Browsing by Subject "galaxies: kinematics and dynamics"

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  • de Blok, W. J. G.; Walter, Fabian; Ferguson, Annette M. N.; Bernard, Edouard J.; van der Hulst, J. M.; Neeleman, Marcel; Leroy, Adam K.; Ott, Jürgen; Zschaechner, Laura K.; Zwaan, Martin A.; Yun, Min S.; Langston, Glen; Keating, Katie M. (2018)
    We present a 3 degrees x 3 degrees, 105-pointing, high-resolution neutral hydrogen (H I) mosaic of the M81 galaxy triplet, (including the main galaxies M81, M82, and NGC 3077, as well as dwarf galaxy NGC 2976) obtained with the Very Large Array C and D arrays. This H I synthesis mosaic uniformly covers the entire area and velocity range of the triplet. The observations have a resolution of similar to 20 '' or similar to 420 pc. The data reveal many small-scale anomalous velocity features highlighting the complexity of the interacting M81 triplet. We compare our data with Green Bank Telescope observations of the same area. This comparison provides evidence for the presence of a substantial reservoir of low-column density gas in the northern part of the triplet, probably associated with M82. Such a reservoir is not found in the southern part. We report a number of newly discovered kpc-sized low-mass H I clouds with H I masses of a few times 10(6) M-circle dot. A detailed analysis of their velocity widths show that their dynamical masses are much larger than their baryonic masses, which could indicate the presence of dark matter if the clouds are rotationally supported. However, due to their spatial and kinematical association with H I tidal features, it is more likely that the velocity widths indicate tidal effects or streaming motions. We do not find any clouds that are not associated with tidal features down to an H I mass limit of a few times 10(4) M-circle dot. We compare the H I column densities with resolved stellar density maps and find a star formation threshold around 3-6 x 10(20) cm(-2). We investigate the widths of the H I velocity profiles in the triplet and find that extreme velocity dispersions can be explained by a superposition of multiple components along the line of sight near M81 as well as winds or outflows around M82. The velocity dispersions found are high enough that these processes could explain the linewidths of damped-Ly alpha absorbers observed at high redshift.
  • Davis, Timothy A.; van de Voort, Freeke; Rowlands, Kate; McAlpine, Stuart; Wild, Vivienne; Crain, Robert A. (2019)
    Post-starburst galaxies arc typically considered to be a transition population, en route to the red sequence after a recent quenching event. Despite this, recent observations have shown that these objects typically have large reservoirs of cold molecular gas. In this paper we study the star-forming gas properties of a large sample of post-starburst galaxies selected from the cosmological, hydrodynamical EAGLE simulations. These objects resemble observed high-mass post-starburst galaxies both spectroscopically and in terms of their space density, stellar mass distribution, and sizes. We find that the vast majority of simulated post-starburst galaxies have significant gas reservoirs, with star-forming gas masses approximate to 10(9) M-circle dot, in good agreement with those seen in observational samples. The simulation reproduces the observed time evolution of the gas fraction of the post-starburst galaxy population, with the average galaxy losing approximate to 90 per cent of its star-forming interstellar medium in only approximate to 600 Myr. A variety of gas consumption/loss processes are responsible for this rapid evolution, including mergers and environmental effects, while active galactic nuclei play only a secondary role. The fast evolution in the gas fraction of post-starburst galaxies is accompanied by a clear decrease in the efficiency of star formation due to a decrease in the dense gas fraction. We predict that forthcoming ALMA observations of the gas reservoirs of low-redshift post-starburst galaxies will show that the molecular gas is typically compact and has disturbed kinematics, reflecting the disruptive nature of many of the evolutionary pathways that build up the post-starburst galaxy population.
