Browsing by Subject "fosfori"

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  • Lappalainen, Kalle Matti; Niemi, Jorma; Kinnunen, Kari (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 34, 60-67
    Fosforimalli ja sen soveltaminen Päijänteeseen.
  • Kotamäki, Niina; Järvinen, Marko; Kauppila, Pirkko; Korpinen, Samuli; Lensu, Anssi; Malve, Olli; Mitikka, Sari; Silander, Jari; Kettunen, Juhani (Springer, 2019)
    Environmental Monitoring Assessment 191, 318 (2019)
    The representativeness of aquatic ecosystem monitoring and the precision of the assessment results are of high importance when implementing the EU’s Water Framework Directive that aims to secure a good status of waterbodies in Europe. However, adapting monitoring designs to answer the objectives and allocating the sampling resources effectively are seldom practiced. Here, we present a practical solution how the sampling effort could be re-allocated without decreasing the precision and confidence of status class assignment. For demonstrating this, we used a large data set of 272 intensively monitored Finnish lake, coastal, and river waterbodies utilizing an existing framework for quantifying the uncertainties in the status class estimation. We estimated the temporal and spatial variance components, as well as the effect of sampling allocation to the precision and confidence of chlorophyll-a and total phosphorus. Our results suggest that almost 70% of the lake and coastal waterbodies, and 27% of the river waterbodies, were classified without sufficient confidence in these variables. On the other hand, many of the waterbodies produced unnecessary precise metric means. Thus, reallocation of sampling effort is needed. Our results show that, even though the studied variables are among the most monitored status metrics, the unexplained variation is still high. Combining multiple data sets and using fixed covariates would improve the modeling performance. Our study highlights that ongoing monitoring programs should be evaluated more systematically, and the information from the statistical uncertainty analysis should be brought concretely to the decision-making process.
  • Västilä, Kaisa; Väisänen, Sari; Koskiaho, Jari; Lehtoranta, Virpi; Karttunen, Krister; Kuussaari, Mikko; Järvelä, Juha; Koikkalainen, Kauko (MDPI, 2021)
    Sustainability 13, 16
    Conventional dredging of ditches and streams to ensure agricultural drainage and flood mitigation can have severe environmental impacts. The aim of this paper is to investigate the potential benefits of an alternative, nature-based two-stage channel (TSC) design with floodplains excavated along the main channel. Through a literature survey, investigations at Finnish field sites and expert interviews, we assessed the performance, costs, and monetary environmental benefits of TSCs in comparison to conventional dredging, as well as the bottlenecks in their financing and governance. We found evidence supporting the expected longer-term functioning of drainage as well as larger plant and fish biodiversity in TSCs compared to conventional dredging. The TSC design likely improves water quality since the floodplains retain suspended sediment and phosphorus and remove nitrogen. In the investigated case, the additional value of phosphorus retention and conservation of protected species through the TSC design was 2.4 times higher than the total costs. We demonstrate how TSCs can be made eligible for the obligatory vegetated riparian buffer of the European Union agri-environmental subsidy scheme (CAP-AES) by optimising their spatial application with respect to other buffer measures, and recommend to publicly finance their additional costs compared to conventional dredging at priority sites. Further studies on biodiversity impacts and long-term performance of two-stage channels are required.
