Browsing by Subject "functional genomics"

Sort by: Order: Results:

Now showing items 1-4 of 4
  • Kringel, Dario; Kaunisto, Mari A.; Lippmann, Catharina; Kalso, Eija; Lötsch, Jörn (2018)
    Background: Many gene variants modulate the individual perception of pain and possibly also its persistence. The limited selection of single functional variants is increasingly being replaced by analyses of the full coding and regulatory sequences of pain-relevant genes accessible by means of next generation sequencing (NGS). Methods: An NGS panel was created for a set of 77 human genes selected following different lines of evidence supporting their role in persisting pain. To address the role of these candidate genes, we established a sequencing assay based on a custom AmpliSeq (TM) panel to assess the exomic sequences in 72 subjects of Caucasian ethnicity. To identify the systems biology of the genes, the biological functions associated with these genes were assessed by means of a computational over-representation analysis. Results: Sequencing generated a median of 2.85 . 10(6) reads per run with a mean depth close to 200 reads, mean read length of 205 called bases and an average chip loading of 71%. A total of 3,185 genetic variants were called. A computational functional genomics analysis indicated that the proposed NGS gene panel covers biological processes identified previously as characterizing the functional genomics of persisting pain. Conclusion: Results of the NGS assay suggested that the produced nucleotide sequences are comparable to those earned with the classical Sanger sequencing technique. The assay is applicable for small to large-scale experimental setups to target the accessing of information about any nucleotide within the addressed genes in a study cohort.
  • Taskinen, Juuso (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Human umbilical vein endothelial cells are responsible for maintaining and forming new vessels from existing ones, in a biological process called sprouting angiogenesis. Sprouting angiogenesis is a crucial mechanism for the resolution of hypoxia and normal development of tissues. It also plays a key role in internal plague hemorrhages, which can lead to embolisms and other cardiovascular complications. Angiogenesis is also crucial for cancer development. Sprouting angiogenesis is initiated by hypoxic tissue excreted vascular endothelial growth factor gradient, which induces normal endothelial cells into either a proliferative stalk cell or a signal sensing tip cell phenotype. Both of these cell types depend on the rapid flow of lipids to their plasma membrane, either to form plasma membrane protrusions in tip cells or as new plasma membrane material in dividing stalk cells. This flow is envisioned to involve both vesicle-mediated and non-vesicular mechanisms. A major non-vesicular route of lipid transfer occurs at membrane contact sites via lipid transport proteins. Furthermore, lipids can be transported to the plasma membrane by the direct fusion of vesicles or endosomes with the plasma membrane This thesis set out to explore the role of two membrane contact site proteins, oxysterol-binding protein- related protein 2 and protrudin, in angiogenesis and lipid transfer. Their role was examined by RNA-sequencing transient knock-down samples of these proteins in HUVECs. The RNA-sequencing data was examined by differential expression, gene ontology overrepresentation and gene set enrichment analyses. Gene expression analysis provided almost 10 000 significantly changed transcripts (adjusted p-values < 0.05), in each silenced cell type. The distribution of differentially expressed genes in oxysterol-binding protein- related protein 2 silenced cells, is skewed toward negative fold changes, whereas the distribution of differentially expressed genes in protrudin silenced samples is normally distributed. The results also show significant changes in gene ontologies related to proliferation, cell cycle, angiogenesis as well as hypoxia in both sample types. Gene set enrichment analysis showed upregulation in angiogenesis related pathways, such as the PI3K-Akt and MAPK pathways, in both samples. Significant downregulation was present in cell cycle related pathways and cholesterol biosynthesis pathway in both ORP2 and protrudin silenced samples.
  • Sablok, Gaurav; Yang, Kun; Chen, Rui; Wen, Xiaopeng (2017)
    Among several smallRNAs classes, microRNAs play an important role in controlling the post-transcriptional events. Next generation sequencing has played a major role in extending the landscape of miRNAs and revealing their spatio-temporal roles in development and abiotic stress. Lateral evolution of these smallRNAs classes have widely been seen with the recently emerging knowledge on tRNA derived smallRNAs. In the present perspective, we discussed classification, identification and roles of tRNA derived smallRNAs across plants and their potential involvement in abiotic and biotic stresses.
  • Benaglio, Paola; Zhu, Han; Okino, Mei Lin; Yan, Jian; Elgamal, Ruth; Nariai, Naoki; Beebe, Elisha; Korgaonkar, Katha; Qiu, Yunjiang; Donovan, Margaret K.R.; Chiou, Joshua; Wang, Gaowei; Newsome, Jacklyn; Kaur, Jaspreet; Miller, Michael; Preissl, Sebastian; Corban, Sierra; Aylward, Anthony; Taipale, Jussi; Ren, Bing; Frazer, Kelly A.; Sander, Maike; Gaulton, Kyle J. (2022)
    We combined functional genomics and human genetics to investigate processes that affect type 1 diabetes (T1D) risk by mediating beta cell survival in response to proinflammatory cytokines. We mapped 38,931 cytokine-responsive candidate cis-regulatory elements (cCREs) in beta cells using ATAC-seq and snATAC-seq and linked them to target genes using co-accessibility and HiChIP. Using a genome-wide CRISPR screen in EndoC-βH1 cells, we identified 867 genes affecting cytokine-induced survival, and genes promoting survival and up-regulated in cytokines were enriched at T1D risk loci. Using SNP-SELEX, we identified 2,229 variants in cytokine-responsive cCREs altering transcription factor (TF) binding, and variants altering binding of TFs regulating stress, inflammation, and apoptosis were enriched for T1D risk. At the 16p13 locus, a fine-mapped T1D variant altering TF binding in a cytokine-induced cCRE interacted with SOCS1, which promoted survival in cytokine exposure. Our findings reveal processes and genes acting in beta cells during inflammation that modulate T1D risk.