Browsing by Subject "gender differences"

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  • Kim, Eunjung; Choi, Kijung; Lappeman, James; Salo, Jari (2021)
    Recreational cyclists are pertinent but rarely studied leisure and tourism segment. Recreational cycling has traditionally been considered as a ‘masculine stereotyped’ sport. The purpose of the research is to better understand a gendered consumer view of recreational cycling and to possibly promote recreational cycling to women and men in countries like South Africa with keen interests of recreational cycling in the form of sport tourism. This research employs a content analysis of social media posts on Facebook, Instagram and Twitter as a research method. Specifically, the gendered nature of recreational cycling is focused upon. In total, 2,504 posts from 1,598 unique authors from South Africa are analysed. As a result, this research shows that in the South African context male cyclists tend to like to attend the specialised event and race for their health and fitness while female cyclists seem to find more enjoyable and family-friendly (children focused) cycling. The results also confirm the paradox that women are generally presented in more family oriented roles, while men are typically shown as more independent in the media. Managerial implications and future research are also presented.
  • Saure, Emma (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    Background and objectives: Autism spectrum disorders (ASD) are developmental neuropsychiatric disorders in which core symptoms are problems in communication and interaction as well as restrictive and repetitive behaviour and interests. ASD is 2-5 times more common in males than in females. In recent years, researchers have found, that there are differences between females and males in ASD symptoms, neuropsychological characteristics, comorbid problems, neurobiology and etiology. The purpose of this systematic review is to give a comprehensive picture about the role of female sex/gender in ASD. To establish this, the review covers symptoms of autism, neuropsychology, neurobiology, comorbidity, neurogenetics and neuroendocrinology. Research questions were the following: 1) Is there evidence of sex/gender differences in ASD symptoms and comorbidity disorders? 2) Are there sex/gender differences to be found in ASD etiology? 3) What kind of support different explanations about sex/gender bias have gotten in various research areas? The purpose of the study is also to integrate the existing theories into one model that takes account to different aspects of sex/gender differences in ASD. Methods: The protocol of this systematic review follows "The Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses" (PRISMA) when applicable. Eligibly criteria and search terms were selected in a way that would offer the widest range of articles covering the subjects of this study. Literature search was conducted using the Medline and PsychINFO as search engines. The final sample consisted of a total of 129 articles. Data was extracted on all relevant variables of the study, that were the number of participants, age of participants, specific diagnoses, methods and results. Results: Sex/gender differences in ASD were found in all areas that were included in this systematic review. Females with high function ASD (HFASD) were found to have less problems in social communication and interaction and less repetitive and restricted behavior and interests than males with HFASD. In addition, HFASD were found to have better language skills than males with HFASD. However, females with ASD were found to have more sensory processing problems, mental health problems and epilepsy than males with ASD. Females with ASD were also found to have lower full-scale intelligence quotient than males with ASD. In the context of etiology, it has been found that there are sex/gender differences in neuroanatomy, susceptibility genes and hormone levels. Conclusions: Results from this systematic review suggest that females with HFASD are underdiagnosed. This results from etiological sex/gender differences that cause partially different clinical presentation of ASD between females and males. ASD research has also concentrated mostly on males with ASD while ignoring females with ASD. Underdiagnosing can have many unfavorable consequences for females with HFASD since if they do not have a diagnosis, they do not get support. In the future, it is crucial to pay attention to females with ASD in the clinical work and scientific research.
  • Koskela, Kaisu (2021)
    This article is about self-defined social identities, other people’s perceptions of us and the potentially conflictual relationship between these two. Building on a Barthian focus on group boundaries, the article takes the interplay between external categorizations and internal group definitions as its point of departure to examine how individuals negotiate the boundaries of their social identities. Based on a case study of skilled migrants with racialized ethnicities in Finland, I look at how they express their self-defined identity as well-to-do, skilled professionals in the face of contradicting categorizations of them as un-skilled, lower-class migrant subjects. I identify two types of complementary approaches employed by the skilled migrants in boundary making strategies to their identity negotiations: those de-emphasizing ethnicity (or its importance), and those emphasizing class status. These approaches are two sides of the same coin; coming from different perspectives, they both aim at a more positively viewed identity, and for individuals to be seen as well-to-do, educated, working professionals, rather than as ethnic migrant subjects. As such, the article also highlights the interconnection of class and ethnicity for the social identities of skilled migrants in Finland.