  • Ekholm, Petri (Finnish Environment Institute, 1998)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 11
  • Huttunen, Suvi (Helsingfors universitet, 2015)
    Työssä tarkasteltiin sedimentin alumiini- ja rautaoksidien osallistumista fosforin sitomiseen kolmella eri alueella pohjoisella Itämerellä ja sitä kuinka sedimentin metallioksideihin sitoutuneet fosforifraktiot voidaan erotella peräkkäisten uuttojen avulla. Tutkitut näytteet oli otettu estuaarityyppisistä sedimenteistä Ahvenkoskenlahdelta, Perämereltä ja Saaristomereltä. Näytteitä uutettiin peräkkäin ammoniumfluoridilla, natriumditioniitilla ja natriumhydroksidilla. Käytetyt uuttoliuokset valittiin kirjallisuuden ja aiempien tutkimusten perusteella. Uutteista mitattiin fosforin, raudan, alumiinin ja mangaanin pitoisuudet ICP-OES-laitteistolla. Työn ensimmäisessä vaiheessa uuttoliuoksia lisättiin eri järjestyksissä ja tulosten perusteella uuttojärjestykseksi valittiin: 1) natriumditioniitti, 2) ammoniumfluoridi ja 3) natriumhydroksidi, koska näin pystyttiin parhaiten erottamaan alumiini- ja rautaoksidien sitoma fosfori toisistaan. Työn toisessa vaiheessa uutettiin kolmen eri alueen estuaarisedimenttejä valitulla uuttojärjestyksellä. Kirjallisuudessa on usein esitetty, että alumiinioksidit eivät olisi merkittävässä roolissa merisedimenttien fosforin sitomisessa vaan että alumiinioksidien sitomaksi määritetty fosfori voisi olla rautaoksidien sitomaa, mutta menetelmän epäspesifisyyden vuoksi tutkittu alumiinioksidien sitomaksi. Työn toisen vaiheen tulokset osoittivat, että alumiinioksidit osallistuvat fosforin sitomiseen estuaareissa. Estuaareihin hautautuneista sedimenttinäytteistä erottui alumiinioksidille spesifisellä uutolla oma fosforijakeensa, joka ei tulosten mukaan voinut olla peräisin rautaoksidien sitomasta jakeesta. Ahvenkoskenlahden näytteessä oli Saaristomeren ja Perämeren näytteisiin verrattuna suhteessa eniten alumiini- ja rautaoksidien sitomaa fosforia. Alumiinioksideilla havaittiin olevan enemmän merkitystä fosforin sitomisessa lähempänä rannikkoa, kun taas rautaoksideilla on enemmän merkitystä kauempana rannikosta.
  • Rekolainen, Seppo (National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1993)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 12
    Yhteenveto: Maatalouden aiheuttama vesistönkuormitus ja sen vähentäminen
  • Valve, Matti (Vesihallitus. National Board of Waters, 1985)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 58, 28-54
    Yhdistetty typen ja fosforin poisto jätevesistä
  • Hashemi, Fatemeh; Pohle, Ina; Pullens, Johannes W. M; Tornbjerg, Henrik; Kyllmar, Katarina; Marttila, Hannu; Lepistö, Ahti; Klove, Bjorn; Futter, Martyn; Kronvang, Brian (MDPI, 2020)
    Water 12 6 (2020)
    Optimal nutrient pollution monitoring and management in catchments requires an in-depth understanding of spatial and temporal factors controlling nutrient dynamics. Such an understanding can potentially be obtained by analysing stream concentration–discharge (C-Q) relationships for hysteresis behaviours and export regimes. Here, a classification scheme including nine different C-Q types was applied to a total of 87 Nordic streams draining mini-catchments (0.1–65 km2). The classification applied is based on a combination of stream export behaviour (dilution, constant, enrichment) and hysteresis rotational pattern (clock-wise, no rotation, anti-clockwise). The scheme has been applied to an 8-year data series (2010–2017) from small streams in Denmark, Sweden, and Finland on daily discharge and discrete nutrient concentrations, including nitrate (NO3−), total organic N (TON), dissolved reactive phosphorus (DRP), and particulate phosphorus (PP). The dominant nutrient export regimes were enrichment for NO3− and constant for TON, DRP, and PP. Nutrient hysteresis patterns were primarily clockwise or no hysteresis. Similarities in types of C-Q relationships were investigated using Principal Component Analysis (PCA) considering effects of catchment size, land use, climate, and dominant soil type. The PCA analysis revealed that land use and air temperature were the dominant factors controlling nutrient C-Q types. Therefore, the nutrient export behaviour in streams draining Nordic mini-catchments seems to be dominantly controlled by their land use characteristics and, to a lesser extent, their climate.
  • Frisk, Tom (National Board of Waters and the Environment. Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus, 1989)
    Publications of the Water and Environment Research Institute 5
    Yhteenveto: Järvien ainetasemallien kehittäminen.
