Browsing by Subject "gender equality"

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  • Wuori, Naomi Mathilda (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Avhandlingen består av en diskursanalys av intervjuer med kvinnoidentifierade personer verksamma inom startupekosystemet i Finland. Syftet med avhandlingen är att utforska kvinnornas tolkningar av startupekosystemets kultur från ett jämställdhets- och mångfaldsperspektiv. Avhandlingen bidrar med ett kritiskt perspektiv på startupkulturer och ämnar inspirera till nya synvinklar på sociologisk forskning om startupekosystem. De huvudsakliga forskningsfrågorna lyder: ”Hur förstår och tolkar kvinnor verksamma inom det finska startupekosystemet startupkulturen?”, ”Hur tolkar kvinnorna entreprenörsfiguren i rollen av det ideala startupsubjektet?” och ”Hur upplever kvinnorna jämställdhets- och mångfaldsdiskurser inom kontexten av det finska startupekosystemet?”. Det empiriska materialet består av kvalitativa semistrukturerade intervjuer med fyra kvinnor som på ett eller annat sätt är verksamma inom det finska startupekosystemet. Intervjuerna analyseras genom diskursanalys. Det teoretiska ramverket för avhandlingen består av synen på startupekosystem som performativa diskurser – diskurser som konstruerar de verkligheter de beskriver – och entreprenören som en performativ figur och det ideala startupsubjektet. Det teoretiska ramverket betonar vikten av att inkludera ekosystemet som en forskningsparameter i kulturell forskning om startupkulturer. Avhandlingen hämtar inspiration från akademiska diskussioner om den diskursiva konstruktionen av startup, entreprenörskap och teknologifältet. I avhandlingen framhävs i enlighet med forskning tre diskursiva teman som beskriver startupkulturen: öppenhet och hierarkilöshet; passion och heroism; samt rationalitet och hårt arbete. Samtliga diskursiva teman bidrar till en hegemonisk förståelse om startupkulturen som inkluderande, jämlik och rättvis. Avhandlingen ifrågasätter dessa premisser och argumenterar för att startupdiskurser bidrar till att reproducera en förgivettagen sanning om inkludering och jämlikhet som osynliggör maktstrukturer och förhindrar att status quo ifrågasätts. Dessa diskursiva formationer konstruerar entreprenörsfiguren, som representerar ett demokratiserat och jämlikt ideal inom en objektiv marknadsekonomi. Analysen påvisar att entreprenören, trots sina neutrala premisser, är könad och rasifierad, och lättare fäster sig vid maskulint kodade kroppar. Slutligen påvisar avhandlingen att respondenterna blivit marginaliserade som kunskapsinnehavare när det gäller frågor om jämställdhet och likabehandling. Avhandlingen föreslår att startupdiskurser och konstruktionen av entreprenörsfiguren påverkar hur jämställdhet och mångfald förstås inom fältet och skapar en förutsättning för icke-performativa diskurser och tystnader gällande jämställdhet och mångfald.
