Browsing by Subject "forest"

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  • Macias-Hernandez, Nuria; Ramos, Cândida; Domènech, Marc; Febles, Sara; Santos, Irene; Arnedo, Miquel A.; Borges, Paulo A. V.; Emerson, Brent C.; Cardoso, Pedro (2020)
    Background There is an increasing demand for databases including species trait information for biodiversity and community ecology studies. The existence of trait databases is useful for comparative studies within taxa or geographical regions, but there is low availability of databases for certain organisms. Here we present an open access functional trait database for spiders from Macaronesia and the Iberian Peninsula, recording several morphological and ecological traits related to the species life histories, microhabitat and trophic preferences. New information We present a database that includes 12 biological traits for 506 spider species present in natural forests of the Iberian Peninsula (Spain) and three Macaronesian archipelagoes (Azores, Madeira and Canary Islands). The functional trait database consists of two sections: 1. individual-level data for six morphological traits (total body size, prosoma length, prosoma width, prosoma height, tibia I length and fang length), based on direct measurements of 2844 specimens of all spider species; and 2. species-level aggregate data for 12 traits (same 6 morphological traits as in the previous section plus dispersal ability, vertical stratification, circadian activity, foraging strategy, trophic specialization and colonization status), based on either the average of the direct measurements or bibliographic searches. This functional trait database will serve as a data standard for currently ongoing analyses that require trait and functional diversity statistics.
  • Väisänen, Eero; Kellomäki, Seppo; Hari, Pertti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1977)
  • Myllyviita, Tanja; Sironen, Susanna; Saikku, Laura; Holma, Anne; Leskinen, Pekka; Palme, Ulrika (2019)
    Journal of Cleaner Production 236: 117641
    Impacts of bioeconomy on climate have been much discussed, but less attention has been given to biodiversity deterioration. One approach to assess biodiversity impacts is Life Cycle Assessment (LCA). Finland is a forested country with intensive forest industries, but only coarse biodiversity LCA methods are available. The aim of this study was to further develop and apply approaches to assess the biodiversity impacts of wood use in Finland. With the species richness approach (all taxons included), biodiversity impacts were higher in Southern than in Northern Finland but impacts in Southern and Northern Finland were lower when mammals, birds and molluscs were included. With the ecosystem indicators approach, if the reference situation were forest in its natural state, biodiversity impacts were higher than in the case where the initial state of forest before final felling was used to derive biodiversity loss. In both cases, the biodiversity impacts were higher in Northern Finland. These results were not coherent as the model applying species richness data assesses biodiversity loss based on all species, whereas the ecosystem indicators approach considers vulnerable species. One limitation of the species richness approach was that there were no reliable datasets available. In the ecosystem indicators approach, it was noticed that the biodiversity of managed Finnish forests is substantially lower than in natural forests. Biodiversity LCA approaches are highly sensitive to reference states, applied model and data. It is essential to develop approaches capable of comparing biodiversity impacts of forest management practices, or when looking at multiple environmental impacts simultaneously with the LCA framework.