  • Podsechin, Victor; Kaipainen, Heikki; Filatov, Nikolai; Bilaletdin, Ämer; Frisk, Tom; Paananen, Arto; Terzhevik, Arkady; Vuoristo, Heidi (Pirkanmaa Regional Environment Centre, 2009)
    The Finnish Environment 36/2009
    Lake Onega is the second largest lake in Europe after Lake Ladoga. The lake is located in the Karelian Republic, in the Leningradskaya and Vologodskaya regions of the Russian Federation. The area of the lake is 9800 km2, its max depth is 127 m and the average depth about 30 m. The main cities situated on the shore of the lake are Petrozavodsk and Kondopoga. The lake is connected to the Baltic Sea via the River Svir, Lake Ladoga and the Neva River. Russia is not joining the European Union (EU) in the near future. However, there is tendency to adopt the central principles of many EU directives also in Russia. Water Framework Directive (WFD) is a useful directive giving the main guidelines about how to organize water management. The aim of the project was to make an investigation of the status of Lake Onega, to assess pressures and risks into the lake and make a general plan for water protection to guarantee a good chemical and ecological status of the lake, as expressed on the WFD. One purpose of this project was to transfer Finnish knowledge and results of Finnish investigations concerning the WFD to the area of Lake Onega. In this study, many different steady-state and dynamic catchment and water quality models were used in assessing the effects of different loading scenarios. While Lake Onega preserves a good status of water as a whole, the problems with pollution and eutrophication exist in Petrozavodsk and Kondopoga Bays where anthropogenic loading is more pronounced. The excessive phosphorus loading with Petrozavodsk wastewaters should be reduced considerably to prevent further eutrophication of Lake Onega. The existing treatment removes about 55-60% of total phosphorus from Petrozavodsk wastewaters. Modern technology permits to increase this figure up to 95%. In Kondopoga Bay anthropogenic impact is most severe, the pollution is heaviest at the head of the bay throughout the year, where Kondopoga PPM withdraws wastewaters for nearly 80 years (40 years without treatment). To improve environmental conditions in Kondopoga Bay the effectiveness of wastewater treatment process at Kondopoga PPM has to be enhanced and phosphorus loading has to be reduced.
  • Lehtoranta, Jouni; Bendtsen, Jørgen; Lännergren, Christer; Saarijärvi, Erkki; Lindström, Magnus; Pitkänen, Heikki (Elsevier BV, 2022)
    Ecological Engineering
    We studied the effects of pumping surface water down through the pycnocline (i.e. artificial ventilation) on hydrodynamics, oxygen concentrations, hydrogen sulfide, and nutrients in two anoxic coastal basins (Lännerstasundet and Sandöfjärden). In addition, in a corresponding laboratory aquarium experiment, pumping of less saline surface water entrained dense bottom water with a mixing ratio of 6.8 and illustrated dispersal below the pycnocline. Oxygen saturation increased from 0 to 20%; oxygen penetrated poorly into the sediment of the aquarium. In the salinity-stratified Lännerstasundet basin, ventilation also oxidized the anoxic bottom water. The ventilation removed hydrogen sulfide and decreased the sub-pycnocline water pools of phosphorus and ammonium, which was not observed in a neighboring reference basin. The summertime ventilation warmed and made the sub-pycnocline water less saline. In the autumn, the inflows of cooled water from the surroundings with equal or higher salinity promoted its sinking in the relatively warm ventilated basin. The inflows maintained oxygen concentrations between 4 and 8 mg L−1 for months after the ventilation ended. In contrast to Lännerstasundet, ventilation did not prevent formation of anoxia and release of nutrients in the temperature-stratified Sandöfjärden. Here, the ventilation capacity was less than that in Lännerstasundet and ventilation expanded the sub-thermocline bottom area, warmed the bottom sediments, and probably displaced oxic water from the experimental area. The ventilation did not promote density conditions for inflows and no marked inflow-induced oxidation was observed after midsummer. We conclude that a significant amount of anoxic water was entrained into the ascending plume which reduced the oxygen content below the pycnocline ventilation in aquarium experiment. Additionally, summertime ventilation may improve the status of the salinity-stratified basins for further oxidation. The improvement occurs due to autumn cooling and favorable basin topography, which promote inflows of oxic water with larger density and thereby, renewal of bottom water in the pumped basin. The semi-enclosed and temperature-stratified basin cannot form such favorable density conditions for inflows and thus ventilation is less efficient.