  • Mpetha, C. T.; Collins, C. A.; Clerc, N.; Finoguenov, A.; Peacock, J. A.; Comparat, J.; Schneider, D.; Capasso, R.; Damsted, S.; Furnell, K.; Merloni, A.; Padilla, N. D.; Saro, A. (2021)
    Data from the SPectroscopic IDentification of ERosita Sources (SPIDERS) are searched for a detection of the gravitational redshifting of light from similar to 20 000 galaxies in similar to 2500 galaxy clusters using three definitions of the cluster centre: its Brightest Cluster Galaxy (BCG), the redMaPPer identified Central Galaxy (CG), or the peak of X-ray emission. Distributions of velocity offsets between galaxies and their host cluster's centre, found using observed redshifts, are created. The quantity (Delta) over cap, the average of the radial velocity difference between the cluster members and the cluster systemic velocity, reveals information on the size of a combination of effects on the observed redshift, dominated by gravitational redshifting. The change of (Delta) over cap with radial distance is predicted for SPIDERS galaxies in General Relativity (GR), and f(R) gravity, and compared to the observations. The values of (Delta) over cap = -13.5 +/- 4.7 kms(-1), (Delta) over cap = -12.5 +/- 5.1 kms(-1), and (Delta) over cap = -18.6 +/- 4.8 kms(-1) for the BCG, X-ray, and CG cases, respectively, broadly agree with the literature. There is no significant preference of one gravity theory over another, but all cases give a clear detection (>2.5 sigma) of (Delta) over cap. The BCG centroid is deemed to be the most robust method in this analysis, due to no well-defined central redshift when using an X-ray centroid, and CGs identified by redMaPPer with no associated spectroscopic redshift. For future gravitational redshift studies, an order-of-magnitude more galaxies, similar to 500 000, will be required - a possible feat with the forthcoming Vera C. Rubin Observatory, Euclid and eROSITA.
  • Campbell, David J. R.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Jenkins, Adrian; Eke, Vincent R.; Navarro, Julio F.; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu; Fattahi, Azadeh; Oman, Kyle A.; Theuns, Tom (2017)
    The observed stellar kinematics of dispersion-supported galaxies are often used to measure dynamical masses. Recently, several analytical relationships between the stellar line-of-sight velocity dispersion, the projected (2D) or deprojected (3D) half-light radius and the total mass enclosed within the half-light radius, relying on the spherical Jeans equation, have been proposed. Here, we use the APOSTLE cosmological hydrodynamical simulations of the Local Group to test the validity and accuracy of such mass estimators for both dispersion and rotation-supported galaxies, for field and satellite galaxies, and for galaxies of varying masses, shapes and velocity dispersion anisotropies. We find that the mass estimators of Walker et al. and Wolf et al. are able to recover the masses of dispersion-dominated systems with little systematic bias, but with a 1 sigma scatter of 25 and 23 per cent, respectively. The error on the estimated mass is dominated by the impact of the 3D shape of the stellar mass distribution, which is difficult to constrain observationally. This intrinsic scatter becomes the dominant source of uncertainty in the masses estimated for galaxies like the dwarf spheroidal (dSph) satellites of the Milky Way, where the observational errors in their sizes and velocity dispersions are small. Such scatter may also affect the inner density slopes of dSphs derived from multiple stellar populations, relaxing the significance with which Navarro-Frenk-White profiles may be excluded, depending on the degree to which the relevant properties of the different stellar populations are correlated. Finally, we derive a new optimal mass estimator that removes the residual biases and achieves a statistically significant reduction in the scatter to 20 per cent overall for dispersion-dominated galaxies, allowing more precise and accurate mass estimates.
  • Capasso, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Saro, A.; Biviano, A.; Clerc, N.; Finoguenov, A.; Grandis, S.; Collins, C.; Erfanianfar, G.; Damsted, S.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Kukkola, A. (2019)
    We use galaxy dynamical information to calibrate the richness-mass scaling relation of a sample of 428 galaxy clusters that are members of the CODEX sample with redshifts up to z similar to 0.7. These clusters were X-ray selected using the ROSAT All-Sky Survey (RASS) and then cross-matched to associated systems in the redMaPPer (the red sequence Matched-filter Probabilistic Percolation) catalogue from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. The spectroscopic sample we analyse was obtained in the SPIDERS program and contains similar to 7800 red member galaxies. Adopting NFW mass and galaxy density profiles and a broad range of orbital anisotropy profiles, we use the Jeans equation to calculate halo masses. Modelling the scaling relation as lambda proportional to A(lambda) M-200c(B lambda) (1 + z)()lambda), we find the parameter constraints A(lambda) = 38.6(-4.1)(+3.1) +/- 3.9, B-lambda = 0.99(-0.07)(+0.06) +/- 0.04, and gamma(lambda) = -1.13(-0.34)(+0.32) +/- 0.49, where we present systematic uncertainties as a second component. We find good agreement with previously published mass trends with the exception of those from stacked weak lensing analyses. We note that although the lensing analyses failed to account for the Eddington bias, this is not enough to explain the differences. We suggest that differences in the levels of contamination between pure redMaPPer and RASS + redMaPPer samples could well contribute to these differences. The redshift trend we measure is more negative than but statistically consistent with previous results. We suggest that our measured redshift trend reflects a change in the cluster galaxy red sequence (RS) fraction with redshift, noting that the trend we measure is consistent with but somewhat stronger than an independently measured redshift trend in the RS fraction. We also examine the impact of a plausible model of correlated scatter in X-ray luminosity and optical richness, showing it has negligible impact on our results.