  • Holli, Anne Maria (2003)
    The article dissertation analysed Finnish discourse and politics for gender equality from the late 1960s to the late 1990s. Three questions were investigated: How was the discourse on gender equality organised and how did it change over time? What were the strategies and impact of women's policy offices and women's movements? What are the possibilities for women to pursue change via gender equality, public policies and the state in more general terms? The study outlined a more post-structuralist inspired version of the feminist-discursive approach to gender equality, which analyses gender equality as part of social discourse and pays attention to its political consequences and implications. The data consisted of statements by women's policy offices and women's movements, policy documents, press materials and interviews. The study applied various text analysis methods to the data. The study described changes in the Finnish concept and discourse of gender equality from 1970s to 1990s. The masculine normativity of gender equality was in the 1980s replaced by a more radical conceptualisation, partly thanks to the activity of the Council for Gender Equality between Men and Women. The new version could be utilised by women for change without them giving up their sexual difference. Simultaneously, support of gender equality as a norm expanded in Finnish society. In the 1990s, the tide turned: the potential for change diminished as gender equality was conceptualised as an already 'present' characteristic in Finnish society, which also legitimised the idea that there was nothing left to do. The analysis also shows that, comparatively speaking, the policy success of Finnish women's movements in gendering public policies has been above average. In the context of moderately closed policy sub-systems and left-wing governmental power, women's movements tended to be successful, if they only managed to mobilise to a sufficient degree on an issue. However, in the Finnish context, the characteristics of the political environment also seem to affect the possibility of movement mobilisation. Women's policy agencies were very effective linkages between the women's movements and the state. The prominent role played by these agencies can be understood by their participation in the 'strategic partnerships' typical to Finnish women's activity. However, the analysis of the actual policy change modified to some degree the results concerning women's policy success and the responsiveness of the state. Women's demands met an invisible barrier in both job training and prostitution policy. However, in job training women's substantive impact was more limited, due to the closed sub-system and the strong vested interests that excluded women. On the basis of the empirical analyses, the study also aimed at providing partial and situated answers to the questions concerning the nature of the concept of gender equality and the relation between women and the state, which have been prominent in feminist theory. The results can be condensed into the notion that feminist studies should avoid too simplistic viewpoints and start paying more attention to the multifaceted and contextualised character of both gender equality and the state.
  • Kotiranta, Annu (2008)
    Although Finland is one of the leading countries when it comes to gender equality, only few of the top managers are female. In fact, less than ten percent of chief executive officers of Finnish companies are women. In this thesis this phenomena is investigated from an economic perspective. If the reasons for the low female participation are a consequence of gender based discrimination in Finnish business life, the non-discriminating companies should have a clear advantage over their discriminative competitors. Do female leaders boost firm profitability? The question of the gender composition of the top management team and firm profitability is addressed by reflecting the results of the micro level analysis to the theoretical literature of discrimination. Discrimination is modelled using two classics, the discrimination theories of Becker (1957) and Arrow (1972). Also some critical remarks are included and the key aspects of Becker's taste-based discrimination are reviewed using some facts of the Finnish labour market. In addition to the theoretical literature, several empirical articles examining the connection between the gender composition of the top management and firm profitability are introduced. The aim of this study is to bring genuine added value to the results of the existing literature by using a large data set and statistical methods in order minimize the common problems of empirical research of this field. The core and the true contribution of this thesis is the empirical part of the study, which is realized using the linked employer-employee dataset of Statistics Finland. The sample includes 3230 companies, which employed at least 20 persons during the time period 2000–2004. The analysis is carried out using Maliranta's micro level decomposition method, which takes into account the labour productivity and wage effects of the employees, when examining the effects of different worker groups on the profitability growth of the companies. In addition to the base line results, also analyses are carried out, where the firm size is limited to companies employing at least 10 persons and some personal characters of the employees are taken into account. Also the possible problems of endogenity are addressed by additional examination. However, these do not change the conclusions of the original results, according to which, the gender of the top management team does not have a statistically significant impact on the profitability growth of the Finnish companies.
  • Ruoho, Veera (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    It is widely seen that fragile states and prolonged crises cause poverty, violence and also migration as a strategy for survival. However, international interventions by development cooperation and by crisis management missions have been ineffective to provide security and possibilities for sustainable development. The comprehensive crisis management, too, has remained ineffective to respond such challenges. The purpose of this Master's thesis is to contribute for the discussion of developing comprehensive crisis management to make it more efficient in creating sustainable development and peace in crisis areas. For this reason, this qualitative study wanted to clarify the perceptions of Finnish foreign and security policy expert politicians on crisis management in its entirety. In particular, aspects of civilian crisis management and development cooperation were examined as part of comprehensive crisis management and security framework. Empirical research was conducted in the Finnish Parliament and the Ministry for Foreign Affairs between August 2017 and January 2018. 22 MPs were interviewed for the study. The theme analysis was used to identify critical ideas in the interview material. Besides, the study utilized hermeneutic phenomenology. The method of observation was the long-term experience of the investigator in civilian crisis management operations, as well as the membership of the foreign affairs committee in 2015 - 2017. According to the nuanced results, security thinking has become pervasive. Finnish crisis management is based on the experience and expertise of the long history of Finnish peacekeeping and core competencies. Civilian crisis management requires a more prominent role in a comprehensive crisis management approach, which should also be taken into account in financing decisions. The results also showed that the promotion of human security is an essential element of development cooperation and civilian crisis management. An important policy is to focus on the most vulnerable people. Education, access to health services and gender equality were highlighted as ways to achieve sustainable development in crisis areas. Regionally the focus should be in Africa. The synergies between the various instruments of comprehensive crisis management should be better exploited. The results can be useful for those responsible for the Finnish crisis management in the development of a comprehensive crisis management.