  • Finér, Leena; Lepistö, Ahti; Karlsson, Kristian; Räike, Antti; Härkönen, Laura; Huttunen, Markus; Joensuu, Samuli; Kortelainen, Pirkko; Mattsson, Tuija; Piirainen, Sirpa; Sallantaus, Tapani; Sarkkola, Sakari; Tattari, Sirkka; Ukonmaanaho, Liisa (Elsevier, 2021)
    Science of The Total Environment 762 (2021), 144098
    More reliable assessments of nutrient export to surface waters and the Baltic Sea are required to achieve good ecological status of all water bodies. Previous nutrient export estimates have recently been questioned since they did not include the long-term impacts of drainage for forestry. We made new estimates of the total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P) and total organic carbon (TOC) export from forests to surface waters at different spatial scales in Finland. This was done by formulating statistical equations between streamwater concentrations and climate, soil, forest management and runoff variables and spatial data on catchment characteristics. The equations were based on a large, long-term runoff and streamwater quality dataset, which was collected from 28 pristine and 61 managed boreal forest catchments located around Finland. We found that the concentrations increased with temperature sum (TS), i.e. from north to south. Nitrogen, P and TOC concentrations increased with the proportion of drained areas in the catchment; those of N and TOC also increased with the proportion of peatlands. In contrast, with the increasing concentrations of N and TOC with time, P concentrations showed a decreasing trend over the last few decades. According to our estimates, altogether 47,300 Mg of N, 1780 Mg of P and 1814 Gg of TOC is transported from forest areas to surface waters in Finland. Forest management contributes 17% of the N export, 35% of the P export and 12% of the TOC export. Our new forest management export estimates for N and P are more than two times higher than the old estimates used by the environment authorities. The differences may be explained by the long-term impact of forest drainage. The spatial results indicate that peatland forests are hotspots for N, P and TOC export, especially in the river basins draining to the Gulf of Bothnia.
  • Lehtoranta, Jouni (Finnish Environment Institute, 2003)
    Monographs of the Boreal Environment Research 24
    One of the main threats facing the Baltic Sea is eutrophication due to an excess supply of nutrients. In the Gulf of Finland, primary productivity and biomasses of autotrophic and heterotrophic organisms are among the highest in the Baltic. The high biomasses are attributed mainly to the eutrophying effects of the large land-derived nutrient inflow from St. Petersburg and via the River Neva. The role of sediment phosphorus (P) in eutrophication is, however, poorly understood in the Gulf. The aim of this study was to obtain information on the regional levels of sediment P and to specify the pools of P. Efforts were also made to define the sediment retention ability of P along the estuarine gradient, to establish the factors that affect the benthic fl ux of P and to assess whether sulphur (S) is a significant factor in sediment P cycling. On the basis of the results it was possible to quantify and consider the ecological implications of the benthic flux of P.The sediments of the Gulf are rich in organic matter, nitrogen (N) and P. A large portion of the mobile pool of P in these sediments consists of iron (Fe)-bound P, which is released when Fe(III) oxides are reduced under anoxic conditions. The increase in the sediment organic matter concentration along the estuarine gradient seems to impair the sediments’ ability to retain P. The highest benthic P efflux was measured in summer and the lowest in winter. The decrease in the near-bottom oxygen concentration in summer may favour anaerobic sulphate reduction followed by iron sulphide (FeS) formation close to the sediment- water interface. In the sediment, the key role in preventing P from entering the water is played by the binding ability of P related to diffusing Fe. In the brackish Baltic Sea, in contrast to most lake systems, the diffusion of Fe may be inactivated by FeS formation. Thus, high effluxes of P to oxic water were measured on bottoms where black sediment indicating the presence of FeS extended to the surface of the sediment.The P released from the sediments of the Gulf itself may largely explain the high P concentrations and low N:P ratios in near-bottom waters in summer and, after autumn mixing, in the entire water column. However, the input of P from the main Baltic basin may also lead to an increase in P concentrations in the Gulf. The high release rates of P measured – rather than denitrification – largely explain the N limitation of the primary production. A relationship seems to exist between the increase in near-bottom salinity and the weakening of the sediment oxidation state of the Gulf since 1996. The inflow of saline water to the Gulf strengthens density stratification, thus favouring the release of P to water. Therefore, the variations in hydrological factors may produce a marked between-year variation in the benthic P efflux and counteract the reduction in the external P load. The ability of sediment to retain P could most likely be promoted by decreasing the sedimentation of labile organic matter on the bottom. Organic matter sedimentation could be lowered by cutting the amount of bioavailable N and P from an anthropogenic sources.
  • Kauppi, Lea (Vesihallitus, 1979)
    Vesientutkimuslaitoksen julkaisuja 30, 21-41
    Tiivistelmä: Valuma-alueen vaikutus fosforin ja typen hajakuormitukseen.
