundwood use in the selected countries.
  • Wang, Lanhui; Cui, Zichan; Kuuluvainen, Jari; Sun, Yongyu (2021)
    Forests and the forest products industry contribute to climate change mitigation by sequestering carbon from the atmosphere and storing it in biomass, and by fabricating products that substitute other, more greenhouse-gas-emission-intensive materials and energy. This study investigates primary wood-working industries (panel, furniture, pulp and paper) in order to determine the development of carbon emissions in China during the last two decades. The input-output approach is used and the factors driving the changes in CO2 emissions are analyzed by Index Decomposition Analysis-Log Mean Divisia Index (LMDI). The results show that carbon emissions in forest product industries have been declining during the last twenty years and that the driving factor of this change is the energy intensity of production and economic input, which have changed dramatically.
  • Seppälä, Jyri; Heinonen, Tero; Pukkala, Timo; Kilpeläinen, Antti; Mattila, Tuomas; Myllyviita, Tanja; Asikainen, Antti; Peltola, Heli (Elsevier, 2019)
    Journal of Environmental Management 247 (2019), 580-587
    A displacement factor (DF) may be used to describe the efficiency of using wood-based products or fuels instead of fossil-based ones to reduce net greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions. However, the DFs of individual products and their production volumes could not be used alone to evaluate the climate impacts of forest utilization. For this reason, in this study we have developed a methodology to assess a required displacement factor (RDF) for all wood products and bioenergy manufactured and harvested in a certain country in order to achieve zero CO2 equivalent emissions from increased forest utilization over time in comparison with a selected baseline harvesting scenario. Input data for calculations were produced with the simulation model, Monsu, capable of predicting the carbon stocks of forests and wood-based products. We tested the calculations in Finnish conditions in a 100-year time horizon and estimated the current average DF of manufactured wood-based products and fuels in Finland for the interpretation of RDF results. The results showed that if domestic wood harvesting will be increased by 17–33% compared to the basic scenario, the RDF will be 2.0 to 2.4 tC tC−1 for increased wood use in 2017–2116. However, the estimated average DF of manufactured wood-based products and fuels currently in Finland was less than 1.1 tC tC−1. The results indicate strongly that the increased harvesting intensity from the current situation would represent a challenge for the Finnish forest-based bioeconomy from the viewpoint of climate change mitigation. For this reason, there is an immediate need to improve reliability and applicability of the RDF approach by repeating corresponding calculations in different circumstances and by improving estimations of DFs on country levels.
  • Vazquez Harkivi Os Vazquez Garza, Mily (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Objectives. Communication is a basic human activity, and one that is also crucial for business. For those communicating with international audiences, lack of knowledge regarding how people communicate across cultures might create misunderstandings and in the worst case, conflicts. The research purpose of this thesis was to identify cultural discourses about nature and the environment that would illustrate deeply held values and beliefs about nature. The theoretical approach utilised in the thesis was Cultural Discourse Theory. This approach originates from the Ethnography of Communication tradition and contemplates not only the linguistic aspects of discourse, but also the context in which discourse is produced, utilised and maintained. Previous research has shown that communication is cultural and that both culture and communication can influence the way nature is constructed. The research question is aimed to identify beliefs and values about nature, personhood, and relationships hold by seven Finnish professionals of the environment working in the forest company UPM. Methods. The research material was collected through seven semi-structured interviews conducted in Finnish language and translated to English. The interviews were recorded digitally and lasted approximately one hour. To ensure confidentiality, the participants were given aliases and their real names were not disclosed publicly. The research participants reviewed the excerpts of text in the original language (vernacular Finnish) and also reviewed the translations to English language. The material was displayed in both Finnish and English language and analysed applying the Cultural Discourse Analysis (CuDA) method. The CuDa method proposed five analytical tools through which the research data could be analysed: dwelling, relations, feelings, action and identity. In this thesis the data was examined in light of the tools or themes of dwelling, relations, identity, and in some cases that of action. Results and conclusions. The research results indicate that three main discourses are present in the discourse of environmental professionals about nature. For the participants nature was a place to relax and calm down, to be with themselves and to maintain a sense of continuity. The values related to these discourses were peace, privacy, autonomy, identity, spirituality, and continuity as a way to preserve what is valued. The main value hold by the participants is that of continuation or sustainability. Further research could build upon the notion of sustainability as a cultural discourse. Research related to other business areas could be useful to understand how a deeply held value about nature like sustainability is common across businesses/industries.