  • Puhakka, Laura (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Throughout history, conflict situations have affected people differently depending on the gender. The United Nations Security Council acknowledged the problem by adopting Resolution 1325 on Women, Peace and Security to be implemented by all member states. The aim of this thesis is to examine the country image that Finland has created of its peace mediation policy from a gender perspective during 2015-2018. This research is a qualitative content analysis. As the Finnish model of peace consists of cooperation between the government and non-governmental actors, the research material was divided into two perspectives. The first primary source was Finland’s National Action Plans on Women, Peace and Security published by the Ministry for Foreign Affairs during the years of 2012-2018. The second primary source was the Finnish member profiles of the Nordic Women Mediators Network. The research followed a thematic structure of the themes Nordicness, gender mainstreaming and sustainable peace. The study shows that Finland’s country image on gender-equal peace mediation emphasises the role of women in particular. One central finding from the thematic perspective is that the Action Plans have given more importance to sustainable peace after the 2030 Agenda for Sustainable Development was launched by the United Nations. The profiles of the Nordic Women Mediators Network emphasise versatile cooperation between peace actors and through multidisciplinary backgrounds. In addition, the Nordic Women Mediators Network bring added value to the Nordic presence of the Action Plans. All in all, the Finnish Women, Peace and Security agenda has diversified in its themes the more Action Plans have been launched. The findings of this study reflect that creating a country image is a significant part of nation-branding. The visibility of values in different contexts also reflect how the country identifies itself. Cooperating with independent actors by sharing skills not only strengthens the foreign policy but the overall image of the Finnish way in peace-making.
  • Hearn, Jeff; Kovalainen, Anne; Tallberg, Teemu (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2002)
    Research Reports
    The expansion of transnational corporations is a fundamental part of contemporary globalising processes. Through their activities, transnational corporations also have impacts on national and cultural gender relations, thus highlighting that gender relations are indeed amenable, to some extent, to social change. Accordingly, large transnational corporations have many effects and implications for gender relations in society, as well as having their own gender relations within them, characteristically in the form of men’s far greater presence in management than women’s. A key aspect in the functioning of transnational corporations is thus the way they organise and restructure gender relations within their own activities. The research presented here on gender divisions and gender policies in largest Finnish multinational and national corporations is part of a longer-term examination of the relations of gender relations in transnational corporations. It sets out the results of a survey of the largest 100 Finnish corporations with regard to the following main kinds of question: · general information on the corporation’s size, sector and economic activities; · the gender composition of their employment, middle management, top management, and board; · their gender equality plans and related policies. The human resources manager or their equivalent or delegate of 62 corporations responded to the survey. The general analysis of the data obtained from the survey is presented in this research report. Special attention is given to relations between the gender divisions and the gender policies of corporations. Interpretations of the data and more general theoretical implications are discussed in the report, with special attention to theoretical ways forward.