  • HaavioMannila, E; Kontula, O (1997)
  • Goel, Rahul; Goodman, Anna; Aldred, Rachel; Nakamura, Ryota; Tatah, Lambed; Garcia, Leandro Martin Totaro; Zapata-Diomedi, Belen; de Sa, Thiago Herick; Tiwari, Geetam; de Nazelle, Audrey; Tainio, Marko; Buehler, Ralph; Götschi, Thomas; Woodcock, James (Informa UK Limited, 2021)
    Transport Reviews
    International comparisons of cycling behaviour have typically been limited to high-income countries and often limited to the prevalence of cycling, with lack of discussions on demographic and trip characteristics. We used a combination of city, regional, and national travel surveys from 17 countries across the six continents, ranging from years 2009 through 2019. We present a descriptive analysis of cycling behaviour including level of cycling, trip purpose and distance, and user demographics, at the city-level for 35 major cities (>1 million population) and in urbanised areas nationwide for 11 countries. The Netherlands, Japan and Germany are among the highest cycling countries and their cities among the highest cycling cities. In cities and countries with high cycling levels, cycling rates tend to be more equal between work and non-work trips, whereas in geographies with low cycling levels, cycling to work is higher than cycling for other trips. In terms of cycling distance, patterns in high- and low-cycling geographies are more similar. We found a strong positive association between the level of cycling and women’s representation among cyclists. In almost all geographies with cycling mode share greater than 7% women made as many cycle trips as men, and sometimes even greater. The share of cycling trips by women is much lower in geographies with cycling mode shares less than 7%. Among the geographies with higher levels of cycling, children (<16 years) are often overrepresented. Older adults (>60 years) remain underrepresented in all geographies but have relatively better representation where levels of cycling are high. In low-cycling settings, females are underrepresented across all the age groups, and more so when older than 16 years. With increasing level of cycling, representation of females improves across all the age groups, and most significantly among children and older adults. Clustering the cities and countries into homogeneous cycling typologies reveals that high cycling levels always coincide with high representation of females and good representations of all age groups. In low-cycling settings, it is the reverse. We recommend that evaluations of cycling policies include usage by gender and age groups as benchmarks in addition to overall use. To achieve representation across different age and gender groups, making neighbourhoods cycling friendly and developing safer routes to school, should be equally high on the agenda as cycling corridors that often cater to commuting traffic.