  • Juntheikki, Joni (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Purpose of this thesis is to estimate the carbon sequestration potential in eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. This study also aims to show how beneficial these plantations are for carbon sinks. The aim of this research is calculate total carbon balance in eucalyptus plantations and compare the results to degraded lands. This study is first-of-its-kind study in Uruguay, but not unique globally. The objective was to use a modeling approach to formulate the results. The methodology of this study is based to the dynamic growth model (CO2fix V3.1). Model is developed to calculate and estimate forest carbon fluxes and stocks. In this study the model was utilized for estimating how much carbon is sequestered in eucalyptus plantations and soils. In this thesis the model was used to simulate eucalyptus forest plantations that stem from numerous studies and different data. Ad hoc Excel model was generated to form calculated results from the simulated data. A separate sensitivity analysis is also formulated to reveal a possible different outcome. The framework is based on a stand-level inventory data of forestry plantations provided by the Ministry of Uruguay (MGAP) and companies. Also multiple scientific reports and previous studies were used as guidelines for simulations and results. The forest stand, yield, soil and weather data used for this study are from three different departments. There are over 700 000 hectares of different species of eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay. The theoretical framework was tested computationally with eleven simulations. CO2fix was parameterized for fast-growing eucalyptus species used in different parts of Uruguay. The model gave outputs per hectare and then this result was scaled up to the national level. This study will also estimate how much grassland (Pampa) and former pasture land could sequester carbon. Situation prior to plantation is a baseline scenario and it is compared to the expected carbon sequestration of plantations. The model is also used to calculate the effect of changing rotation length on carbon stocks of forest ecosystem (forest vegetation and soil) and wood products. The results of this study show that currently the 707,674 hectares of eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay have the potential to sequester 65 million tonnes of carbon and reduce 238 million tonnes of CO2. The calculated carbon storage is 38 and simulated 25 million tonnes of C, products are deducted from the equation. During 22 years (1990–2012) the annual carbon sequestration benefit (afforestation-baseline) without products is 1 757 847 Mg C. The results suggest that it is reasonable to establish eucalyptus plantations on degraded, grassland (Pampa) and abandoned pasture land. The implications of the results are that eucalyptus plantations in Uruguay actually enhance carbon sequestration, are carbon sinks and store more carbon than grassland and abandoned pasture land. Plantations have a vast sequestration potential and are important in mitigating of CO2 emission and effects of the climate change. The findings endorse the significance of plantations to increase carbon sinks and this role will broaden in the future. The most relevant findings of this study are that afforestation increases the soil carbon in 10-year rotation plantations by 34% (101.1>75.6) and in 12-year rotation 38% (104.4>75.6 Mg Cha-1) in a 60-year simulation. The net (afforestation-baseline) average carbon stock benefit in the soil is 25.5 Mg C ha?1 in a 60-year simulation. The (CO2Fix) model indicate that the total average carbon sequestration for eucalyptus plantations is 92.3 Mg Cha?1. The average total carbon storage ranges from 25.8–138.5 Mg Cha?1 during a 60-year simulation. The simulations show that the net annual carbon storage in the living biomass is 29.1, 25.5 (soil) and 37.6 Mg C (products) on the average scenario. There is some fluctuation in the sequestration results in other 10 simulations. Previous studies have showed that the average carbon stock for eucalyptus plantations varies from 30–60 Mg C ha-1, when soil and products are deducted. The capacity of forest ecosystems to sequester carbon in the long run could be even more strengthened if a rotation length increases. Extending rotation from 10 to 12 years increased the average soil carbon stock from 25.5 to 28.8 Mg C (by 13%) in 60 year simulation. The results also indicate that mean annual precipitation (MAP) alters the carbon sinks of the forest ecosystem. There are some limitations in this study and they are clearly explained and analyzed. Hence, most of the results are estimations. Ministry and companies need to prolong planting of trees and even intensify annual programs in order to achieve carbon sequestration targets. Further research is needed to get an estimate of the total forest ecosystem carbon storages and fluxes.