  • Hemmilä, Marja (2020)
    Finnish Meteorological Institute Contributions 162
    Atmospheric aerosol particles are small, liquid or solid pieces that are floating in the air. They have a significant effect on air quality, human health and cloud formation. Sources of aerosols can be either primary or secondary, meaning that they can directly be emitted from the source to the air (e.g. sea salt, sand or pollen) or they can be formed from the precursor gases in the air. For example, sulphuric acid, ammonia, amines and oxidised organic vapours are gases that affect the nucleation process. Biogenic Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) are gases that are emitted by e.g. boreal forest, and they affect secondary organic aerosol (SOA) population by contributing to the production of oxidised organic vapours that participate in the formation and growth of secondary aerosol particles. In this thesis, thermal desorption inlet gas chromatograph coupled with mass spectrometer (TD-GC-MS) was used to determine how monoterpenes, which are one sub-group of the BVOCs, are emitted from Scots pine and Norway spruce trees. It was discovered that individual trees emit different amounts of various monoterpenes, even when the trees belong to the same species. We concluded that the emissions depend on the chemotype of the trees, which is an inherited property of the individual tree. Nitrogen containing gases, such as ammonia, amines and nitric acid can also take part in the aerosol formation and growth processes. Ammonia and amines stabilise sulphuric acid clusters, therefore helping the new aerosol particles to form. Another nitrogen contain gas, HONO, strongly affects atmospheric chemistry because it reacts with solar radiation and forms a OH• radical, which is one of the main radicals in the atmosphere. We measured the seasonal and diurnal variation of ammonia, nitric acid and HONO in the boreal forest with an instrument of Measuring AeRosols and Gases in Ambient air (MARGA), which is an online ion chromatograph with a sampling system. In this thesis, I developed a method for measuring aliphatic amines from the boreal forest air. I also coupled MARGA with a mass spectrometer (MARGA-MS) and used it to measure amine concentrations from the boreal forest air, observing the seasonal and diurnal variation of atmospheric amines. While I was measuring the atmospheric concentrations, the idea that amines could be emitted from the boreal forest floor and also melting snow and thawing ground, was born. To test this hypothesis, I measured with the MARGAMS connected to a dynamic flow through chamber emissions from the boreal forest floor. I found that the boreal forest floor is indeed a source of amines. *** Ilmakehän aerosolihiukkaset ovat pieniä, nestemäisiä tai kiinteitä hippusia, jotka leijuvat ilmassa. Niillä on merkittävä vaikutus ilmanlaatuun, terveyteen ja pilvien muodostumiseen. Aerosolien lähteitä on sekä primäärisiä että sekundäärisiä, mikä tarkoittaa sitä että ne voivat joko suoraan emittoitua lähteestä ilmaan (kuten merisuola, hiekka tai siitepöly), tai ne voivat muodostua suoraan ilmakehän kaasuista. Esimerkiksi rikkihappo, ammoniakki, amiinit ja hapettuneet orgaaniset höyryt ovat kaasuja, jotka voivat vaikuttaa nukleaatioprosessiin. Biogeeniset haihtuvat orgaaniset yhdisteet (BVOC) ovat kaasuja, jotka emittoituvat mm. pohjoisesta metsästä. Ne tuottavat hapettuneita orgaanisia höyryjä, jotka vaikuttavat sekundäärisien orgaanisien aerosolien muodostumiseen ja kasvuun. Tässä väitöskirjassa termodesorptio-kaasukromatografi-massaspektrometri-laitteistoa (TD-GC-MS) käytettiin määrittämään BVOCien alaluokkaan kuuluvien monoterpeenien haihtumista männyistä ja kuusista. Havaittiin, että yksittäiset puut emittoivat erimääriä erilaisia monoterpeeneitä, vaikka ne kuuluisivat samaan lajiin. Johtopäätöksenä oli, että emissiot riippuvat puun kemotyypistä, joka on yksittäisen puun peritty ominaisuus. Typpeä sisältävät kaasut kuten ammoniakki, amiinit ja typpihappo voivat myös ottaa osaa aerosolien muodostukseen ja kasvuun.Ammoniakki ja amiinit tasapainoittavat rikkihapporyppäitä auttaen aerosolihiukkasta syntymään. Eräs typpeä sisältävä kaasu, HONO, vaikuttaa vahvasti ilmakemiaan koska se reagoi auringon säteilyn kanssa tuottaen OH• radikaalin, joka on yksi tärkeimmistä radikaaleista ilmakehässä. Ammoniakin, typpihapon ja HONOn vuosi- ja vuorokausivaihtelua mitattiin pohjoisessa metsässä jatkuvatoimisella ionikromatografilla, joka myös ottaa näytteen itsenäisesti ilmasta (MARGA). Tässä väitöskirjassa kehitettiin menetelmä mittaamaan alifaattisia amiineita pohjoisesta metsäilmasta. MARGA yhdistettiin massaspektrometriin (MARGA-MS), ja sitä käytettiin määrittämään pohjoisen metsäilman amiinipitoisuuksia, havainnoiden amiinipitoisuuksien vuosi- ja vuorokausivaihtelu. Pitoisuuksia mitatessa syntyi ajatus metsämaan sekä sulavan lumen ja maan mahdollisuudesta olla amiinien lähde metsäilmassa. Hypoteesi testattiin liittämällä MARGA-MS dynaamiseen kammioon ja mittaamalla amiini- ja guanidiiniemissioita metsämaasta. Tulokseksi saatiin, että metsämaa tosiaan on amiinien lähde.
