Browsing by Subject "fungi"

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  • Kunttu, Panu; Helo, Teppo; Kulju, Matti; Julkunen, Jari; Pennanen, Jorma; Shiryaev, Anton G.; Lehtonen, Hannu; Kotiranta, Heikki (Polish Botanical Society, 2019)
    Acta Mycologica 2019;54(2):1128
    Knowledge of the Finnish aphyllophoroid funga has increased substantially in recent years. In this article, we present two species new to Finland: Spiculogloea subminuta Hauerslev and Typhula suecica I. Olariaga, G. Corriol, I. Salcedo & K. Hansen, and document Sistotrema luteoviride Kotir. & K.-H. Larss. for the third time globally. We also contribute 50 new records of 33 nationally rare species (with a maximum of ten previous records in Finland) and list 52 regionally new species, found for the first time in a certain subzone of the boreal vegetation zone in Finland. Each record is enclosed and contains notes on the substrate. Furthermore, the ecology of the nationally new species and the distribution of rare species are discussed.
  • de Vries, Ronald; Mäkelä, Miia Riitta; Hilden, Sari Kristiina; Kämper, Jörg (2018)
  • Vitkainen, Orvo; Ahti, Teuvo; Kuusinen, Mikko; Lommi, Sampsa; Ulvinen, Tauno (Helsingin yliopiston luonnontieteellisen keskusmuseon kasvimuseo, 1997)
    Norrlinia ; 6
  • Tanskanen, Ville (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Microbial volatile organic compounds are emitted by diverse set of microbial organisms and they are known to cause health hazards when present in indoor air. Early detection of fungal contaminated buildings and species present is crucial to prevent health problems caused by fungal secondary metabolites. This thesis focuses on analysing emission profiles of different insulation materials and fungal cultures, which allows, in further studies, to develop efficient new ways to detect fungi from contaminated buildings. Studied insulation materials consisted of cellulose and glass wool, which were analysed in multiple different conditions. Humidity of atmosphere was varied between 0-10 microliters and temperature was varied between 30°C and 40°C. In fungal emission profile study 24 different cultures were analysed in two different atmospheres, ambient and micro- aerophilic, and in multiple different inoculums. Analysis for both insulation materials and fungal cultures was done using headspace solid phase microextraction Arrow -tool and headspace in tube extraction –tool together with gas chromatography – mass spectrometry. One goal for this thesis was also test suitability of these methods for detection of fungal secondary metabolites. Comprehensive fungal emission profiles were successfully formed and new information from behaviour of insulation materials in different settings was found. In addition, new information about analysis methods and fungal behaviour in different atmospheres was found. Headspace solid phase microextraction Arrow with gas chromatography – mass spectrometry was found to be efficient, sensitive and timesaving method for indoor air study purposes. There were also many potential fungal culture specific biomarker compounds found for further study purposes.
  • Korpelainen, Helena; Pietiläinen, Maria (2017)
    In the present study, we conducted DNA metabarcoding (the nuclear ITS2 region) for indoor fungal samples originating from two nursery schools with a suspected mould problem (sampling before and after renovation), from two university buildings, and from an old farmhouse. Good-quality sequences were obtained, and the results showed that DNA metabarcoding provides high resolution in fungal identification. The pooled proportions of sequences representing filamentous ascomycetes, filamentous basidiomycetes, yeasts, and other fungi equalled 62.3%, 8.0%, 28.3%, and 1.4%, respectively, and the total number of fungal genera found during the study was 585. When comparing fungal diversities and taxonomic composition between different types of buildings, no obvious pattern was detected. The average pairwise values of Sorensen(Chao) indices that were used to compare similarities for taxon composition between samples among the samples from the two university buildings, two nurseries, and farmhouse equaled 0.693, 0.736, 0.852, 0.928, and 0.981, respectively, while the mean similarity index for all samples was 0.864. We discovered that making explicit conclusions on the relationship between the indoor air quality and mycoflora is complicated by the lack of appropriate indicators for air quality and by the occurrence of wide spatial and temporal changes in diversity and compositions among samples.