  • Capasso, R.; Mohr, J. J.; Saro, A.; Biviano, A.; Clerc, N.; Finoguenov, A.; Klein, M.; Grandis, S.; Collins, C.; Damsted, S.; Kirkpatrick, C.; Kukkola, A. (2020)
    We perform the calibration of the X-ray luminosity-mass scaling relation on a sample of 344 CODEX clusters with z <0.66 using the dynamics of their member galaxies. Spectroscopic follow-up measurements have been obtained from the SPIDERS survey, leading to a sample of 6658 red member galaxies. We use the Jeans equation to calculate halo masses, assuming an NFW mass profile and analysing a broad range of anisotropy profiles. With a scaling relation of the form L-X proportional to A(X)M(200c)(BX) E(z)(2)(1 + z)(gamma x), we find best-fitting parameters A(X) = 0.62(-0.06)(+0.05) (+/- 0.06) x 10(44) erg s(-)(1), B-X = 2.35(-0.18)(+0.21)(+/- 0.09), gamma(X) = -2.77(-1.05)(+1.06)(+/- 0.79), where we include systematic uncertainties in parentheses and for a pivot mass and redshift of 3 x 10(14) M-circle dot and 0.16, respectively. We compare our constraints with previous results, and we combine our sample with the SPT SZE-selected cluster subsample observed with XMM-Newton extending the validity of our results to a wider range of redshifts and cluster masses.
  • Cautun, Marius; Deason, Alis J.; Frenk, Carlos S.; McAlpine, Stuart (2019)
    The Milky Way (MW) offers a uniquely detailed view of galactic structure and is often regarded as a prototypical spiral galaxy. But recent observations indicate that the MW is atypical: it has an undersized supermassive black hole at its centre; it is surrounded by a very low mass, excessively metal-poor stellar halo; and it has an unusually large nearby satellite galaxy, the Large Magellanic Cloud (LMC). Here, we show that the LMC is on a collision course with the MW with which it will merge in 2.4(-0.8)(+1.2) Gyr (68 per cent confidence level). This catastrophic and long-overdue event will restore the MW to normality. Using the EAGLE galaxy formation simulation, we show that, as a result of the merger, the central supermassive black hole will increase in mass by up to a factor of 8. The Galactic stellar halo will undergo an equally impressive transformation, becoming 5 times more massive. The additional stars will come predominantly from the disrupted LMC, but a sizeable number will be ejected on to the halo from the stellar disc. The post-merger stellar halo will have the median metallicity of the LMC, [Fe/H] = -0.5 dex, which is typical of other galaxies of similar mass to the MW. At the end of this exceptional event, the MW will become a true benchmark for spiral galaxies, at least temporarily.
  • Genina, Anna; Benitez-Llambay, Alejandro; Frenk, Carlos S.; Cole, Shaun; Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Oman, Kyle A.; Sawala, Till; Theuns, Tom (2018)
    The existence of two kinematically and chemically distinct stellar subpopulations in the Sculptor and Fornax dwarf galaxies offers the opportunity to constrain the density profile of their matter haloes by measuring the mass contained within the well-separated half-light radii of the two metallicity subpopulations. Walker and Penarrubia have used this approach to argue that data for these galaxies are consistent with constant-density 'cores' in their inner regions and rule out 'cuspy' Navarro-Frenk-White (NFW) profiles with high statistical significance, particularly in the case of Sculptor. We test the validity of these claims using dwarf galaxies in the APOSTLE (A Project Of Simulating The Local Environment) Lambda cold dark matter cosmological hydrodynamic simulations of analogues of the Local Group. These galaxies all have NFW dark matter density profiles and a subset of them develop two distinct metallicity subpopulations reminiscent of Sculptor and Fornax. We apply a method analogous to that of Walker and Penarrubia to a sample of 50 simulated dwarfs and find that this procedure often leads to a statistically significant detection of a core in the profile when in reality there is a cusp. Although multiple factors contribute to these failures, the main cause is a violation of the assumption of spherical symmetry upon which the mass estimators are based. The stellar populations of the simulated dwarfs tend to be significantly elongated and, in several cases, the two metallicity populations have different asphericity and are misaligned. As a result, a wide range of slopes of the density profile are inferred depending on the angle from which the galaxy is viewed.