  • Zamorano, Juan Gallego; Hokkanen, Tatu; Lehikoinen, Aleksi (2018)
    Aims Understanding fluctuations in plant reproductive investment can constitute a key challenge in ecology, conservation and management. Masting events of trees (i.e. the intermittent and synchronous production of abundant seeding material) is an extreme example of such fluctuations. Our objective was to establish the degree of spatial and temporal synchrony in common four masting tree species in boreal Finland and account for potential causal drivers of these patterns. Methods We investigated the spatial intraspecific and temporal interspecific fluctuations in annual seed production of four tree species in Finland, silver birch Betula pendula Roth, downy birch Betula pubescens Ehrh., Norway spruce Picea abies (L.) H.Karst. and rowanberry Sorbus aucuparia L. We also tested to see whether variations in seed production were linked to annual weather conditions. Seeding abundance data were derived from tens of stands per species across large spatial scales within Finland during 1979 to 2014 (for rowanberries only 1986 to 2014). Important Findings All species showed spatial synchrony in seed production at scales up to 1000 km. Annual estimates of seed production were strongly correlated between species. Spring and summer temperatures explained most variation in crop sizes of tree species with 0-to 2-year time lags, whereas rainfall had relatively little influence. Warm weather during flowering (May temperature) in the flowering year (Year t) and 2 years before (t-2) were correlated with seed production. However, high May temperatures during the previous year (t-1) adversely affected seed production. Summer temperatures in Year t-1 was positively correlated with seed production, likely because this parameter enhances the development of flower primordials, but the effect was negative with a time lag of 2 years. The negative feedback in temperature coefficients is also likely due to patterns of resource allocation, as abundant flowering and seed production in these species is thought to reduce the subsequent initiation of potential new flower buds. Since the most important weather variables also showed spatial correlation up to 1000 km, weather parameters likely explain much of the spatial and temporal synchrony in seed production of these four studied tree species.
  • Cailleret, Maxime; Dakos, Vasilis; Jansen, Steven; Robert, Elisabeth M.R.; Aakala, Tuomas; Amoroso, Mariano M.; Antos, Joe A.; Bigler, Christof; Bugmann, Harald; Caccianaga, Marco; Camarero, Jesus-Julio; Cherubini, Paolo; Goeya, Marie R.; Cufar, Katarina; Das, Adrian J.; Davi, Hendrik; Gea-Izquierdo, Guillermo; Gillner, Sten; Haavik, Laurel J.; Hartmann, Henrik; Heres, Ana-Maria; Hultine, Kevin R.; Janda, Pavel; Kane, Jeffrey M.; Kharuk, Vlachelsav I.; Kitzberger, Thomas; Klein, Tamir; Levanic, Tom; Linares, Juan-Carlos; Lombardi, Fabio; Mäkinen, Harri; Meszaros, Ilona; Metsaranta, Juha M.; Oberhuber, Walter; Papadopoulos, Andreas; Petritan, Any Mary; Rohner, Brigitte; Sanguesa-Barreda, Gabriel; Smith, Jeremy M.; Stan, Amanda B.; Stojanovic, Dejan B.; Laura Suarez, Maria; Svoboda, Miroslav; Trotsiuk, Volodymyr; Villalba, Ricardo; Westwood, Alana R.; Wyckoff, Peter H.; Martinez-Vilalta, Jordi (2019)
    Tree mortality is a key driver of forest dynamics and its occurrence is projected to increase in the future due to climate change. Despite recent advances in our understanding of the physiological mechanisms leading to death, we still lack robust indicators of mortality risk that could be applied at the individual tree scale. Here, we build on a previous contribution exploring the differences in growth level between trees that died and survived a given mortality event to assess whether changes in temporal autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony in time-series of annual radial growth data can be used as early warning signals of mortality risk. Taking advantage of a unique global ring-width database of 3065 dead trees and 4389 living trees growing together at 198 sites (belonging to 36 gymnosperm and angiosperm species), we analyzed temporal changes in autocorrelation, variance, and synchrony before tree death (diachronic analysis), and also compared these metrics between trees that died and trees that survived a given mortality event (synchronic analysis). Changes in autocorrelation were a poor indicator of mortality risk. However, we found a gradual increase in inter- annual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony in the last similar to 20 years before mortality of gymnosperms, irrespective of the cause of mortality. These changes could be associated with drought-induced alterations in carbon economy and allocation patterns. In angiosperms, we did not find any consistent changes in any metric. Such lack of any signal might be explained by the relatively high capacity of angiosperms to recover after a stress-induced growth decline. Our analysis provides a robust method for estimating early-warning signals of tree mortality based on annual growth data. In addition to the frequently reported decrease in growth rates, an increase in inter-annual growth variability and a decrease in growth synchrony may be powerful predictors of gymnosperm mortality risk, but not necessarily so for angiosperms.