  • Koskinen, Janne; Roslin, Tomas; Nyman, Tommi; Abrego, Nerea; Michell, Craig; Vesterinen, Eero J. (2019)
    Fruiting bodies of fungi constitute an important resource for thousands of other taxa. The structure of these diverse assemblages has traditionally been studied with labour-intensive methods involving cultivation and morphology-based species identification, to which molecular information might offer convenient complements. To overcome challenges in DNA extraction and PCR associated with the complex chemical properties of fruiting bodies, we developed a pipeline applicable for extracting amplifiable total DNA from soft fungal samples of any size. Our protocol purifies DNA in two sequential steps: (a) initial salt-isopropanol extraction of all nucleic acids in the sample is followed by (b) an extra clean-up step using solid-phase reversible immobilization (SPRI) magnetic beads. The protocol proved highly efficient, with practically all of our samples-regardless of biomass or other properties-being successfully PCR-amplified using metabarcoding primers and subsequently sequenced. As a proof of concept, we apply our methods to address a topical ecological question: is host specificity a major characteristic of fungus-associated communities, that is, do different fungus species harbour different communities of associated organisms? Based on an analysis of 312 fungal fruiting bodies representing 10 species in five genera from three orders, we show that molecular methods are suitable for studying this rich natural microcosm. Comparing to previous knowledge based on rearing and morphology-based identifications, we find a species-rich assemblage characterized by a low degree of host specialization. Our method opens up new horizons for molecular analyses of fungus-associated interaction webs and communities.
  • Väre, Henry Uolevi (2017)
    Finnish botanists and mycologists have studied Arctic areas and timberline regions since the beginning of the 18th century. Most expeditions to the Kola Peninsula were made between 1800 and 1917 and until 1945 to Lapponia petsamoensis on the western rim of the Kola Peninsula. Since those years, these areas have been part of the Soviet Union or Russia. Svalbard and Newfoundland and Labrador have been studied repeatedly as well, Svalbard since the 1860s and Newfoundland and Labrador since the 1930s. This article focuses on Finnish collections. These are deposited in the herbaria of Helsinki, Turku, and Oulu universities, except materials from the Nordenskiold expeditions, which were mainly deposited in Stockholm. Concerning the Kola Peninsula, collections at Helsinki are the most extensive. The exact number of specimens is not known, but by rough estimation, the number is about 60 000, with an additional 110 000 observations included in the database. These expeditions have provided material to describe 305 new taxa to science, viz. 47 algae, 78 bryophytes, 25 fungi, 136 lichens, and 19 vascular plants. This number is an underestimate, as many new species have been described in several separate taxonomic articles. At least 63 persons have contributed to making these collections to Finnish herbaria. Of those, 52 are of Finnish nationality.
  • Terhonen, Eeva; Blumenstein, Kathrin; Kovalchuk, Andriy; Asiegbu, Fred O. (2019)
    Terrestrial plants including forest trees are generally known to live in close association with microbial organisms. The inherent features of this close association can be commensalism, parasitism or mutualism. The term microbiota has been used to describe this ecological community of plant-associated pathogenic, mutualistic, endophytic and commensal microorganisms. Many of these microbiota inhabiting forest trees could have a potential impact on the health of, and disease progression in, forest biomes. Comparatively, studies on forest tree microbiomes and their roles in mutualism and disease lag far behind parallel work on crop and human microbiome projects. Very recently, our understanding of plant and tree microbiomes has been enriched due to novel technological advances using metabarcoding, metagenomics, metatranscriptomics and metaproteomics approaches. In addition, the availability of massive DNA databases (e.g., NCBI (USA), EMBL (Europe), DDBJ (Japan), UNITE (Estonia)) as well as powerful computational and bioinformatics tools has helped to facilitate data mining by researchers across diverse disciplines. Available data demonstrate that plant phyllosphere bacterial communities are dominated by members of only a few phyla (Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, Bacteroidetes). In bulk forest soil, the dominant fungal group is Basidiomycota, whereas Ascomycota is the most prevalent group within plant tissues. The current challenge, however, is how to harness and link the acquired knowledge on microbiomes for translational forest management. Among tree-associated microorganisms, endophytic fungal biota are attracting a lot of attention for their beneficial health- and growth-promoting effects, and were preferentially discussed in this review.