  • Kauppi, Lea; Kenttämies, Kaarle; Puomio, Eeva-Riitta (Vesi- ja ympäristöhallitus. National Board of Waters and Environment, 1986)
    Publications of the Water Research Institute 69, 70-87
    Asumajätevesien fosforin ja typen poiston vaikutus järvien rehevöitymiseen
  • Turunen, Jarno; Karppinen, Anssi; Ihme, Raimo (Springer, 2019)
    SN Applied Sciences 1, 210 (2019)
    Agricultural diffuse pollution is a major environmental problem causing eutrophication of water bodies. Despite the problem is widely acknowledged, there has been relatively few major advances in mitigating the problem. We studied the effectiveness of biopolymer-based (tannin, starch, chitosan) natural coagulants/flocculants in treatment of two different agricultural wastewaters that differed in their level of phosphorus pollution and turbidity. We used jar-tests to test the effectiveness of the biopolymer coagulants in reducing water turbidity, total phosphorus, and total organic carbon (TOC) from the wastewaters. In more polluted water (total phosphorus: 300 µg/L, turbidity: 130 FNU, TOC: 30 mg/L), all tested biopolymers performed well. The best reductions for different biopolymer coagulants were 64–95%, 80–98% and 14–27%, for total phosphorus, turbidity and TOC, respectively. Tannin and chitosan coagulants performed the best at doses of 5–10 mL/L, whereas starch coagulants had the best performance at 1–2 mL/L doses. Tannin and chitosan coagulants performed clearly better than the starch coagulants. In less polluted water (total phosphorus: 74 µg/L, turbidity: 3.9 FNU, TOC: 21 mg/L), chitosan and starch coagulants did not produce flocs at any of the tested doses. Tannin coagulant performed the best at doses of 5–8 mL/L, where reductions were 70%, 82%, and 22%, for total phosphorus, turbidity and TOC, respectively. The great reductions of phosphorus and turbidity suggests that biopolymer coagulants could be applied in treatment of agricultural water pollution. The high phosphorus retention in the biodegradable biopolymer sludge suggests that the sludge can be readily used as a phosphorus fertilizer, which would aid the recycling of nutrients.
  • Macura, Biljana; Piniewski, Mikolaj; Ksiezniak, Marta; Osuch, Pawel; Haddaway, Neal R.; Ek, Filippa; Andersson, Karolin; Tattari, Sirkka (Springer Nature, 2019)
    Environmental Evidence 8, 39 (2019)
    Background Agriculture is the main sector responsible for nutrient emissions in the Baltic Sea Region and there is a growing pressure to identify cost-effective solutions towards reducing nitrogen and phosphorus loads originating from farming activities. Recycling resources from agricultural waste is central to the idea of a circular economy, and has the potential to address the most urgent problems related to nutrients use in the food chain, such as depletion of natural phosphorus reserves, water pollution and waste management. This systematic map examined what evidence exists relating to the effectiveness of ecotechnologies in agriculture for the recovery and reuse of carbon and/or nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus) in the Baltic Sea region and other comparable boreo-temperate systems. Methods We searched for both academic and grey literature. English language searches were performed in 5 bibliographic databases and search platforms, and Google Scholar. Searches in 36 specialist websites were performed in English, Finnish, Polish and Swedish. The searches were restricted to the period 2013 to 2017. Eligibility screening was conducted at two levels: title and abstract (screened concurrently for efficiency) and full text. Meta-data was extracted from eligible studies including bibliographic details, study location, ecotechnology name and description, type of outcome (i.e. recovered or reused carbon and/or nutrients), type of ecotechnology in terms of recovery source, and type of reuse (in terms of the end-product). Findings are presented here narratively and in a searchable database, and are also visualised in a web-based evidence atlas (an interactive geographical information system). In addition, knowledge gaps and clusters have been identified in the evidence base and described in detail. Results We found 173 articles studying the effectiveness of 177 ecotechnologies. The majority of eligible articles were in English, originated from bibliographic databases and were published in 2016. Most studies with reported locations, and given our boreo-temperate scope, were conducted in Europe and North America. The three most prevalent ecotechnologies in the evidence base (collectively 40.7%) were; soil amendments, anaerobic digestion and (vermi)composting. Manure was the principal waste source used for recovery of nutrients or carbon, making up 55.4% of the all studies in evidence base, followed by a combination of manure and crop residues (22%). There were 51 studies with 14 ecotechnologies that reported on recovery of carbon and nutrients together, predominantly via (vermi)composting and anaerobic digestion. Only 27 studies focused on reuse of recovered nutrients and carbon through soil amendments. Conclusions This systematic map report provides an evidence base that can be useful for researchers and decision-makers in policy and practice working on transformation from linear to circular economy in the agricultural waste sector. Three potential topics for future systematic reviews are: (1) effectiveness of products recovered from different types of agricultural wastes as soil amendments or fertilizers; (2) effectiveness of anaerobic digestion as an ecotechnology used for recovery of nutrients and carbon; (3) effectiveness of composting and/or vermicomposting as ecotechnologies used for recovery of nutrients and carbon.
