Browsing by Subject "gambling harm"

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  • Nikkinen, Janne; Marionneau, Virve (2021)
    Aims: This article assesses the efficiency of six Nordic state-controlled gambling companies in raising revenue for their host societies, and the terms under which they operate. Finland, Sweden, Denmark and Norway have established gambling monopolies on the grounds that they help to prevent fraud and money laundering, and channel proceeds to their host societies. Within the last decade, Denmark (2012) and Sweden (2019) have opened substantial parts of their gambling markets to competition, whereas Finland and Norway continue to uphold monopolies. Design: The analysis is based on publicly disclosed income statements and financial reporting concerning Nordic gambling operators for the year 2017. We calculated how much they contribute to societies, what are the costs, and how these figures compare among the companies. Results: We found that Veikkaus raises the highest amounts of surplus to society both in absolute terms and in relative numbers, and that, overall, the companies vary in efficiency. We discuss the reasons for these differences, focusing on their respective product portfolios, institutional frameworks and competitive market positions. Conclusions: The results problematise the measurement of efficiency in gambling companies in monetary terms. Efficiency depends on high total consumption with little regard to the principles of responsible gambling and the prevention of gambling problems. Nordic countries have a strong commitment to the protection of health, but in the case of gambling, protecting the monopoly seems to outweigh harm prevention.
  • Salonen, Anne H.; Alho, Hannu; Castren, Sari (2016)
    Aims: This study investigates the proportion of concerned significant others (CSOs) of problem gamblers at population level and describes the extent and type of gambling harms for CSOs. Methods: Cross-sectional random sample data (n = 4515) were collected in 2015. The data were weighted based on age, gender and residence. CSOs were identified using a question including seven options. Gambling harms were inquired using structured questions. Descriptive statistics and Chi-Squared and Fischer's exact tests were used. Results: Overall, the proportion of CSOs was 19.3%. Males had close friends with gambling problems more often than females, while females had family members with gambling problems more often than males. Of the CSOs, 59.5% had experienced one or more harms. Females experienced more harms than males. Typical harms were worry about health or well-being of close ones, emotional distress and problems in interpersonal relationships. CSOs with a problem gambler in the family, particularly a partner, child/children or mother, experienced harms more often than CSOs with a problem gambler as a close friend. Conclusions: Female gender was associated with a larger extent of harms. The extent of harms was greatest if the problem gambler was a family member; however, a substantial amount of harms were experienced when the problem gambler was a close friend. CSOs and their position in evaluating gambling harms in general should be acknowledged. Persons beyond the nuclear family and the harms they encounter should be better acknowledged in prevention and harm minimisation. Early identification and a clear referral path to tailored support in occupational, social and healthcare settings may be considered.