  • Jyväsjärvi, Jussi; Lehosmaa, Kaisa; Aroviita, Jukka; Turunen, Jarno; Rajakallio, Maria; Marttila, Hannu; Tolkkinen, Mikko; Mykrä, Heikki; Muotka, Timo (Elsevier, 2021)
    Ecological Indicators 121 (2021), 106986
    Degradation of freshwater ecosystems requires efficient tools for assessing the ecological status of freshwater biota and identifying potential cause(s) for their biological degradation. While diatoms and macroinvertebrates are widely used in stream bioassessment, the potential utility of microbial communities has not been fully harnessed. Using data from 113 Finnish streams, we assessed the performance of aquatic leaf-associated fungal decomposers, relative to benthic macroinvertebrates and diatoms, in modelling-based bioassessment. We built multi-taxon niche -type predictive models for fungal assemblages by using genus-based and sequence-based identification levels. We then compared the models’ precision and accuracy in the prediction of reference conditions (number of native taxa) to corresponding models for macroinvertebrates and diatoms. Genus-based fungal model nearly equalled the accuracy and precision of our best model (macroinvertebrates), whereas the sequence-based model was less accurate and tended to overestimate the number of taxa. However, when the models were applied to streams disturbed by anthropogenic stressors (nutrient enrichment, sedimentation and acidification), alone or in combination, the sequence-based fungal assemblages were more sensitive than other taxonomic groups, especially when multiple stressors were present. Microbial leaf decomposition rates were elevated in sediment-stressed streams whereas decomposition attributable to leaf-shredding macroinvertebrates was accelerated by nutrients and decelerated by sedimentation. Comparison of leaf decomposition results to model output suggested that leaf decomposition rates do not detect effectively the presence of multiple simultaneous disturbances. The rapid development of global microbial database may soon enable species-level identification of leaf-associated fungi, facilitating a more precise and accurate modelling of reference conditions in streams using fungal communities. This development, combined with the sensitivity of aquatic fungi in detecting the presence of multiple human disturbances, makes leaf-associated fungal assemblages an indispensable addition in a stream ecologist’s toolbox.
  • Koskinen, Janne S.; Abrego, Nerea; Vesterinen, Eero J.; Schulz, Torsti; Roslin, Tomas; Nyman, Tommi (2022)
    Interactions among fungi and insects involve hundreds of thousands of species. While insect communities on plants have formed some of the classic model systems in ecology, fungus-based communities and the forces structuring them remain poorly studied by comparison. We characterize the arthropod communities associated with fruiting bodies of eight mycorrhizal basidiomycete fungus species from three different orders along a 1200-km latitudinal gradient in northern Europe. We hypothesized that, matching the pattern seen for most insect taxa on plants, we would observe a general decrease in fungal-associated species with latitude. Against this backdrop, we expected local communities to be structured by host identity and phylogeny, with more closely related fungal species sharing more similar communities of associated organisms. As a more unique dimension added by the ephemeral nature of fungal fruiting bodies, we expected further imprints generated by successional change, with younger fruiting bodies harboring communities different from older ones. Using DNA metabarcoding to identify arthropod communities from fungal fruiting bodies, we found that latitude left a clear imprint on fungus-associated arthropod community composition, with host phylogeny and decay stage of fruiting bodies leaving lesser but still-detectable effects. The main latitudinal imprint was on a high arthropod species turnover, with no detectable pattern in overall species richness. Overall, these findings paint a new picture of the drivers of fungus-associated arthropod communities, suggesting that latitude will not affect how many arthropod species inhabit a fruiting body but, rather, what species will occur in it and at what relative abundances (as measured by sequence read counts). These patterns upset simplistic predictions regarding latitudinal gradients in species richness and in the strength of biotic interactions.