  • Haukilahti, Mira Anette E.; Kenttä, Tuomas; Tikkanen, Jani T.; Anttonen, Olli; Aro, Aapo L.; Kerola, Tuomas; Eranti, Antti; Holkeri, Arttu; Rissanen, Harri; Heliovaara, Markku; Knekt, Paul; Junttila, M. Juhani; Huikuri, Heikki (2021)
    Background Cardiac death is one of the leading causes of death and sudden cardiac death (SCD) is estimated to cause approximately 50% of cardiac deaths. Men have a higher cardiac mortality than women. Consequently, the mechanisms and risk markers of cardiac mortality are not as well defined in women as they are in men. Aim The aim of the study was to assess the prognostic value and possible gender differences of SCD risk markers of standard 12-lead electrocardiogram in three large general population samples. Methods The standard 12-lead electrocardiographic (ECG) markers were analyzed from three different Finnish general population samples including total of 20,310 subjects (49.9% women, mean age 44.8 +/- 8.7 years). The primary endpoint was cardiac death, and SCD and all-cause mortality were secondary endpoints. The interaction effect between women and men was assessed for each ECG variable. Results During the follow-up (7.7 +/- 1.2 years), a total of 883 deaths occurred (24.5% women, p <0.001). There were 296 cardiac deaths (13.9% women, p <0.001) and 149 SCDs (14.8% women, p <0.001). Among those who had died due to cardiac cause, women had more often a normal electrocardiogram compared to men (39.0 vs. 27.5%, p = 0.132). After adjustments with common cardiovascular risk factors and the population sample, the following ECG variables predicted the primary endpoint in men: left ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) with strain pattern (p <0.001), QRS duration > 110 ms (p <0.001), inferior or lateral T-wave inversion (p <0.001) and inferolateral early repolarization (p = 0.033). In women none of the variables remained significant predictors of cardiac death in multivariable analysis, but LVH, QTc >= 490 ms and T-wave inversions predicted SCD (p <0.047 and 0.033, respectively). In the interaction analysis, LVH (HR: 2.4; 95% CI: 1.2-4.9; p = 0.014) was stronger predictor of primary endpoint in women than in men. Conclusion Several standard ECG variables provide independent information on the risk of cardiac mortality in men but not in women. LVH and T-wave inversions predict SCD also in women.
  • Weizmann-Henelius, Ghitta; Grönroos, Matti; Putkonen, Hanna; Eronen, Markku; Lindberg, Nina; Hakkanen-Nyholm, Helinä (2012)
  • Savelieva, Kateryna; Keltikangas-Järvinen, Liisa; Pulkki-Råback, Laura; Jokela, Markus; Lipsanen, Jari; Merjonen, Päivi; Viikari, Jorma; Raitakari, Olli T.; Hintsanen, Mirka (2017)
    We examined the intergenerational transmission of parent-child relationship qualities in a population-based Finnish sample of 1418 participants (G2) and their mothers (G1). At baseline, G1 (Mage=38) reported qualities of the parent-child relationship in terms of emotional warmth and acceptance towards G2 (age range 3-18). After 28years, G2 (Mage=39) rated the qualities of the parent-child relationship regarding their own children using the same questionnaire. Emotional warmth and acceptance were transmitted across generations even after controlling for demographic and family characteristics in both generations. The transmission was stronger for emotional warmth than acceptance. For emotional warmth, intergenerational transmission was stronger for men than women. The findings provide evidence for the long-term transmission of parenting quality across generations.
  • Carlson, Emily; Saarikallio, Suvi; Toiviainen, Petri; Bogert, Brigitte; Kliuchko, Marina; Brattico, Elvira (2015)
    Music therapists use guided affect regulation in the treatment of mood disorders. However, self-directed uses of music in affect regulation are not fully understood. Some uses of music may have negative effects on mental health, as can non music regulation strategies, such as rumination. Psychological testing and functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) were used explore music listening strategies in relation to mental health. Participants (n = 123) were assessed for depression, anxiety and Neuroticism, and uses of Music in Mood Regulation (MMR). Neural responses to music were measured in the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) in a subset of participants (n = 56). Discharge, using music to express negative emotions, related to increased anxiety and Neuroticism in all participants and particularly in males. Males high in Discharge showed decreased activity of mPFC during music listening compared with those using less Discharge. Females high in Diversion, using music to distract from negative emotions, showed more mPFC activity than females using less Diversion. These results suggest that the use of Discharge strategy can be associated with maladaptive patterns of emotional regulation, and may even have long-term negative effects on mental health. This finding has real-world applications in psychotherapy and particularly in clinical music therapy.