  • Härkönen, Iiris (Helsingin yliopisto, 2018)
    The low proportion of women among attorneys-at-law in Finland is striking, particularly among attorneys-at-law in partner positions. Previous research has shown that female attorneys-at-law in Finland, although not working in the prestigious positions of power or financial decision-making, can express a belief in gender equal career opportunities. However, the idea of equal opportunities has been shown to be a myth, which ignores for instance how women are faced with greater expectations concerning family caretaking than men. Overall, the traditionally masculine norms of the legal field have been shown to carry a male advantage. While previous research on the topic has focused on the experiences of female attorneys-at-law, this thesis aims to study also men’s perspectives. The objective of this thesis is to understand better how attorneys-at-law, women and men, talk about gender equality and inequality within their profession, and what kind of attitudes towards the topics are being expressed. The theoretical framework for this thesis draws from social constructionism, rhetorical social psychology and the qualitative attitude approach. Altogether 13 women and men, of different age and living in different parts of Finland, were interviewed in October-November 2017. Three topics were discussed within the interviews: 1) career development as an attorney-at-law, 2) gender and gender equality, and 3) professional success. The analysis of this thesis focused only on the second theme of the interviews, gender and gender equality, and more precisely, on argumentative talk generated by five attitude statements concerning the role of gender, work and family reconciliation and gender inequality. The analysis revealed three different attitudes towards gender equality or inequality in the legal field: 1) gender inequality as women leaving the legal field, 2) gender equality as gender-neutral attitudes and treatment, and 3) men’s gender inequality as an upcoming problem. In addition, an important finding was how work and family reconciliation was constructed as a women’s concern. The attitudes drew from the discourses of individual choice, equal opportunities, and gender neutrality, the idea of work and family reconciliation concerning women, low amounts of boys in faculties of law, as well as a belief in the proportion of female partners changing. Functions of the attitudes included, among others, representing women or oneself as making justified choices over family caretaking or as having opportunities to leave or stay in the legal field, representing oneself as a supporter of gender neutrality or as a person who sees the situation from a larger perspective. Overall, the attitudes represented gender inequality as a problem or not as a problem in varying degrees. The most important references for this thesis were Choroszewicz’s (2014a) Managing Competitiveness in Pursuit of a Legal Career: Women Attorneys in Finland and Poland and Vesala’s & Rantanen’s (2007) Argumentaatio ja tulkinta.
  • Isaksen, Lise; Näre, Lena (2019)
    This introduction to the Special Issue Local loops and micro-mobilities of care: Rethinking care in egalitarian contexts argues for the importance of analysing local organizations of care. This is a necessary addition to current scholarship which has focused on the globalization of care. Yet, in many parts of the world, such as the Northern and Eastern European countries, on which this issue focuses, care provision continues to be mainly local and migrant care workers are complementary. Nevertheless, the daily organization of care can be as complex as in the global care chains. To address this local complexity, we propose two concepts: the notion of local care loops and care as patchwork. The concept of local care loops is a sensitizing one that emphasizes routine, daily practices and micro-mobilities of care that create loops around daily practices of care. Patchwork refers to practices that are simultaneously routinized activities but that are also changing from day to day, depending on the available resources and constraints (of time, money, and caregivers), as well as the local geographies and distances that need to be connected in the loops. The introduction also presents the six articles that make up this Special Issue. The articles identify similarities and differences in processes related to the commodification of childcare and transforming gender ideologies in post-socialist and social-democratic welfare societies.