  • Vaalama, Anu; Hartikainen, Helinä; Soinne, Helena; Lukkari, Kaarina (Springer Science and Business Media LLC, 2022)
    SN Applied Sciences
    This study reports results on the estimated magnitude of changes in P sorption isotherms in clayey mud sediments when performed using (1) freeze-dried instead of fresh sediment samples and (2) artificial sea water (ASW) instead of ambient near-bottom water. The sediments used differed in their P sorption. For the isotherms, sediments were equilibrated for 48 h in solutions of varying P concentration whereafter the amount of P sorbed or desorbed was determined. We adjusted the modified Freundlich equation to the isotherm data and assessed differences in the isotherms between the treatments by comparing equilibrium P concentrations and P buffering capacities determined from the isotherm equation. Freeze-drying decreased the P sorption in all investigated sediments, but the magnitude of the changes varied depending on the properties of the sediments. The effect was minor in the sediment abundant in P sorption sites and low in easily exchangeable P, while it was clearer in the sediments originally high in P or low in sorption surfaces. ASW and ambient water produced similar isotherms suggesting that ASW is a suitable equilibrium solution in P exchange experiments with muddy clay sediments. This study enlightens the processes occurring in freeze-drying. The results highlight that when examining the effects of dissimilar treatments or experimental conditions on the P exchange isotherms the magnitude and significance of the observed changes should be evaluated in a proper context considering the precision of the method.
  • Lipping, Sanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Kaivannaisfosfori on merkittävin fosfaattilannoitteiden lähde maailman maataloudessa. Fosforia on kuitenkin rajallinen määrä maapallolla ja kaivannaisfosforin varannot uhkaavat ehtyä 50-500 vuoden aikana. Maailman maatalous joutuu sopeutumaan tulevaisuudessa kaivannaisfosforin vähenemiseen, jolloin fosforin talteen saaminen erilaisin kierrätysmenetelmin tulee olemaan merkittävä kiertotalouden osa. Kierrätyslannoitteiden mahdollisuuksia on yleisesti tutkittu viime aikoina paljon, mutta niiden vaikutusta kauran fosforin ottoon on tutkittu melko vähän. Tämän tutkimuksen tarkastelun kohteena oli kauran (Avena sativa. L Obelix) fosforin otto vuosina 2017 ja 2018 Uudellamaalla sijaitsevalla koelohkolla. Tutkittavina kierrätyslannoitteina olivat lihaluujauho, matokomposti, mädätejäännös ja ammoniumsulfaatti. Kontrollina tutkimuksessa olivat väkilannoiteruutu sekä lannoittamaton ruutu. Koepellon lannoitushistoria oli suomalaisittain tyypillinen ja pellon fosforitaso oli tutkimuksen alkuvaiheessa luokiteltu hyväksi tai korkeaksi. Vuoden 2017 kasvukausi oli pitkäaikaiseen keskiarvoon (1981-2010) nähden kylmä ja sateinen, kun taas vuosi 2018 oli erityisen lämmin ja kuiva. Tämän tutkimuksen perusteella näillä kierrätyslannoitteilla ei ollut merkitsevää eroa kauran fosforin ottoon kumpanakaan vuonna verrattuna väkilannoitteeseen tai lannoittamattomaan käsittelyyn. Merkitsevä ero näkyi kuitenkin vuoden 2017 fosforin otossa lihaluujauhon ja mädätejäännöksen välillä (p=0,0159 vertailussa lannoittamattoman käsittelyn ja p=0,0206 vertailussa väkilannoitekäsittelyn kanssa). Maaperän fosforitaseissa ei havaittu merkitseviä eroja käsittelyiden välillä. Kierrätyslannoitekäsittelyiden välillä havaittiin merkitsevä ero niiden vaikutuksessa maaperän pH-arvoon (p=0,045 vertailussa lannoittamattoman ruudun ja p=0,036 vertailussa väkilannoitekäsittelyn kanssa) vuonna 2018. Tukeyn HSD-testissä ei kuitenkaan tapahtunut jakaantumista eri alajoukkoihin. Koepellon ennestään hyvä ravinnetilanne on voinut vaikuttaa kokeessa tasaamalla eroja eri käsittelyiden välillä.