  • Ojala, Sini (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Goals: Gender differences have been found in terms of e.g. certain abilities and interests, and working life remains partially segregated based on gender. According to the empathizing-systemizing theory, the reason for all gender differences lies in average differences in cognitive styles: women have been found to empathize more, which is useful in understanding people, while men have a stronger tendency to systemize, which means interpreting different phenomena as rule-based systems. The term "male brain type" refers to a heightened tendency to systemize, while "female brain type" means a tendency to empathize. Prior research has not addressed the people who do not fit these typical brain types: male brain type women and female brain type men. The goal of this study was to find out whether male brain type women have other qualities more typically associated with men, and whether female brain type men have other qualities typically associated with women. The qualities investigated were occupational or educational field, parents' occupational fields, school grades in physics and mathematics, hobbies, cognitive empathic ability, social connectedness, and sex role identity. Method: 3084 people participated in an online study consisting of surveys and tests. Female and male brain type groups were identified among both male and female participants. Comparisons between the groups were conducted for both genders, and the predictive values of the different qualities in terms of brain type were investigated through logistic regression analysis. Results and conclusions: Differences were found in the majority of the comparisons between the male and female brain type groups in both sexes. Female brain type men exhibited more qualities typically associated with empathizing or femininity than did male brain type men, and male brain type women exhibited more qualities typically associated with systemizing or masculinity than did female brain type women. The largest differences were seen in social connectedness and female sex role identity. The results show there are male brain type women and female brain type men, who are characterized by qualities more often associated with the opposite sex, and who have not been reached by prior research and commonly conducted comparisons between men and women. Instead of looking for average sex differences, a more fruitful direction for research may be investigating differences between the brain types.
  • Hankonen, Nelli (2010)
    Health behaviour change is influenced by domain-specific, modifiable psychosocial factors and more generalized, stable personality traits. The previous have been extensively researched, and self-efficacy, action planning and social support have been identified to be important behaviour change predictors. However, the relevance of these determinants for men and women and their dynamic change processes have rarely been investigated. The role of personality in health behaviour change has remained a less studied area until recently. Gender-role related personality traits agency and communion, although established predictors of psychological adjustment and physical health for both genders, have not been studied in the context of lifestyle change interventions. Yet, they may facilitate favorable outcomes, in an interplay with domain-specific psychosocial factors. The research questions were: I) Are there gender differences in the changes in self-efficacy and planning, as well as the level of social support, and do they predict change in physical exercise similarly in men and women? II) How do gender-related personality traits contribute to changes in abdominal obesity for women and men, and how do they interplay with more proximal psychosocial variables in predicting changes in obesity? Finnish men and women, age 50–65, N=385, at an increased risk for type 2 diabetes were recruited from health care centres to participate in the GOAL Lifestyle Implementation Trial. The program aims were to improve participants' lifestyle (physical activity, nutrition) and to decrease their overweight. Domain-specific psychosocial factors and exercise were measured at baseline (T1) and at three months (T2). Waist circumference was measured at T1, one-year (T3) and three-year follow-ups (T4). Gender-related traits were measured at T4. In Study I, at baseline, men reported receiving more social support than women. Post-intervention, women reported having formed more exercise plans. Among women, increases in self-efficacy and planning predicted increases in exercise whereas for men, changes in planning played a less significant role. In Study II, higher agency was associated with 1-year waist circumference reduction among women, but not among men. Among women, high agency and self-efficacy increase during T1-T2 were associated with 1-year waist circumference decrease. High communion was associated with weight loss when social support was high. Three-year waist circumference reduction was only predicted by initial (T1-T2) self-efficacy increase. The results implicate that certain psychological and social resources are beneficial in pursuing health outcomes for women. The findings may reflect life circumstances allowing less spontaneous lifestyle decisions and a lower acceptance of lifestyle changes by women's social environment than for men.