  • Baublyte, Gintare (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    Gender diversity in the workforce describes the equal representation of men and women in terms of ratio. Raising importance of the concept due to changing societal norms has allowed researchers to explore the mostly positive effect gender diversity, especially in leadership level, has on a company’s performance. Despite all the benefits, women in the forest-based sector are still underrepresented. This study aims to understand the underlying reasons for female underrepresentation in the forestry sector and to identify solutions to improve the situation. The study explored the barriers and enablers that hindered or supported female career development in the forestry industry and investigated possible solutions in light of sector’s future goals. In-depth elite interviewing was selected as the method of data collection. Ten interviews with senior level female leaders of seven forestry companies in Finland and Sweden were conducted face-to-face or over the phone. The qualitative content analysis of data identified most common barriers faced by women in their careers: a) discrimination, exclusion, and stereotyping due to masculine company culture, b) balancing work and family due to inflexible working hours and lack of remote work possibilities. Moreover, it recognised the importance of competence development and support systems as the enabling aspects of women careers in the industry. In addition to further understanding gender effect in the forestry sector, the study allowed to look into the future of the sector through the eyes of female leaders. The findings of the study are in line with previous research that identified the career advancement barriers and enablers in other industries. However, culture-specific issues posing a challenge to female career development and promoting exclusion, such as sauna and hunting traditions, were identified. Additionally, the importance of a personal support system was highlighted in the study. The critical role of the forestry sector and the bioeconomy in the sustainable global future was recognised by all study participants. The ability of forestry companies to adapt to future needs and to become a part of modern society will require them to rethink old concepts, modernise the image and allow for a more diverse company culture to foster in all organisational levels.
  • Vainonen, Lena-Kajsa (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Metsä on kautta aikojen ollut tärkeä suomalaisille, joten jokaisella suomalaisella on jonkinlainen suhde metsään. Metsäsuhde voi perustua erilaisiin asenteisiin tai kokemuksiin ja se voi muuttua ajan kuluessa. Ympärillä olevien aikuisten sekä lapsille tarjottavien kokemusten on todettu vaikuttavan vahvasti lasten metsäsuhteeseen. Kouluilla on siis suuri rooli lasten metsäsuhteen rakentumisessa. Nykylasten moniarvoinen metsäsuhde on tärkeä tulevaisuuden kannalta, sillä metsään kohdistuu nykyaikana suuri käyttöpaine, joka herättää kysymyksiä metsän käytöstä. Lapset päättävät tulevaisuudessa, miten metsää käytetään ja miksi, joten heillä tulisi olla perustietoa metsästä ja yleisesti luonnonvarojen kestävästä käytöstä. Näiden seikkojen takia tämä tutkimus keskittyy kuvaamaan metsäopetuksen toteutusta peruskoulun luokilla 7-9 biologian opettajien näkökulmasta. Tutkimuksessa haastateltiin neljää yläkoulun biologian opettajaa, joiden vastausten pohjalta laadittiin kyselylomake. Kyselylomake jaettiin opettajien suosimissa ryhmissä sosiaalisessa mediassa sekä sähköpostitse muutamille opettajille. Haastatteluiden tuloksia analysoitiin tekstianalyysillä ja kyselyn tuloksia jakaumien sekä taulukoiden avulla. Kyselyn tuloksia ei analysoitu tilastollisin menetelmin, koska vastauksia tuli niin pieni määrä. Tutkimuksen haastatteluiden ja kyselyn tulokset mukailivat toisiaan. Metsäopetus tapahtuu lähinnä kahdeksannen luokan biologian oppiaineessa. Metsäaiheita opetetaan metsässä joskus, mutta opetusta haluttaisiin järjestää enemmän metsässä. Ulkona opettamiseen vaikuttaa ainakin koulun etäisyys metsästä, aikarajoitteet, lukujärjestyksen joustamattomuus sekä rahoituksen puute. Samat rajoittavat tekijät nousivat esille myös metsätapahtumiin osallistumisessa sekä oman metsäpäivän järjestämisessä. Mikäli metsätapahtumiin pystyy osallistumaan, niiltä toivottiin elämyksellisyyttä ja toiminnallisuutta. Tulokset osoittavat, että metsäopetuksen keskeisiä teemoja ovat lajintunnistus, metsän