Browsing by Subject "fysik"

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  • Backman, Marie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2012)
    Ion irradiation is used to analyze and modify the structure of condensed matter. It can for instance be used to form and shape nanocrystals in solids. In research on materials for high radiation environments, ion beams function as a controlled source of irradiation for studying the basic mechanisms of ion-solid interactions and for analyzing the structure of materials by methods like Rutherford backscattering spectrometry. Understanding the fundamental processes that take place in a material under ion irradiation is important for all these applications of ion beams, and of great interest from a basic science point of view. The mechanisms involved during ion irradiation-induced displacement of atoms in uniform bulk solids are fairly well understood and described in the literature, but many unresolved questions remain regarding the structural modification caused by electronic interactions, and the radiation response of materials with phase boundaries. Especially ion irradiation of nanomaterials is a topic that is under active research. The short-lived collision cascades caused by energetic ions in solids cannot be studied in experiments and are therefore often modeled in computer simulations. Such simulations can give a host of valuable information about processes that occur in nature. It is necessary to validate simulation results by either some other computational method, or ideally by experiments. Ions lose energy by elastic collisions with the atomic nuclei as well as to the electronic system through excitation and ionization. Both energy loss mechanisms - nuclear and electronic stopping - can cause modifications to the structure of the material. In this thesis, molecular dynamics simulations are carried out in close collaboration with experimental scientists in order to study the effects of nuclear and electronic stopping during ion irradiation on nanoclusters and bulk materials. The amorphization of germanium and silicon nanocrystals in silica under ion irradiation is studied in simulations. The amorphization dose of nanocrystals is much lower than for bulk materials and it is furthermore found to depend on the size of the nanocrystals. The inelastic thermal spike model is explored as a method of incorporating electronic stopping effects into molecular dynamics. The simulations predict that local heating due to electronic stopping contributes to irradiation damage in both nanocrystals in silica and bulk silica. In silicon carbide, high electronic stopping is found to recrystallize irradiation damaged samples. Molecular dynamics simulations of inelastic thermal spikes support the hypothesis that the observed recrystallization is induced by local heating due to electronic stopping. We need a combination of computer simulations and experimental observations to explain many of the complex processes that take place during ion irradiation. The results in this thesis give insight into some experimentally observed phenomena of the effect that nuclear and electronic energy loss have in materials, but especially the research on combined effects is still in its infancy and further progress can be expected in the near future.
  • Cavallo, T (Lund, 1795)
  • Neumann, Johann Philip (Wien, 1818)
  • Boerhaave, Hermannus (1738)
  • Träskelin, Petra (Helsingin yliopisto, 2006)
    Controlled nuclear fusion is one of the most promising sources of energy for the future. Before this goal can be achieved, one must be able to control the enormous energy densities which are present in the core plasma in a fusion reactor. In order to be able to predict the evolution and thereby the lifetime of different plasma facing materials under reactor-relevant conditions, the interaction of atoms and molecules with plasma first wall surfaces have to be studied in detail. In this thesis, the fundamental sticking and erosion processes of carbon-based materials, the nature of hydrocarbon species released from plasma-facing surfaces, and the evolution of the components under cumulative bombardment by atoms and molecules have been investigated by means of molecular dynamics simulations using both analytic potentials and a semi-empirical tight-binding method. The sticking cross-section of CH3 radicals at unsaturated carbon sites at diamond (111) surfaces is observed to decrease with increasing angle of incidence, a dependence which can be described by a simple geometrical model. The simulations furthermore show the sticking cross-section of CH3 radicals to be strongly dependent on the local neighborhood of the unsaturated carbon site. The erosion of amorphous hydrogenated carbon surfaces by helium, neon, and argon ions in combination with hydrogen at energies ranging from 2 to 10 eV is studied using both non-cumulative and cumulative bombardment simulations. The results show no significant differences between sputtering yields obtained from bombardment simulations with different noble gas ions. The final simulation cells from the 5 and 10 eV ion bombardment simulations, however, show marked differences in surface morphology. In further simulations the behavior of amorphous hydrogenated carbon surfaces under bombardment with D^+, D^+2, and D^+3 ions in the energy range from 2 to 30 eV has been investigated. The total chemical sputtering yields indicate that molecular projectiles lead to larger sputtering yields than atomic projectiles. Finally, the effect of hydrogen ion bombardment of both crystalline and amorphous tungsten carbide surfaces is studied. Prolonged bombardment is found to lead to the formation of an amorphous tungsten carbide layer, regardless of the initial structure of the sample. In agreement with experiment, preferential sputtering of carbon is observed in both the cumulative and non-cumulative simulations