  • Liu, Xinxin; Hui, Nan; Kontro, Merja H. (2020)
    The triazine herbicide atrazine easily leaches with water through soil layers into groundwater, where it is persistent. Its behavior during short-term transport is poorly understood, and there is no in situ remediation method for it. The aim of this study was to investigate whether water circulation, or circulation combined with bioaugmentation (Pseudomonassp. ADP, or four isolates from atrazine-contaminated sediments) alone or with biostimulation (Na-citrate), could enhance atrazine dissipation in subsurface sediment-water systems. Atrazine concentrations (100 mg L-1) in the liquid phase of sediment slurries and in the circulating water of sediment columns were followed for 10 days. Atrazine was rapidly degraded to 53-64 mg L(-1)in the slurries, and further to 10-18 mg L(-1)in the circulating water, by the inherent microbes of sediments collected from 13.6 m in an atrazine-contaminated aquifer. Bioaugmentation without or with biostimulation had minor effects on atrazine degradation. The microbial number simultaneously increased in the slurries from 1.0 x 10(3)to 0.8-1.0 x 10(8)cfu mL(-1), and in the circulating water from 0.1-1.0 x 10(2)to 0.24-8.8 x 10(4)cfu mL(-1). In sediments without added atrazine, the cultivable microbial numbers remained low at 0.82-8.0 x 10(4)cfu mL(-1)in the slurries, and at 0.1-2.8 x 10(3)cfu mL(-1)in the circulating water. The cultivated microorganisms belonged to the nine generaAcinetobacter,Burkholderia,Methylobacterium,Pseudomonas,Rhodococcus,Sphingomonas,Streptomyces,VariovoraxandWilliamsia; i.e., biodiversity was low. Water flow through the sediments released adsorbed and complex-bound atrazine for microbial degradation, though the residual concentration of 10-64 mg L(-1)was high and could contaminate large groundwater volumes from a point source, e.g., during heavy rain or flooding.
  • Peng, Mao; Aguilar-Pontes, Maria V.; de Vries, Ronald P.; Mäkelä, Miia R. (2018)
    Aspergillus niger is one of the most widely used fungi to study the conversion of the lignocellulosic feedstocks into fermentable sugars. Understanding the sugar uptake system of A. niger is essential to improve the efficiency of the process of fungal plant biomass degradation. In this study, we report a comprehensive characterization of the sugar transportome of A. niger by combining phylogenetic and comparative transcriptomic analyses. We identified 86 putative sugar transporter (ST) genes based on a conserved protein domain search. All these candidates were then classified into nine subfamilies and their functional motifs and possible sugar-specificity were annotated according to phylogenetic analysis and literature mining. Furthermore, we comparatively analyzed the ST gene expression on a large set of fungal growth conditions including mono-, di- and polysaccharides, and mutants of transcriptional regulators. This revealed that transporter genes from the same phylogenetic clade displayed very diverse expression patterns and were regulated by different transcriptional factors. The genome-wide study of STs of A. niger provides new insights into the mechanisms underlying an extremely flexible metabolism and high nutritional versatility of A. niger and will facilitate further biochemical characterization and industrial applications of these candidate STs.
