Browsing by Subject "gastrointestinal tract"

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  • EFSA Panel Dietetic Products Nutri; Heinonen, Marina (2017)
    Following an application from H.J. Heinz Supply Chain Europe B.V., submitted for authorisation of a health claim pursuant to Article 14 of Regulation (EC) No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of the Netherlands, the EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA) was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to 'Nutrimune (R)' and immune defence against pathogens in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract and upper respiratory tract (URT). The food 'Nutrimune (R)' (a pasteurised cow's skim milk fermented with Lactobacillus paracasei CBA L74) which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The Panel considers that immune defence against pathogens in GI tract and URT is a beneficial physiological effect. One human intervention study from which conclusions can be drawn showed an effect of 'Nutrimune (R)' on immune defence against pathogens in the GI tract and the URT, and the results from one animal study could support an effect of 'Nutrimune (R)' on defence against pathogens in the GI tract. However, there were inconsistencies in the reporting of the process and criteria used for the diagnosis of URTI in the human intervention study, the results of this study have not been replicated, and no evidence was provided for a plausible mechanism by which 'Nutrimune (R)' could exert the claimed effect in vivo in humans. The Panel concludes that the evidence provided is insufficient to establish a cause and effect relationship between the consumption of 'Nutrimune (R)' and immune defence against pathogens in the gastrointestinal and upper respiratory tracts. (C) 2017 European Food Safety Authority. EFSA Journal published by John Wiley and Sons Ltd on behalf of European Food Safety Authority.
  • Vapalahti, K; Virtala, A. M; Joensuu, T. A; Tiira, K; Tahtinen, J; Lohi, H (2016)
  • Schubert, Sofie (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    Understanding the link between the gut microbiota, diet and the enteric nervous system is of significant importance in the prevention of gastrointestinal disorders. The aim of the study was to answer two questions: Firstly, is butyrate able to stimulate the luminal release of serotonin? Secondly, in which parts of the gastrointestinal tract does this possibly occur? These questions are of interest, due to the importance of the serotonergic signalling in the enteric nervous system. We created a luminal perfusion system to investigate the effect of butyrate in the gastrointestinal tract of male Wistar rats (500-550g). We isolated the stomach and 4 cm long segments of the duodenum, jejunum and colon. To our knowledge this form of physiological ex vivo studies investigating the entire gastrointestinal tract have not been done previously. The isolated stomach and the isolated intestinal segments were luminally perfused with 100 mM butyrate for 10 min respectively 45 min. The tissues were homogenized after the luminal perfusion. Serotonin and its main metabolite 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) were assayed using commercial ELISA kits. Our results showed that butyrate significantly stimulates the release of 5-HIAA in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and colon. Butyrate seems also to have a positive trend-effect on the release of serotonin itself in the stomach, duodenum, jejunum and colon. Although, there is a future potential for preventing gastrointestinal disorders with the help of diet and gut microbiota, the possible clinical significance of our results should be considered carefully.