  • Kiviruusu, Olli (2006)
    This study examined whether chronic illness associates with depression and psychosocial resources, including coping styles, locus of control and social support, among young adults. Additionally, the role of psychosocial resources in the association of chronic illness and depression was explored. The cross-sectional data used in this study were drawn from the latest follow-up phase of a Finnish cohort study. At the time of this follow-up in 1999 subjects were aged 32 years. For the analyses two groups were constructed: (1) a chronic illness group (n=257) consisting of participants reporting at least one chronic somatic illness (e.g. diabetes, asthma, migraine) and (2) a healthy control group (n=664) consisting of participants without any long-term somatic illness. Depressive symptoms were measured using a Finnish modification of the short 13-item Beck Depression Inventory. The checklist of coping dispositions were factor-analysed and the four factors were interpreted as: 1) cognitive-focused coping, and 2) emotion-focused coping, 3) seeking social support, and 4) active problem-solving. Measures of social support covered social integration (married/cohabiting, the size of social networks) and perceived social support (availability of and satisfaction with support). The results showed that the chronically ill males were more depressed than healthy males. They also used more emotion-focused coping, had more external locus of control and were less often married or cohabiting than healthy males. The association between chronic illness and depression among males attenuated when the effects of emotion-focused coping disposition and locus of control were taken into account, indicating a possible mediational role of these resources. Among females no differences were found in depression or psychosocial resources between the chronically ill and healthy controls. Only a few buffering effects of psychosocial resources emerged: an active problem-solving coping disposition among the chronically ill males and perceived social support among the chronically ill females seemed to act as buffers against depression. The results indicated a significant gender disparity in the association between chronic illness and depression among young adults: males, but not females, report more symptoms of depression when affected by chronic illness. Psychosocial resources may play an important role in explaining the chronic illness - depression association, and especially in understanding any gender differentials in this relationship. With regard to prevention, chronically ill young adult males should be recognized as a risk group for depression that would probably benefit from guidance in learning more active coping skills and maintaining a sense of personal control in facing chronic physical illness.
  • Aaltonen, Kari I.; Isometsä, Erkki; Sund, Reijo; Pirkola, Sami (2019)
    Objective To examine longitudinally risk factors for suicide in depression, and gender differences in risk factors and suicide methods. Method We linked data from (i) The Finnish Hospital Discharge Register, (ii) the Census Register of Statistics Finland, and (iii) Statistics Finland's register on causes of deaths. All 56 826 first-hospitalized patients (25 188 men, 31 638 women) in Finland in 1991-2011 with a principal diagnosis of depressive disorder were followed up until death (2587 suicides) or end of the year 2014 (maximum 24 years). Results Clinical characteristics (severe depression adjusted hazard ratio [AHR] 1.19 [95% CI 1.08-1.30]; psychotic depression AHR 1.45 [1.30-1.62]; and comorbid alcohol dependence AHR 1.26 [1.13-1.41]), male gender (AHR 2.07 [1.91-2.24]), higher socioeconomic status and living alone at first hospitalization were long-term predictors of suicide deaths. Highest risk was associated with previous suicide attempts (cumulative probability 15.4% [13.7-17.3%] in men, 8.5% [7.3-9.7%] in women). Gender differences in risk factors were modest, but in lethal methods prominent. Conclusion Sociodemographic and clinical characteristics at first hospitalization predict suicide in the long term. Inpatients with previous suicide attempts constitute a high-risk group. Despite some gender differences in risk factors, those in lethal methods may better explain gender disparity in risk.