  • Juottonen, Heli; Kieman, Mirkka; Fritze, Hannu; Hamberg, Leena; Laine, Anna M.; Merila, Paivi; Peltoniemi, Krista; Putkinen, Anuliina; Tuittila, Eeva-Stiina (2022)
    Peatlands are carbon dioxide (CO2) sinks that, in parallel, release methane (CH4). The peatland carbon (C) balance depends on the interplay of decomposer and CH4-cycling microbes, vegetation, and environmental conditions. These interactions are susceptible to the changes that occur along a successional gradient from vascular plant-dominated systems to Sphagnum moss-dominated systems. Changes similar to this succession are predicted to occur from climate change. Here, we investigated how microbial and plant communities are interlinked with each other and with ecosystem C cycling along a successional gradient on a boreal land uplift coast. The gradient ranged from shoreline to meadows and fens, and further to bogs. Potential microbial activity (aerobic CO2 production; CH4 production and oxidation) and biomass were greatest in the early successional meadows, although their communities of aerobic decomposers (fungi, actinobacteria), methanogens, and methanotrophs did not differ from the older fens. Instead, the functional microbial communities shifted at the fen-bog transition concurrent with a sudden decrease in C fluxes. The successional patterns of decomposer versus CH4-cycling communities diverged at the bog stage, indicating strong but distinct microbial responses to Sphagnum dominance and acidity. We highlight young meadows as dynamic sites with the greatest microbial potential for C release. These hot spots of C turnover with dense sedge cover may represent a sensitive bottleneck in succession, which is necessary for eventual long-term peat accumulation. The distinctive microbes in bogs could serve as indicators of the C sink function in restoration measures that aim to stabilize the C in the peat.
  • Haak, Bastiaan W.; Argelaguet, R.; Kinsella, C.M.; Kullberg, R.F.J.; Lankelma, J.M.; Deijs, M.; Klein, M.; Jebbink, M.F.; Hugenholtz, F.; Kostidis, S.; Giera, M.; Hakvoort, T.B.M.; De Jonge, W.J.; Schultz, M.J.; Gool, T.V.; Van Der Poll, T.; De Vos, W.M.; Van Der Hoek, L.M.; Wiersingaa, W. Joost (2021)
    Bacterial microbiota play a critical role in mediating local and systemic immunity, and shifts in these microbial communities have been linked to impaired outcomes in critical illness. Emerging data indicate that other intestinal organisms, including bacteriophages, viruses of eukaryotes, fungi, and protozoa, are closely interlinked with the bacterial microbiota and their host, yet their collective role during antibiotic perturbation and critical illness remains to be elucidated. We employed multi-omics factor analysis (MOFA) to systematically integrate the bacterial (16S rRNA), fungal (intergenic transcribed spacer 1 rRNA), and viral (virus discovery next generation sequencing) components of the intestinal microbiota of 33 critically ill patients with and without sepsis and 13 healthy volunteers. In addition, we quantified the absolute abundances of bacteria and fungi using 16S and 18S rRNA PCRs and characterized the short-chain fatty acids (SCFAs) butyrate, acetate, and propionate using nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy. We observe that a loss of the anaerobic intestinal environment is directly correlated with an overgrowth of aerobic pathobionts and their corresponding bacteriophages as well as an absolute enrichment of opportunistic yeasts capable of causing invasive disease. We also observed a strong depletion of SCFAs in both disease states, which was associated with an increased absolute abundance of fungi with respect to bacteria. Therefore, these findings illustrate the complexity of transkingdom changes following disruption of the intestinal bacterial microbiome. IMPORTANCE While numerous studies have characterized antibiotic-induced disruptions of the bacterial microbiome, few studies describe how these disruptions impact the composition of other kingdoms such as viruses, fungi, and protozoa. To address this knowledge gap, we employed MOFA to systematically integrate viral, fungal, and bacterial sequence data from critically ill patients (with and without sepsis) and healthy volunteers, both prior to and following exposure to broad-spectrum antibiotics. In doing so, we show that modulation of the bacterial component of the microbiome has implications extending beyond this kingdom alone, enabling the overgrowth of potentially invasive fungi and viruses. While numerous preclinical studies have described similar findings in vitro, we confirm these observations in humans using an integrative analytic approach. These findings underscore the potential value of multi-omics data integration tools in interrogating how different components of the microbiota contribute to disease states. In addition, our findings suggest that there is value in further studying potential adjunctive therapies using anaerobic bacteria or SCFAs to reduce fungal expansion after antibiotic exposure, which could ultimately lead to improved outcomes in the intensive care unit (ICU).
