Browsing by Subject "galaxies: nuclei"

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  • Rantala, Antti; Pihajoki, Pauli; Johansson, Peter H.; Naab, Thorsten; Lahen, Natalia; Sawala, Till (2017)
    We present KETJU, a new extension of the widely used smoothed particle hydrodynamics simulation code GADGET-3. The key feature of the code is the inclusion of algorithmically regularized regions around every supermassive black hole (SMBH). This allows for simultaneously following global galactic-scale dynamical and astrophysical processes, while solving the dynamics of SMBHs, SMBH binaries, and surrounding stellar systems at subparsec scales. The KETJU code includes post-Newtonian terms in the equations of motions of the SMBHs, which enables a new SMBH merger criterion based on the gravitational wave coalescence timescale, pushing the merger separation of SMBHs down to similar to 0.005 pc. We test the performance of our code by comparison to NBODY7 and rVINE. We set up dynamically stable multicomponent merger progenitor galaxies to study the SMBH binary evolution during galaxy mergers. In our simulation sample the SMBH binaries do not suffer from the final-parsec problem, which we attribute to the nonspherical shape of the merger remnants. For bulge-only models, the hardening rate decreases with increasing resolution, whereas for models that in addition include massive dark matter halos, the SMBH binary hardening rate becomes practically independent of the mass resolution of the stellar bulge. The SMBHs coalesce on average 200 Myr after the formation of the SMBH binary. However, small differences in the initial SMBH binary eccentricities can result in large differences in the SMBH coalescence times. Finally, we discuss the future prospects of KETJU, which allows for a straightforward inclusion of gas physics in the simulations.
  • Shankar, Francesco; Bernardi, Mariangela; Sheth, Ravi K.; Ferrarese, Laura; Graham, Alister W.; Savorgnan, Giulia; Allevato, Viola; Marconi, Alessandro; Läsker, Ronald; Lapi, Andrea (2016)
    We compare the set of local galaxies having dynamically measured black holes with a large, unbiased sample of galaxies extracted from the Sloan Digital Sky Survey. We confirm earlier work showing that the majority of black hole hosts have significantly higher velocity dispersions sigma than local galaxies of similar stellar mass. We use Monte Carlo simulations to illustrate the effect on black hole scaling relations if this bias arises from the requirement that the black hole sphere of influence must be resolved to measure black hole masses with spatially resolved kinematics. We find that this selection effect artificially increases the normalization of the M-bh-sigma relation by a factor of at least similar to 3; the bias for the M-bh-M-star relation is even larger. Our Monte Carlo simulations and analysis of the residuals from scaling relations both indicate that sigma is more fundamental than M-star or effective radius. In particular, the M-bh-M-star relation is mostly a consequence of the M-bh-sigma and sigma-M-star relations, and is heavily biased by up to a factor of 50 at small masses. This helps resolve the discrepancy between dynamically based black hole-galaxy scaling relations versus those of active galaxies. Our simulations also disfavour broad distributions of black hole masses at fixed sigma. Correcting for this bias suggests that the calibration factor used to estimate black hole masses in active galaxies should be reduced to values of f(vir) similar to 1. Black hole mass densities should also be proportionally smaller, perhaps implying significantly higher radiative efficiencies/black hole spins. Reducing black hole masses also reduces the gravitational wave signal expected from black hole mergers.