  • Jaari, Aini (2004)
    This study aimed to clarify underlying variables of global self-esteem in work-aged Finnish men and women as assessed on a measure developed by M. Rosenberg (1965). The study examined the relationship between self-esteem and (1) sense of coherence (Antonovsky, 1979) and sense of competence, (2) Machiavellism (Mach IV) and (3) personal values assessed through the Portraits measure (Schwartz, 2001) and completed in relation to work and spiritual values. Based on Eagly's (1987) theory of gender role differences, the self-esteem of young adults in further education or at work was compared. The study consisted of two data sets collected through questionnaires: the first in 1995 (n=368), the second in 2001 (n=1283). The central variables were gender, age, education and professional/occupational categories. The sets of data were also examined in relation to salary and type of occupational enterprise including farming. Results showed that neither gender nor age was related to level of self-esteem. However, the more educated the individuals the higher their self-esteem. Low self-esteem was best explained by a low sense of coherence and Machiavellian cynicism. Both can be considered related to weak social integration within society. Cynicism was highest among those men and women aged under 31 years with low levels of education and also those engaged in farming. Young people in further education had more problems with their sense of coherence than those in employment. Well-educated entrepreneurs achieved the highest scores on the self-esteem measure while those engaged in farming had the lowest scores. It seems that a proportion of the farming population perceive themselves deceived and marginalized within the Finnish society which, in turn, contributes to their low self-esteem, cynical attitude and conflicting values. Although this study showed that women were more social and emphatic than men, gender role differences at the workplace had narrowed. For both sexes, roles at the workplace were shaped by society's norms, expectations and demands. A sense of competence and success at the workplace was a very important correlate of self-esteem for both men and women. It can be concluded that work is an important route to social integration in society and work has a positive effect on the individual's sense of self-worth. According to the study, men and especially women at work appear to base their self-esteem on personal competence in the areas of knowledge, skills and social relations and on individual self-enhancement and values. The results of the study are in accordance with the views of Morris Rosenberg. Weak and problematic interpersonal relationships (integration between individuals) and weak institutional and norm-dependent behaviour are typical of persons with low self-esteem.
  • Kerola, Anne M.; Palomäki, Antti; Rautava, Päivi; Nuotio, Maria; Kytö, Ville (2021)
    Background Evidence on the impact of sex on prognoses after myocardial infarction (MI) among older adults is limited. We evaluated sex differences in long-term cardiovascular outcomes after MI in older adults. Methods and Results All patients with MI >= 70 years admitted to 20 Finnish hospitals during a 10-year period and discharged alive were studied retrospectively using a combination of national registries (n=31 578, 51% men, mean age 79). The primary outcome was combined major adverse cardiovascular event within 10-year follow-up. Sex differences in baseline features were equalized using inverse probability weighting adjustment. Women were older, with different comorbidity profiles and rarer ST-segment-elevation MI and revascularization, compared with men. Adenosine diphosphate inhibitors, anticoagulation, statins, and high-dose statins were more frequently used by men, and renin-angiotensin-aldosterone inhibitors and beta blockers by women. After balancing these differences by inverse probability weighting, the cumulative 10-year incidence of major adverse cardiovascular events was 67.7% in men, 62.0% in women (hazard ratio [HR], 1.17; CI, 1.13-1.21; P= 80 years. Conclusions Older men had higher long-term risk of major adverse cardiovascular events after MI, compared with older women with similar baseline features and evidence-based medications. Our results highlight the importance of accounting for confounding factors when studying sex differences in cardiovascular outcomes.
  • Mäkikyrö, Taru H.; Hakko, Helinä H.; Timonen, Markku J.; Lappalainen, Jaakko A. S.; Ilomäki, Risto S.; Marttunen, Mauri J.; Läksy, Kristian; Räsänen, Pirkko K. (2004)
    Purpose: To investigate the relationship between smoking and suicidality among adolescent psychiatric patients in Finland. Methods: Data from 157 patients (aged 12-17 years) admitted to inpatient psychiatric hospitalization between April 2001 and July 2002 were collected. Logistic regression analyses were used to examine the association between regular daily smoking and suicidality. The data were adjusted for several sociodemographic and clinical characteristics. Results: The results showed over four-fold risk for definite and/or life-threatening suicide attempts among smoking adolescents in inpatient psychiatric facility compared with nonsmoking ones (OR 4.33, 95% CI 1.23-15.20). Also, the smoking adolescents had three times greater risk for occasional (OR 3.32, 95% CI 1.09-10.10) or frequent (OR 3.00, 95% CI 1.08-10.10) self-mutilation. Suicidality was more common among girls than boys and among those adolescents who suffered from depression. Conclusions: Among teens hospitalized for psychiatric illnesses, daily smoking was significantly related to suicide attempts and self-mutilation, even after controlling for several confounding factors, including psychiatric diagnosis. (C) Society for Adolescent Medicine, 2004.