  • Valkonen, M.; Täubel, M.; Pekkanen, J.; Tischer, C.; Rintala, H.; Zock, J. -P.; Casas, L.; Probst-Hensch, N.; Forsberg, B.; Holm, M.; Janson, C.; Pin, I.; Gislason, T.; Jarvis, D.; Heinrich, J.; Hyvärinen, A. (2018)
    Microbial exposures in homes of asthmatic adults have been rarely investigated; specificities and implications for respiratory health are not well understood. The objectives of this study were to investigate associations of microbial levels with asthma status, asthma symptoms, bronchial hyperresponsiveness (BHR), and atopy. Mattress dust samples of 199 asthmatics and 198 control subjects from 7 European countries participating in the European Community Respiratory Health Survey II study were analyzed for fungal and bacterial cell wall components and individual taxa. We observed trends for protective associations of higher levels of mostly bacterial markers. Increased levels of muramic acid, a cell wall component predominant in Gram-positive bacteria, tended to be inversely associated with asthma (OR's for different quartiles: II 0.71 [0.39-1.30], III 0.44 [0.23-0.82], and IV 0.60 [0.31-1.18] P for trend .07) and with asthma score (P for trend .06) and with atopy (P for trend .02). These associations were more pronounced in northern Europe. This study among adults across Europe supports a potential protective effect of Gram-positive bacteria in mattress dust and points out that this may be more pronounced in areas where microbial exposure levels are generally lower.
  • Adams, Rachel I.; Leppanen, Hanna; Karvonen, Anne M.; Jacobs, Jose; Borras-Santos, Alicia; Valkonen, Maria; Krop, Esmeralda; Haverinen-Shaughnessy, Ulla; Huttunen, Kati; Zock, Jan-Paul; Hyvärinen, Anne; Heederik, Dick; Pekkanen, Juha; Täubel, Martin (2021)
    Moisture-damaged buildings are associated with respiratory symptoms and underlying diseases among building occupants, but the causative agent(s) remain a mystery. We first identified specific fungal and bacterial taxa in classrooms with moisture damage in Finnish and Dutch primary schools. We then investigated associations of the identified moisture damage indicators with respiratory symptoms in more than 2700 students. Finally, we explored whether exposure to specific taxa within the indoor microbiota may explain the association between moisture damage and respiratory health. Schools were assessed for moisture damage through detailed inspections, and the microbial composition of settled dust in electrostatic dustfall collectors was determined using marker-gene analysis. In Finland, there were several positive associations between particular microbial indicators (diversity, richness, individual taxa) and a respiratory symptom score, while in the Netherlands, the associations tended to be mostly inverse and statistically non-significant. In Finland, abundance of the Sphingomonas bacterial genus and endotoxin levels partially explained the associations between moisture damage and symptom score. A few microbial taxa explained part of the associations with health, but overall, the observed associations between damage-associated individual taxa and respiratory health were limited.
  • Kohl, Lukas; Myers-Pigg, Allison; Edwards, Kate A.; Billings, Sharon A.; Warren, Jamie; Podrebarac, Frances; Ziegler, Susan E. (2021)
    Plant litter chemistry is altered during decomposition but it remains unknown if these alterations, and thus the composition of residual litter, will change in response to climate. Selective microbial mineralization of litter components and the accumulation of microbial necromass can drive litter compositional change, but the extent to which these mechanisms respond to climate remains poorly understood. We addressed this knowledge gap by studying needle litter decomposition along a boreal forest climate transect. Specifically, we investigated how the composition and/or metabolism of the decomposer community varies with climate, and if that variation is associated with distinct modifications of litter chemistry during decomposition. We analyzed the composition of microbial phospholipid fatty acids (PLFA) in the litter layer and measured natural abundance δ13C-PLFA values as an integrated measure of microbial metabolisms. Changes in litter chemistry and δ13C values were measured in litterbag experiments conducted at each transect site. A warmer climate was associated with higher litter nitrogen concentrations as well as altered microbial community structure (lower fungi:bacteria ratios) and microbial metabolism (higher δ13C-PLFA). Litter in warmer transect regions accumulated less aliphatic-C (lipids, waxes) and retained more O-alkyl-C (carbohydrates), consistent with enhanced 13C-enrichment in residual litter, than in colder regions. These results suggest that chemical changes during litter decomposition will change with climate, driven primarily by indirect climate effects (e.g. greater nitrogen availability and decreased fungi:bacteria ratios) rather than direct temperature effects. A positive correlation between microbial biomass δ13C values and 13C-enrichment during decomposition suggests that change in litter chemistry is driven more by distinct microbial necromass inputs than differences in the selective removal of litter components. Our study highlights the role that microbial inputs during early litter decomposition can play in shaping surface litter contribution to soil organic matter as it responds to climate warming effects such as greater nitrogen availability.