  • Heino, Reeta Juulia (Helsingfors universitet, 2010)
    Tutkimukseni kohteena ovat mies- ja naispuoliset tutkijat ja tohtoriopiskelijat, jotka ovat osallistuneet katalyysitutkimukseen keskittyvän tutkimusverkosto IDECAT:in toimintaan. Tutkielmassani pyrin selvittämään, onko naisten ja miesten tutkijanuran välillä eroa ja jos on, niin minkälainen tämä ero on. Pyrin myös saamaan selville, onko naisten tutkijanuralla esteitä ja esiintyykö tiedeyhteisössä sukupuolesta johtuvaa syrjintää. IDECAT (Integrated Design of Catalytic Nanomaterials for a Sustainable Production) on EU-rahoitteinen, kemian tekniikkaan liittyvään katalyysitutkimukseen keskittyvä tutkimusverkosto, johon kuuluu alan tutkimusyksiköitä ja yliopistoja 12 Euroopan maasta. IDECAT:iin kuuluu noin 500-600 henkilöä. Tutkimukseni pohjautuu kahteen kyselytutkimukseen, jotka toteutettiin Internetissä 2009-2010. Ensimmäinen kyselytutkimus oli vastaajien saatavilla loka-marraskuussa 2009 ja siinä selvitettiin IDECAT:in tutkijoiden ja tohtoriopiskelijoiden tasa-arvotilannetta yleisesti. Kyselyyn vastasi 83 henkilöä, joista 51% oli naisia ja 49 % miehiä. Kyselyssä käytettiin strukturoitua kyselylomaketta ja tulokset analysoitiin kvantitatiivisesti SPSS tilasto-ohjelmalla. Tilastollisena menetelmänä käytän ristiintaulukointia. Toinen kyselytutkimus (jatkokysely) keskittyy tiedeyhteisössä tapahtuvaan sukupuolesta johtuvaan syrjintään ja se oli vastaajien saatavilla huhti-toukokuussa 2010. Jatkokyselyn kysymykset ovat avokysymyksiä ja ne analysoitiin laadullisesti. Jatkokyselyyn vastasi 24 henkilöä, joista 6 kuvasi yksityiskohtaisesti syrjintäkokemuksiaan tiedeyhteisössä. Teoreettisena viitekehyksenä käytän tutkimuksessani Joan Ackerin sukupuolittuneen organisaation teoriaa ja siihen liittyviä, organisaation toiminnassa ilmeneviä sukupuolittuneita prosesseja. Sukupuolittuneet prosessit ovat ajattelutapoja , käytäntöjä ja asenteita, joilla sukupuolet erotetaan toisistaan ja joilla tuotetaan sukupuolten välisiä valtasuhteita. Naisten ja miesten tutkijanuran välillä on aineistossani joitakin merkittäviä eroja. Sukupuolesta johtuva syrjintä on yleistä vastaajien keskuudessa ja naiset ovat kokeneet sitä useammin kuin miehet. 67% naisvastaajista ja 37% miesvastaajista on kokenut sukupuolesta johtuvaa syrjintää. Naisvastaajat myös kokevat miehiä useammin, että he eivät saa riittävästi tukea ja kannustusta esimiehiltään. Lisäksi naisia on pyydetty mukaan tieteelliseen yhteistyöhön miehiä harvemmin. Useimmat muuttujat eivät kuitenkaan tuo eroa sukupuolten välille. Tutkijanaiset kokevat ylenemismahdollisuutensa lähes yhtä hyviksi kuin miehet, naiset ja miehet työskentelevät yhtä usein määräaikaisissa tehtävissä ja naiset työskentelevät kokopäiväisesti lähes yhtä usein kuin miehet. Naiset pitävät perheen ja työn yhdistämistä helppona. Sukupuolittuneita prosesseja ilmenee erityisesti sukupuolten väliseen työnjakoon ja sosiaalisen tuen ja vallan jakoon tiedeyhteisössä liittyvissä tilanteissa. Sukupuolittuneisuus ei kuitenkaan ole totaalista, monien kyselyn muuttujien kohdalla sukupuolittumista tai eroa sukupuolten välille ei tullut. Monet kyselyn muuttujat osoittavatkin, että naiset ja miehet kokevat, että heitä kohdellaan melko tasa-arvoisesti. Tietyillä osa-alueilla epätasa-arvoisen kohtelun kokemukset ovat kuitenkin yleisiä, mikä tuottaa ristiriitaisen kuvan tiedeyhteisön tasa-arvotilanteesta. Tämä voi viitata siihen, että tutkijanaisten ja miesten asemat ja roolit tiedeyhteisössä eivät ole pysyviä ja staattisia, vaan aktiivisessa muutoksen tilassa. Tutkijanaisten asemaa tiedeyhteisössä voidaan lisäksi parantaa reagoimalla ja puuttumalla sukupuolesta johtuvaan syrjintään, pitämällä tasa-arvoasioita esillä sekä kiinnittämällä huomiota johtamiskäytäntöihin, esimerkiksi palkkaamalla lisää naisjohtajia.