  • Lahén, Natalia; Johansson, Peter H.; Rantala, Antti; Naab, Thorsten; Frigo, Matteo (2018)
    We present a high-resolution smoothed particle hydrodynamic simulation of the Antennae galaxies (NGC 4038/4039) and follow the evolution 3 Gyr beyond the final coalescence. The simulation includes metallicity-dependent cooling, star formation, and both stellar feed-back and chemical enrichment. The simulated best-match Antennae reproduce well both the observed morphology and the off-nuclear starburst. We also produce for the first time a simulated two-dimensional (2D) metallicity map of the Antennae and find good agreement with the observed metallicity of off-nuclear stellar clusters; however, the nuclear metallicities are overproduced by similar to 0.5 dex. Using the radiative transfer code SKIRT, we produce multiwavelength observations of both the Antennae and the merger remnant. The 1-Gyr-old remnant is well fitted with a Sersic profile of n = 7.07, and with an r-band effective radius of r(e) = 1.6 kpc and velocity dispersion of sigma(e) = 180 km s(-1) the remnant is located on the Fundamental Plane of early-type galaxies (ETGs). The initially blue Antennae remnant evolves on to the red sequence after similar to 2.5 Gyr of secular evolution. The remnant would be classified as a fast rotator, as the specific angular momentum evolves from lambda(Re) approximate to 0.11 to 0.14 during its evolution. The remnant shows ordered rotation and a double peaked maximum in the mean 2D line-of-sight velocity. These kinematical features are relatively common amongst local ETGs and we specifically identify three local ETGs (NGC 3226, NGC 3379, and NGC 4494) in the ATLAS(3D) sample, whose photometric and kinematic properties most resemble the Antennae remnant.
  • Rawlings, Alexander (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    This thesis presents the results from seventeen collisionless merger simulations of massive early-type galaxies in an effort to understand the coalescence of supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in the context of the Final Parsec Problem. A review of the properties of massive early-type galaxies and their SMBHs is presented alongside a discussion on SMBH binary coalescence to motivate the initial conditions used in the simulations. The effects of varying SMBH mass and stellar density profiles in the progenitor initial conditions on SMBH coalescence was investigated. Differing mass resolutions between the stellar particles and the SMBHs for each physical realisation were also tested. The simulations were performed on the supercomputers Puhti and Mahti at CSC, the Finnish IT Centre for Science. SMBH coalescence was found to only occur in mergers involving SMBH binaries of equal mass, with the most rapid coalescence observed in galaxies with a steep density profile. In particular, the eccentricity of the SMBH binary was observed to be crucial for coalescence: all simulations that coalesced displayed an orbital eccentricity in excess of e=0.7 for the majority of the time for which the binary was bound. Simulations of higher mass resolution were found to have an increased number of stellar particles able to positively interact with the SMBH binary to remove orbital energy and angular momentum, driving the binary to coalescence. The gravitational wave emission from an equal mass SMBH binary in the final stages before merging was calculated to be within the detection limits required for measurement by pulsar timing arrays. Mergers between galaxies of unequal mass SMBHs were unable to undergo coalescence irrespective of mass resolution or progenitor density profile, despite the binary in some of these simulations displaying a high orbital eccentricity. It was determined that the stellar particles interacting with the SMBH binary were unable to remove the required orbital energy and angular momentum to bring the SMBHs to within the separation required for efficient gravitational wave emission. A trend between increasing mass resolution and increasing number of stellar particles able to remove energy from the SMBH binary was observed across all the simulation suites. This observation is of paramount importance, as three-body interactions are essential in removing orbital energy and angular momentum from the SMBH binary, thus overcoming the Final Parsec Problem. As such, it is concluded that the Final Parsec Problem is a numerical artefact arising from insufficient mass resolution between the stellar particles and the SMBHs rather than a physical phenomenon.
  • Rantala, Antti; Johansson, Peter H.; Naab, Thorsten; Thomas, Jens; Frigo, Matteo (2018)
    Given its velocity dispersion, the early-type galaxy NGC 1600 has an unusually massive (M-center dot = 1.7 x 10(10) M-circle dot) central supermassive black hole (SMBH) surrounded by a large core (r(b) = 0.7 kpc) with a tangentially biased stellar distribution. We present high-resolution equal-mass merger simulations including SMBHs to study the formation of such systems. The structural parameters of the progenitor ellipticals were chosen to produce merger remnants resembling NGC 1600. We test initial stellar density slopes of rho proportional to r(-1) and rho proportional to r(-3/2) and vary the initial SMBH masses from 8.5 x 10(8) to 8.5 x(.) 10(9) M-circle dot. With increasing SMBH mass, the merger remnants show a systematic decrease in central surface brightness, an increasing core size, and an increasingly tangentially biased central velocity anisotropy. Two-dimensional kinematic maps reveal decoupled, rotating core regions for the most massive SMBHs. The stellar cores form rapidly as the SMBHs become bound, while the velocity anisotropy develops more slowly after the SMBH binaries become hard. The simulated merger remnants follow distinct relations between the core radius and the sphere of influence, and the SMBH mass, similar to observed systems. We find a systematic change in the relations as a function of the progenitor density slope and present a simple scouring model reproducing this behavior. Finally, we find the best agreement with NGC 1600 using SMBH masses totaling the observed value of M-center dot = 1.7 x 10(10) M-circle dot. In general, density slopes of rho proportional to r(-3/2) for the progenitor galaxies are strongly favored for the equal-mass merger scenario.