  • Päivänen, Juhani (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1973)
  • Deng, Yange; Kagami, Sara; Ogawa, Shuhei; Kawana, Kaori; Nakayama, Tomoki; Kubodera, Ryo; Adachi, Kouji; Hussein, Tareq; Miyazaki, Yuzo; Mochida, Michihiro (2018)
    The formation of biogenic secondary organic aerosols (BSOAs) in forest environments is potentially important to cloud formation via changes of the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activity of aerosols. In this study, the CCN activation of submicrometer aerosols and their chemical compositions and size distributions were measured at a midlatitude forest site in Japan during the summer of 2014 to assess the hygroscopicity of the organic aerosols and their contributions to the local CCN concentrations. The mean number concentrations of the condensation nuclei and CCN at supersaturation (SS) conditions of 0.11-0.80% were 1,238 and 166-740cm(-3), respectively. Organic aerosols and sulfate dominated the submicrometer aerosol mass concentrations. The particle hygroscopicity increased with increases in particle diameters. The hygroscopicity parameter for the organics, (org), was positively correlated with the atomic O to C ratio. The product of (org) and the volume fraction of OA was 0.12, accounting for 38% of the water uptake by aerosol particles. The hygroscopicity parameter of the locally formed fresh BSOA was estimated to be 0.09. The contribution of OA to the CCN number concentration, which was assessed by subtracting the CCN concentration of the hypothetical inorganic aerosols from that of the ambient aerosols, was 50-182cm(-3) for the SS range of 0.11-0.80%. The increase of the CCN number concentrations per 1-g/m(3) increase of the BSOA was 23-299cm(-3) at 0.11-0.80% SS. The contribution of the BSOA to the CCN number concentration can be enhanced by new particle formation. Plain Language Summary Some of the particles suspended in the atmosphere can absorb water vapors around them and act as nuclei to form cloud droplets. These particles are called cloud condensation nuclei (CCN), the quantification of which is important for climate forcing prediction. The ability of a particle to absorb water is referred to as hygroscopicity, which is governed by the chemical composition. Volatile organic vapors emitted by vegetation (i.e., biogenic volatile organic compound) after chemical reactions in the atmosphere can either condense onto existing particles or participate in the formation of new particles and thus change the aerosol chemical composition. The aerosol component originated from biogenic volatile organic compounds, named biogenic secondary organic aerosol (BSOA), is an important constituent of CCN on a global scale. However, the hygroscopicity of BSOA and its contribution to CCN are not understood well. We performed measurements of the hygroscopicity and chemical composition of aerosol particles in a forest in Japan. Based on the observation, we calculated the hygroscopicity of the BSOA formed in the forest and quantified the contribution of the BSOA to the CCN number concentrations. An enhancement of the contribution of BSOA to the CCN number concentrations by new particle formation is suggested, which is an important subject of future studies.
  • Manninen, Terhikki; Stenberg, Pauline (Ilmatieteen laitos - Finnish Meteorological Institute, 2021)
    Raportteja - Rapporter - Reports 2021:5
    Recently a simple analytic canopy bidirectional reflectance factor (BRF) model based on the spectral invariants theory was presented. The model takes into account that the recollision probability in the forest canopy is different for the first scattering than the later ones. Here this model is extended to include the forest floor contribution to the total forest BRF. The effect of the understory vegetation on the total forest BRF as well as on the simple ratio (SR) and the normalized difference (NDVI) vegetation indices is demonstrated for typical cases of boreal forest. The relative contribution of the forest floor to the total BRF was up to 69 % in the red wavelength range and up to 54 % in the NIR wavelength range. Values of SR and NDVI for the forest and the canopy differed within 10 % and 30 % in red and within 1 % and 10 % in the NIR wavelength range. The relative variation of the BRF with the azimuth and view zenith angles was not very sensitive to the forest floor vegetation. Hence, linear correlation of the modelled total BRF and the Ross-thick kernel was strong for dense forests (R2 > 0.9). The agreement between modelled BRF and satellite-based reflectance values was good when measured LAI, clumping index and leaf single scattering albedo values for a boreal forest were used as input to the model.