  • Lahelma, Elina; Tainio, Liisa (2019)
    Gender equality has since the 1970s been an aim in international educational politics and policies. Also Finland has evidenced a history of hundreds of projects and reports that have repeated the same aims, ideas and practical innovations for promoting equality, many of them with teacher education as one of the foci. However, the actual pace of change has been very slow. In this paper we focus in the impact of a national project on gender awareness in teacher education (2008-2011). We analyze changes in cultures and curricula in relation to gender awareness in teacher education. The data includes documents of the project, curricula of teacher education, answers of the former activists of the project and interviews with teachers in one teacher education unit. We also use auto-ethnographic methodology. We suggest that conceptual problems in issues around gender and involvement in personal lives makes addressing gender difficult in teacher education. We also suggest that the mission of gender awareness is difficult, but not a mission impossible.
  • Haapala, Juho; White, Pamela (2015)
    Water-sector development is inevitably based on changes in people’s behaviour. We analyse why some types of domestic water-use behaviours change more easily than others. Our case study is a water supply and sanitation intervention in remote and rural Nepal. We found that collective opportunities, degree of individual freedom, and individual incentives influenced the ease of the promoted behaviour changes. The enhanced individual opportunities, incentives, and collective tolerance enabled behaviour changes that were regarded as beneficial by the people themselves, whereas the existing social traditions in our case-study context often restricted those changes. Often, the individual agency and the collective traditions confronted one another. We suggest that this study can provide a design for predicting possible opportunities and challenges regarding behaviour changes in field operations, and for enhancing joint operation of individual and collective capabilities at local levels in the development intervention context
  • Niemistö, Charlotta (Svenska handelshögskolan, 2011)
    Economics and Society - 236
    Work/family reconciliation is a crucial question for both personal well-being and on societal level for productivity and re-production throughout the Western world. This thesis examines work/family reconciliation on societal and organisational level in the Finnish context. The study is based on an initial framework, developing it further and analysing the results with help of it. The methodology of the study is plural, including varying epistemological emphasis and both quantitative and qualitative methods. Policy analysis from two different sectors is followed by a survey answered by 113 HR-managers, and then, based on quantitative analyses, interviews in four chosen case companies. The central findings of the thesis are that there indeed are written corporate level policies for reconciling work and family in companies operating in Finland, in spite of the strong state level involvement in creating a policy context in work/family reconciliation. Also, the existing policies vary in accessibility and use. The most frequently used work/family policies still are the statutory state level policies for family leave, taking place when a baby is born and during his or her first years. Still, there are new policies arising, such as a nurse for an employee’s child who has fallen ill, that are based on company activity only, which shows in both accessibility and use of the policy. Reasons for developing corporate level work/family policies vary among the so-called pro-active and re-active companies. In general, family law has a substantial effect for developing corporate level policies. Also headquarter gender equality strategies as well as employee demands are important. In regression analyses, it was found that corporate image and importance in recruitment are the foremost reasons for companies to develop policies, not for example the amount of female employees in the company. The reasons for policy development can be summarized into normative pressures, coercive pressures and mimetic pressures, in line with findings from institutional theory. This research, however, includes awareness of different stakeholder interests and recognizes that institutional theory needs to be complemented with notions of gender and family, which seem to play a part in perceived work/family conflict and need for further work/family policies both in managers’ personal lives and on the organisational level. A very central finding, demanding more attention, is the by HR managers perceived change in values towards work and commitment towards organisation at the youngest working generation, Generation Y. This combined with the need for key personnel has brought new challenges to companies especially in knowledge business and will presumably lead to further development of flexible practices in organisations. The accessibility to this flexibility seems to, however, be even more dependent on the specific knowledge and skills of the employee. How this generation will change the organisations remains to be seen in further research.