  • Väisänen, Petri; Reunanen, Juha; Kotilainen, Jari; Mattila, Seppo; Johansson, Peter H.; Ramphul, Rajin; Romero-Canizales, Cristina; Kuncarayakti, Hanindyo (2017)
    We present new SINFONI near-infrared (NIR) integral field unit (IFU) spectroscopy and Southern African Large Telescope (SALT) optical long-slit spectroscopy characterizing the history of a nearby merging luminous infrared galaxy, dubbed the Bird (IRAS19115-2124). TheNIR line-ratio maps of the IFU data cubes and stellar population fitting of the SALT spectra now allow dating of the star formation (SF) over the triple system uncovered from our previous adaptive optics data. The distinct components separate clearly in line-ratio diagnostic diagrams, both thermal and non-thermal excitation is present. An off-nuclear starburst dominates the current SF of the Bird with 60-70 per cent of the total, with a 4-7 Myr age. The most massive nucleus, in contrast, is quenched with a starburst age of >40 Myr and shows hints of budding active galactic nucleus (AGN) activity. The secondary massive nucleus is at an intermediate stage. The two major components have signs of an older stellar population, consistent with a starburst triggered 1 Gyr ago in a first encounter. The simplest explanation of the history is that of a triple merger, where the strongly star-forming component has joined later. We detect multiple gas flows. The Bird offers an opportunity to witness multiple stages of galaxy evolution in the same system; triggering as well as very recent quenching of SF, and, perhaps, an early appearance of AGN activity. It also serves as a cautionary note on interpretations of observations with lower spatial resolution and/or without infrared data. At high redshift the system would look like a clumpy starburst with crucial pieces of its puzzle hidden in danger of misinterpretations.
  • Marchesi, S.; Lanzuisi, G.; Civano, F.; Iwasawa, K.; Suh, H.; Comastri, A.; Zamorani, G.; Allevato, V.; Griffiths, R.; Miyaji, T.; Ranalli, P.; Salvato, M.; Schawinski, K.; Silverman, J.; Treister, E.; Urry, C. M.; Vignali, C. (2016)
    We present the X-ray spectral analysis of the 1855 extragalactic sources in the Chandra COSMOS-Legacy survey catalog having more than 30 net counts in the 0.5-7 keV band. A total of 38% of the sources are optically classified type 1 active galactic nuclei (AGNs), 60% are type 2 AGNs, and 2% are passive, low-redshift galaxies. We study the distribution of AGN photon index Gamma and of the intrinsic absorption N-H,N-z based on the sources' optical classification: type 1 AGNs have a slightly steeper mean photon index Gamma than type 2 AGNs, which, on the other hand, have average N-H,N-z similar to 3 times higher than type 1 AGNs. We find that similar to 15% of type 1 AGNs have N-H,N-z > 10(22) cm(-2), i.e., are obscured according to the X-ray spectral fitting; the vast majority of these sources have L2-10 (keV) > 10(44) erg s(-1). The existence of these objects suggests that optical and X-ray obscuration can be caused by different phenomena, the X-ray obscuration being, for example, caused by dust-free material surrounding the inner part of the nuclei. Approximately 18% of type 2 AGNs have N-H,N-z <10(22) cm(-2), and most of these sources have low X-ray luminosities (L2-10 (keV) <10(43) erg s(-1)). We expect a part of these sources to be low-accretion, unobscured AGNs lacking broad emission lines. Finally, we also find a direct proportional trend between N-H,N-z and host-galaxy mass and star formation rate, although part of this trend is due to a redshift selection effect.
  • Paolillo, M.; Papadakis, I.; Brandt, W. N.; Luo, B.; Xue, Y. Q.; Tozzi, P.; Shemmer, O.; Allevato, V.; Bauer, F. E.; Comastri, A.; Gilli, R.; Koekemoer, A. M.; Liu, T.; Vignali, C.; Vito, F.; Yang, G.; Wang, J. X.; Zheng, X. C. (2017)
    We study the X-ray variability properties of distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs) in the Chandra Deep Field-South region over 17 yr, up to z similar to 4, and compare them with those predicted by models based on local samples. We use the results of Monte Carlo simulations to account for the biases introduced by the discontinuous sampling and the low-count regime. We confirm that variability is a ubiquitous property of AGNs, with no clear dependence on the density of the environment. The variability properties of high-z AGNs, over different temporal time-scales, are most consistent with a power spectral density (PSD) described by a broken (or bending) power law, similar to nearby AGNs. We confirm the presence of an anticorrelation between luminosity and variability, resulting from the dependence of variability on black hole (BH) mass and accretion rate. We explore different models, finding that our acceptable solutions predict that BH mass influences the value of the PSD break frequency, while the lambda(Edd) ington ratio lambda(Edd) affects the PSD break frequency and, possibly, the PSD amplitude as well. We derive the evolution of the average.Edd as a function of redshift, finding results in agreement with measurements based on different estimators. The large statistical uncertainties make our results consistent with a constant Eddington ratio, although one of our models suggest a possible increase of lambda(Edd) with lookback time up to z similar to 2-3. We conclude that variability is a viable mean to trace the accretion history of supermassive BHs, whose usefulness will increase with future, wide-field/large effective area X-ray missions.