  • Rantanen, Ida (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Challenges of such as biodiversity loss and unsustainable food systems are interconnected. Forests and forest fungi have important roles in the safeguarding of biodiversity. This study aimed to provide insights on mushroom cultivation opportunities alongside forestry activities using environmental expert opinions, individual forest owners’ perceptions and attitudes of mushroom picking hobbyists. Environmental experts, individual forest owners, and mushroom picking hobbyists were selected as key stakeholder for investigating the viability of mushroom cultivation alongside forestry activities. The potential of mushroom cultivation alongside forestry activities was elicited within the theoretical framework of stakeholder theory, corporate social responsibility, sustainable business, and insights from behavioral theories. The data was collected through qualitative interviews and a short survey. The analysis method for the data was thematic analysis. Six themes emerged from the data, showing practical implications that have important implications for the viability of mushroom cultivation alongside forestry activities, and touch upon environmental, economic, legal, social, educational and other practical aspects. Mushroom cultivation services could support and enhance forest biodiversity and offer additional income opportunities for forest owners. From a corporate social responsibility perspective selling mushroom cultivation services to forest owners represents an opportunity to support biodiversity of forests. Turning mushroom cultivation into sustainable business opportunity requires careful consideration of practical implications.
  • Borovichev, Evgeny; Kozhin, Mikhail; Ignashov, Pavel A.; Kirillova, Natalya R.; Kopeina, Ekaterina; Kravchenko, Alexei; Kuznetsov, Oleg; Kutenkov, Stanislav; Melekhin, Aleksey V.; Popova, Ksenia B.; Razumovskaya, Anna V.; Sennikov, Alexander; Fadeeva, Margarita; Khimich, Yulia (2020)
  • Miettinen, Hanna; Bomberg, Malin; Nyyssönen, Mari; Reunamo, Anna; Jørgensen, Kirsten S.; Vikman, Minna (PLoS ONE, 2019)
    PLoS ONE
    Two long-term potentially oil exposed Baltic Sea coastal sites near old oil refineries and harbours were compared to nearby less exposed sites in terms of bacterial, archaeal and fungal microbiomes and oil degradation potential. The bacterial, archaeal and fungal diversities were similar in oil exposed and less exposed sampling sites based on bacterial and archaeal 16S rRNA gene and fungal 5.8S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing from both DNA and RNA fractions. The number of genes participating in alkane degradation (alkB) or PAH-ring hydroxylation (PAH–RHDα) were detected by qPCR in all water and sediment samples. These numbers correlated with the number of bacterial 16S rRNA gene copies in sediment samples but not with the concentration of petroleum hydrocarbons or PAHs. This indicates that both the clean and the more polluted sites at the Baltic Sea coastal areas have a potential for petroleum hydrocarbon degradation. The active community (based on RNA) of the coastal Baltic Sea water differed largely from the total community (based on DNA). The most noticeable difference was seen in the bacterial community in the water samples were the active community was dominated by Cyanobacteria and Proteobacteria whereas in total bacterial community Actinobacteria was the most abundant phylum. The abundance, richness and diversity of Fungi present in water and sediment samples was in general lower than that of Bacteria and Archaea. Furthermore, the sampling location influenced the fungal community composition, whereas the bacterial and archaeal communities were not influenced. This may indicate that the fungal species that are adapted to the Baltic Sea environments are few and that Fungi are potentially more vulnerable to or affected by the Baltic Sea conditions than Bacteria and Archaea.