  • Virtanen, Pekka (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • de Wit, Heleen A.; Lepistö, Ahti; Marttila, Hannu; Wenng, Hannah; Bechmann, Marianne; Blicher-Mathiesen, Gitte; Eklöf, Karin; Futter, Martyn N.; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Kronvang, Brian; Kyllmar, Katarina; Rakovic, Jelena (Wiley, 2020)
    Hydrological Processes 34, 25 (2020)
    Agricultural, forestry-impacted and natural catchments are all vectors of nutrient loading in the Nordic countries. Here, we present concentrations and fluxes of total nitrogen (totN) and phosphorus (totP) from 69 Nordic headwater catchments (Denmark: 12, Finland:18, Norway:17, Sweden:22) between 2000 and 2018. Catchments span the range of Nordic climatic and environmental conditions and include natural sites and sites impacted by agricultural and forest management. Concentrations and fluxes of totN and totP were highest in agricultural catchments, intermediate in forestry-impacted and lowest in natural catchments, and were positively related %agricultural land cover and summer temperature. Summer temperature may be a proxy for terrestrial productivity, while %agricultural land cover might be a proxy for catchment nutrient inputs. A regional trend analysis showed significant declines in N concentrations and export across agricultural (−15 μg totN L−1 year−1) and natural (−0.4 μg NO3-N L−1 year−1) catchments, but individual sites displayed few long-term trends in concentrations (totN: 22%, totP: 25%) or export (totN: 6%, totP: 9%). Forestry-impacted sites had a significant decline in totP (−0.1 μg P L−1 year−1). A small but significant increase in totP fluxes (+0.4 kg P km−2 year−1) from agricultural catchments was found, and countries showed contrasting patterns. Trends in annual concentrations and fluxes of totP and totN could not be explained in a straightforward way by changes in runoff or climate. Explanations for the totN decline include national mitigation measures in agriculture international policy to reduced air pollution and, possibly, large-scale increases in forest growth. Mitigation to reduce phosphorus appears to be more challenging than for nitrogen. If the green shift entails intensification of agricultural and forest production, new challenges for protection of water quality will emerge possible exacerbated by climate change. Further analysis of headwater totN and totP export should include seasonal trends, aquatic nutrient species and a focus on catchment nutrient inputs.
  • Kubin, Eero (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1990)
  • Reunala, Aarne (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • Ahponen, Pirkkoliisa (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • Linkola, Matti (Suomen metsätieteellinen seura, 1987)
  • Kramarenko, Dmitri (Helsingfors universitet, 2012)
    In the carbon cycle carbon is sequestrated from the atmosphere through photosynthesis in vegetation, returned into soils as litter and released into atmosphere in decomposition as carbon dioxide. In the boreal zone a large proportion of the organic carbon is bound into soil. The aim of this study was to find out how the amount of soil organic carbon (SOC) has changed in Finnish forests in last 20 years by comparing results of empirical measurements from two projects (1986-1995 and 2006). The purpose of the study was also to analyze how well the field measurements of SOC collected in two consecutive periods of time are suitable for characterization of changes in the SOC stock. The effect of soil structure, vegetation type and climatic factors on possible SOC changes were also studied. The average size of SOC stock (organic layer + mineral layer 0-40cm) in Finnish forests is 5.65 kg C m-2. About one third of SOC is in the organic layer (2.10 kg C m-2) and the rest of it is in the mineral soil (3.56 kg C m-2 ). Higher amount of SOC stock in the organic layer has been determined on plots with thicker organic layer, poor drainage and the presence of peat mosses. Higher amount of SOC in the mineral layer has been measured on plots which have a more southerly location, lower stoniness and high proportion of fine textures. Coefficients of determination in General Linear Models were between 23-61%. The average annual change of SOC (organic layer + mineral layer 0-40 cm) is +33.9 g C m-2a-1. Change in the organic layer has been +11.4 g C m-2a-1 and in the mineral soil +22.5 g C m-2a-1. The accumulation of organic carbon into the organic layer is positively correlated with the thickness of the organic layer, the southern location, pine dominance in tree layer and the age of the trees, while in the mineral soil higher carbon accumulation occurs in less stony soils and in more southern locations. Coefficients of determination in General Linear Models describing the change in SOC were low, between 11-14%. The largest positive or negative changes in SOC are in plots where the depth of the organic layer measured in two successive measurements was very different. Also, the differences in the measurements of SOC were large if the plots were drained, divided to two different sections or plots were excessively moist. Climate change and higher temperature will probably affect soil carbon sequestration positively, forecasted by using the results of the south-north gradient in which more carbon was accumulated into the soils of southern Finland. Soil monitoring research should be developed by using precise sampling methods and establishing permanent instructions for field work in order to avoid additional sources of error and to minimize variation.