  • Sainz, Milagros; Upadyaya, Katja; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    The present two studies with a 3-year longitudinal design examined the co-development of science, math, and language (e.g., Spanish/Finnish) interest among 1,317 Spanish and 804 Finnish secondary school students across their transition to post-compulsory secondary education, taking into account the role of gender, performance, and socioeconomic status (SES). The research questions were analyzed with parallel process latent growth curve (LGC) modeling. The results showed that Spanish students' interest in each domain slightly decreased over time, whereas Finnish students experienced an overall high and relatively stable level of interest in all domains. Further, boys showed greater interest in math and science in both countries, whereas girls reported having a greater interest in languages. Moreover, Spanish and Finnish students with high academic achievement typically experienced high interest in different domains, however, some declines in their interest occurred later on.
  • Vinni-Laakso, Janica; Guo, Jiesi; Juuti, Kalle; Loukomies, Anni; Lavonen, Jari; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2019)
    According to modern expectancy-value theory, students' motivation in school subjects begins to vary at the very beginning of their school careers, showing a task-specific pattern of motivation. However, there is no clear evidence in the literature on how students' value beliefs are formed and interact with each other in early elementary schools. Using the longitudinal structural equation modeling, this study examined relations between science-related task values (i.e., intrinsic value and cost), self-concept of ability, and future occupational aspirations based on first graders and 1-year follow-up from seven schools in Helsinki (N = 332; ages = 7 and 8 years; girls = 51%). Results showed that the students who had a high science-related self-concept of ability and intrinsic value tended to perceive low cost of science learning. Science-related self-concept of ability was the most stable construct, while in intrinsic value and cost, there were significant levels of fluctuation across the first and second grades. A high science-related self-concept of ability in the first grade predicted a lower cost value in the second grade, and a high science-related intrinsic value was a marginally significant predictor of future occupational aspirations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM). Mean-level differences revealed that the girls' science-related self-concept of ability, intrinsic value, and cost remained the same in both grades, while the boys' self-concept of ability decreased. The girls' mean levels in science-related intrinsic value were higher than those of the boys, while students' self-concept of ability and cost were similar across gender in both grades. A cross-lagged panel model revealed that the girls reported more STEM occupational aspirations than the boys in the second grade, while controlling for the motivational beliefs. In summary, the results indicate that a high-level of science interest in young students predicts STEM occupational aspirations; high girls' intrinsic value in early science education does not steer them away from STEM occupations; boys' task motivation might be at greater risk of decline during early science education.
  • Lavonen, Jari; Ávalos, Beatrice; Upadyaya, Katja; Araneda, Sebastian; Juuti, Kalle; Cumsille, Patricio; Inkinen, Janna; Salmela-Aro, Katariina (2021)
    This study examines how classroom activities, student gender and student personal interest in science studies and careers predict situational interest in physics learning. Teaching modules were designed based on the secondary physics curricula in Finland (Helsinki) and Chile (Santiago and Vina del Mar) emphasising students engagement in scientific practices. The study was implemented in four classrooms in both countries. Data on situational interest and ongoing classroom activities were obtained using the experience sampling method, with measurements taken three times during a lesson. The process yielded a total of 1717 measurements in the Finnish schools and 1767 in the Chilean schools. Multilevel regression analyses with mixed effects and random intercept were conducted. Results showed a positive effect of scientific practices that required asking questions, designing scientific inquiry and interpreting data on situational interest. Student collaborative situations were more interesting for Chilean students than for Finnish ones. In terms of gender differences, on average, Finnish male and female students experienced the same level of situational interest, while the situational interest of Chilean female students was higher than the average of male students. Personal interest in science studies and careers was the best predictor of situational interest in both countries.