  • Suh, Hyewon; Civano, Francesca; Hasinger, Guenther; Lusso, Elisabeta; Lanzuisi, Giorgio; Marchesi, Stefano; Trakhtenbrot, Benny; Allevato, Viola; Cappelluti, Nico; Capak, Peter L.; Elvis, Martin; Griffiths, Richard E.; Laigle, Clotilde; Lira, Paulina; Riguccini, Laurie; Rosario, David J.; Salvato, Mara; Schawinski, Kevin; Vignali, Cristian (2017)
    We investigate the star formation properties of a large sample of similar to 2300 X-ray-selected Type 2 Active Galactic Nuclei (AGNs) host galaxies out to z similar to 3 in the Chandra COSMOS Legacy Survey in order to understand the connection between the star formation and nuclear activity. Making use of the existing multi-wavelength photometric data available in the COSMOS field, we perform a multi-component modeling from far-infrared to near-ultraviolet using a nuclear dust torus model, a stellar population model and a starburst model of the spectral energy distributions (SEDs). Through detailed analyses of SEDs, we derive the stellar masses and the star formation rates (SFRs) of Type 2 AGN host galaxies. The stellar mass of our sample is in the range of 9 <logM(stellar)/M-circle dot <12 with uncertainties of similar to 0.19 dex. We find that Type 2 AGN host galaxies have, on average, similar SFRs compared to the normal star-forming galaxies with similar M-stellar and redshift ranges, suggesting no significant evidence for enhancement or quenching of star formation. This could be interpreted in a scenario, where the relative massive galaxies have already experienced substantial growth at higher redshift (z > 3), and grow slowly through secular fueling processes hosting moderate-luminosity AGNs.
  • Kocevski, Dale D.; Hasinger, Guenther; Brightman, Murray; Nandra, Kirpal; Georgakakis, Antonis; Cappelluti, Nico; Civano, Francesca; Li, Yuxuan; Li, Yanxia; Aird, James; Alexander, David M.; Almaini, Omar; Brusa, Marcella; Buchner, Johannes; Comastri, Andrea; Conselice, Christopher J.; Dickinson, Mark A.; Finoguenov, Alexis; Gilli, Roberto; Koekemoer, Anton M.; Miyaji, Takamitsu; Mullaney, James R.; Papovich, Casey; Rosario, David; Salvato, Mara; Silverman, John D.; Somerville, Rachel S.; Ueda, Yoshihiro (2018)
    We present the X-UDS survey, a set of wide and deep Chandra observations of the Subaru-XMM Deep/UKIDSS Ultra Deep Survey (SXDS/UDS) field. The survey consists of 25 observations that cover a total area of 0.33 deg(2). The observations are combined to provide a nominal depth of similar to 600 ks in the central 100 arcmin(2) region of the field that has been imaged with Hubble/WFC3 by the CANDELS survey and similar to 200 ks in the remainder of the field. In this paper, we outline the survey's scientific goals, describe our observing strategy, and detail our data reduction and point source detection algorithms. Our analysis has resulted in a total of 868 band-merged point sources detected with a false-positive Poisson probability of