ekosysteemi, metsätyypit sekä kasvupaikkatekijät. Metsäteollisuuden ja metsätalouden aiheet jätetään vähemmälle huomiolle, mikäli kohdataan aikarajoitteita. Koulun ulkopuolisia asiantuntijoita sekä metsäalan asiantuntijoita hyödynnetään harvoin, mutta monipuolista asiantuntijuutta kuitenkin kaivattiin, erityisesti metsätalouden ja metsien kestävän käytön, metsäteollisuuden ja sen tuotteiden, riistanhoidon, biotalouden ja kiertotalouden osa-alueisiin. Asiantuntijoita ei käytetä, koska aikaa ei ole tarpeeksi, koska ammattilaisia ei löydetä tai koska hyöty on koettu liian pieneksi. Yhteistyö metsäalan toimijoiden kanssa on lähinnä yhdistys- ja järjestöpainotteista, mutta myös metsäalan yrityksiä käytetään jonkin verran. Yhteistyö keskittyi lähinnä Metsävisaan, vierailijaluentoihin sekä erilaisiin metsäpäiviin tai tapahtumiin. Koulun ulkopuoliselta yhteistyöltä toivottiin pääasiassa vierailuja yrityksiin sekä metsään. Opettajat pitivät yleisesti metsäopetusta tärkeänä, mutta nykyisen metsäopetuksen ei koettu tukevan moniarvoisen metsäsuhteen rakentamista kovinkaan hyvin. Uuden opetussuunnitelman mukaisia monialaisia oppimiskokonaisuuksia koettiin kuitenkin voivan hyödyntää metsäopetuksessa hyvin. Ainerajoja ylittävää opetusta ei kuitenkaan ole hyödynnetty kovinkaan paljon, vaikka suurin osa haluaisi hyödyntää sitä enemmän. Tutkimustuloksia ei voida pitää tilastollisesti merkitsevinä johtuen pienestä otoskoosta. Tutkimustulosten perusteella voidaan kuitenkin olettaa, että nykyisessä metsäopetuksessa on puutteita, joita korjaamalla monipuolisemman metsäsuhteen rakentaminen yläkoulussa voisi olla mahdollista.
  • Oppong Adomaa, Angelica (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    This study examines the impact of forest industry securities on the portfolio risk in the frame of portfolio theory, and performs comparison of international forest industry enterprises as investment objects by using methods of fundamental analysis. During the past decade the global balance of forest industry has been shifting. While the demand for forest industry products in Western countries has been declining, the total demand for forest industry products on the global level has been growing. The growth of total demand has been generated by emerging markets. In Finland forest industry has been considered as a steady industry sector, which has been rewarding investors with stable profits. The previous researches show that compared to the average risk of securities, forest industry securities tend to have a lower risk. The objective of this study is to examine the geographical diversification of forest industry securities and its benefits to the risk in a Finnish stock portfolio between 2003 and 2013. The theoretical framework of this study includes portfolio theory and fundamental analysis. The principal aim of portfolio theory is to maximize expected return for a given amount of risk, or equivalently minimize risk for a given level of expected return. The risk is interpreted as variance of portfolio expected returns. By choosing securities which have only very little correlation with each other we obtain the best diversification benefits, hence minimize portfolio risk. Fundamental analysis provided key indicators for analyzing economic preconditions of the companies which reflected efficiency, solvency and market liquidity. The portfolio risk was calculated from a market portfolio, which included forest industry securities from five alternative countries; Finland, Germany, USA, Latin America, China. After including the securities to the portfolio their weight was optimized. The market portfolio was represented by OMXH CAP -return index as it consists of a weighted sum of every asset traded at Helsinki Stock Exchange, hence is perfectly diversified portfolio. The results showed that in the geographical comparison the German forest industry stocks provided the best diversification benefits. Including German forest industry stocks to a Finnish market portfolio decreased portfolio risk by 2.77 %, where the forest industry stocks of other countries where able to decrease portfolio risk less than 1 %. Compared to other countries, German forest industry stocks had the smallest correlation with OMXH CAP -return index. Performing fundamental analysis of forest industry companies on a country level did no provide explicit results what comes to the investment attractiveness as financial key indicators of companies had considerable fluctuation within a country.