  • Vastaranta, Mikko; Saarinen, Ninni; Kankare, Ville; Holopainen, Markus; Kaartinen, Harri; Hyyppa, Juha; Hyyppa, Hannu (2014)
  • Soimakallio, Sampo; Kalliokoski, Tuomo; Lehtonen, Aleksi; Salminen, Olli (Springer, 2021)
    Mitigation and Adaption Strategies for Global Change 26: 4
    Forest biomass can be used in two different ways to limit the growth of the atmospheric greenhouse gas (GHG) concentrations: (1) to provide negative emissions through sequestration of carbon into forests and harvested wood products or (2) to avoid GHG emissions through substitution of non-renewable raw materials with wood. We study the trade-offs and synergies between these strategies using three different Finnish national-level forest scenarios between 2015 and 2044 as examples. We demonstrate how GHG emissions change when wood harvest rates are increased. We take into account CO2 and other greenhouse gas flows in the forest, the decay rate of harvested wood products and fossil-based CO2 emissions that can be avoided by substituting alternative materials with wood derived from increased harvests. We considered uncertainties of key parameters by using stochastic simulation. According to our results, an increase in harvest rates in Finland increased the total net GHG flow to the atmosphere virtually certainly or very likely, given the uncertainties and time frame considered. This was because the increased biomass-based CO2 and other greenhouse gas emissions to the atmosphere together with decreased carbon sequestration into the forest were very likely higher than the avoided fossil-based CO2 emissions. The reverse of this conclusion would require that compared to what was studied in this paper, the share of long-living wood products in the product mix would be higher, carbon dioxide from bioenergy production would be captured and stored, and reduction in forest carbon equivalent net sink due to wood harvesting would be minimized.
  • Holopainen, Markus; Vastaranta, Mikko; Hyyppa, Juha (2014)
  • Aro, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    The aim of this thesis is to study the normality of Finnish privately owned timberland returns and assess the risk level under value-at-risk and conditional value-at-risk frameworks. The motivation behind the normality assumption of timberland returns is that modern portfolio theory requires the asset returns to follow a normal distribution. If the chosen assets do not follow this assumption, the modern portfolio theory is not a valid framework for the analysis. In addition, the modern portfolio theory uses variance as a risk measure, which does not consider the skewness or excess kurtosis of the asset returns. Hence, we study the return of Finnish timberland assets under value-at-risk and conditional value at-risk frameworks. The theoretical framework is based on four different value-at-risk and conditional value-at-risk estimation methods: historical, Gaussian, modified and extreme value theory based. The chosen timeframe is from January 1995 to December 2018 and the data is for six different roundwoods: logs and pulpwood of Birch, Spruce and Pine. The main finding is that the Finnish privately owned timberland returns are non-normally distributed. This is, because the return series exhibit excess kurtosis and skewness. In addition, different value-at-risk and conditional value-at-risk estimation methods give differing results due to the non-normality. Value-at-risk and conditional value-at-risk illustrate the risk of the Finnish privately owned timberland better than variance. In conclusion, the risk of the Finnish privately owned timberland is still moderate, but the normal distribution underestimates it.