  • Rawlings, Alexander; Foster, Caroline; van de Sande, Jesse; Taranu, Dan S.; Croom, Scott M.; Bland-Hawthorn, Joss; Brough, Sarah; Bryant, Julia J.; Colless, Matthew; Lagos, Claudia del P.; Konstantopoulos, Iraklis S.; Lawrence, Jon S.; Lopez-Sanchez, Angel R.; Lorente, Nuria P. F.; Medling, Anne M.; Oh, Sree; Owers, Matt S.; Richards, Samuel N.; Scott, Nicholas; Sweet, Sarah M.; Yi, Sukyoung K. (2020)
    We study the behaviour of the spin-ellipticity radial tracks for 507 galaxies from the Sydney AAO Multiobject Integral Field (SAMI) Galaxy Survey with stellar kinematics out to >= 1.5R(e). We advocate for a morpho-dynamical classification of galaxies, relying on spatially resolved photometric and kinematic data. We find the use of spin-ellipticity radial tracks is valuable in identifying substructures within a galaxy, including embedded and counter-rotating discs, that are easily missed in unilateral studies of the photometry alone. Conversely, bars are rarely apparent in the stellar kinematics but are readily identified on images. Consequently, we distinguish the spin-ellipticity radial tracks of seven morpho-dynamical types: elliptical, lenticular, early spiral, late spiral, barred spiral, embedded disc, and 2 sigma galaxies. The importance of probing beyond the inner radii of galaxies is highlighted by the characteristics of galactic features in the spin-ellipticity radial tracks present at larger radii. The density of information presented through spin-ellipticity radial tracks emphasizes a clear advantage to representing galaxies as a track, rather than a single point, in spin-ellipticity parameter space.
  • Frigo, M.; Naab, T.; Rantala, A.; Johansson, P. H.; Neureiter, B.; Thomas, J.; Rizzuto, F. (2021)
    The flat stellar density cores of massive elliptical galaxies form rapidly due to sinking supermassive black holes (SMBHs) in gas-poor galaxy mergers. After the SMBHs form a bound binary, gravitational slingshot interactions with nearby stars drive the core regions towards a tangentially biased stellar velocity distribution. We use collisionless galaxy merger simulations with accurate collisional orbit integration around the central SMBHs to demonstrate that the removal of stars from the centre by slingshot kicks accounts for the entire change in velocity anisotropy. The rate of strong (unbinding) kicks is constant over several hundred Myr at similar to 3 M-circle dot yr(-1) for our most massive SMBII binary (M-BH = 1.7 x 10(10) M-circle dot). Using a frequency-based orbit classification scheme (box, x-tube, z-tube, rosette), we demonstrate that slingshot kicks mostly affect box orbits with small pericentre distances, leading to a velocity anisotropy of beta less than or similar to -0.6 within several hundred Myr as observed in massive ellipticals with large cores. We show how different SMBH masses affect the orbital structure of the merger remnants and present a kinematic tomography connecting orbit families to integral field kinematic features. Our direct orbit classification agrees remarkably well with a modern triaxial Schwarzschild analysis applied to simulated mock kinematic maps.
  • Fattahi, Azadeh; Navarro, Julio F.; Frenk, Carlos S.; Oman, Kyle A.; Sawala, Till; Schaller, Matthieu (2018)
    The shallow faint-end slope of the galaxy mass function is usually reproduced in Lambda cold dark matter (Lambda CDM) galaxy formation models by assuming that the fraction of baryons that turn into stars drops steeply with decreasing halo mass and essentially vanishes in haloes with maximum circular velocities Vmax <20-30 km s(-1). Dark-matter-dominated dwarfs should therefore have characteristic velocities of about that value, unless they are small enough to probe only the rising part of the halo circular velocity curve (i.e. half-mass radii, r(1/2)