  • Kellokumpu, Ville; Sirviö, Heikki Juhana (2022)
    Depoliticization has emerged as a key concept in analyzing the changing political dynamics of capitalist democracies. Yet, the concept of public interest has been relatively absent in depoliticization literature. This article argues for a more systematic inclusion of public interest politics in scrutinizing de- and repoliticization. The argument is advanced through strategic-relational theory by interpreting public interest as (1) a terrain of political struggles, (2) a mode of doing politics and (3) a method of enquiry. These dynamics are examined in the empirical context of Finnish forest industry's political strategy in the Kaipola paper mill closure in August 2020. The forest conglomerate UPM-Kymmene politicized its paper mill shutdown by shifting the responsibility to the centre-left governmental coalition's purportedly business-hostile policies. However, analyzing the case through UPM strategies and the paper production crisis, the closure falls in line with the forest industry's long-term business strategy. The forest industry's and UPM's strategy is recognized as a forceful defense of a corporate polity where public interest is equated with the success of key economic actors. The article concludes with an argument for the politics of public interest as a vital research perspective for analyzing contradictions surrounding 'the economy'.
  • Tiihonen, Katariina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Forests have become one of the key themes when it comes to sustainability and have been subject to many demands and pressures from various stakeholders in recent years. In particular, the responsible use of forests has surfaced in discussions during the past 20 years. As the world and overall atmosphere is becoming more favorable to sustainability, companies are required to adapt to a changed society. The forest industry has a significant impact on Finland’s sustainable development and economy. In the forest industry corporate responsibility work has developed as demands from society have grown and the work has become more holistic over time as knowledge on the matter has increased. Pressures on companies' environmental work have come from outside companies from society, as well as from internal actors within companies. One well established forest industry company in Finland is Metsä Group, which has long been profiled as an environmentally responsible company. Therefore, corporate responsibility work and its development in Metsä Group has been selected as my research topic. In this thesis, I examine how environmental responsibility work has changed from the point of view of sustainability professionals in Metsä Group during the years 2000-2020. As research material, I use interviews with Metsä Group's sustainability professionals, as well as responsibility and annual reports from 2000-2020. For the interviews, I selected former and current Metsä Group employees who have worked in the company, either the whole duration or partly, during the years 2000-2020. I have analyzed the materials using content analysis as a method. The interviews revealed that, in general, employees felt that, compared to the early 2000s, in 2020 Metsä Group took more and more holistic action for its environmental responsibility. In general, it was seen that the most significant factors influencing corporate responsibility were megatrends such as climate change and biodiversity loss, as well as a general change in societal perceptions related to corporate responsibility. Leaders’ commitment and attitude towards environmental responsibility, as well as customer requirements, were also perceived as significant factors in promoting responsibility work. It was generally felt that if customers or management saw the matter as important it was invested in. All in all, the environmental corporate responsibility of Metsä Group had steadily improved during 2000-2020. Overall, the interviewees felt that environmental responsibility has been incorporated into Metsä Group's strategy, and that corporate responsibility work has become more holistic and professionalized.