Browsing by Subject "gender roles"

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  • Luntinen, Natalia (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Tutkielma käsittelee sukupuolirooleja ja poliittisia teemoja joita ilmenee 1960-luvun yhdysvaltalaisissa supersankarisarjakuvissa. Tutkielmassa alkuperäisaineistona käytän kahden yhdysvaltalaisen sarjakuvajulkaisijan, Marvelin ja DC:n, sarjakuvia. Nämä sarjakuvat ovat Journey into Mystery, Strange Tales, Tales of Suspense, The Avengers, Action Comics, Batman, Detective Comics, Superman’s Girl Friend Lois Lane, Wonder Woman, ja World’s Finest. Sarjakuvien tulkitsemisen apuna käytän joitakin kulttuurintutkimuksen ja sukupuolentutkimuksen teorioita. Näistä tärkeimmät tutkielman sisällön kannalta ovat käsitteet sukupuolesta, feminiinisyydestä ja maskuliinisuudesta. Esittelen lyhyesti sarjakuvateollisuuden historian Yhdysvalloissa noin 1930-luvulta 1960-luvulle, jonka jälkeen tulkitsen alkuperäisainestoani. Supersankarisarjakuvissa esiintyy lähinnä valkoihoisia, keskiluokkaisia amerikkalaisia sankareita, jotka taistelivat rikollisuutta ja kommunismia vastaan. Suurimmaksi osaksi tarinat esittävät perinteisiä sukupuolirooleja ja länsimaisia arvoja. Kommunismi on tarinoissa paha, ja vain amerikkalaiset sankarit pystyvät tehokkaasti vastustamaan sen uhkaa. Latinalaisen Amerikan kansat ja kaikki alkuperäiskansat delegoidaan toissijaiseen asemaan, ja heidän ei anneta päättää asioistaan itse. Amerikkalaisten supersankareiden puuttuminen muiden maiden asioihin esitetään kiistatta hyvänä asiana. Suurin osa hahmoista on valkoihoisia, ja kaikki ei-valkoihoiset hahmot ovat usein stereotyyppisiä ja yksiulotteisia hahmoja. Maskuliinisuus liittyy erottamattomasti isänmaallisuuteen ja valmiuteen puolustaa länsimaisia arvoja ja demokratiaa. Feminiinisyys sitoutuu vahvasti avioliittoon, perheyksikköön ja huolenpitoon. Vaikka kaikki hahmot voivatkin saada feminiinisiä ja maskuliinisia ominaisuuksia, naishahmot saavat harvoin olla yhtä vahvoja ja kykeneviä kuin heidän miespuoliset kollegansa. Naispuoliset supersankarit joutuvat usein kamppailemaan feminiinisten ominaisuuksiensa kanssa. Mieshahmot taas kamppailevat vahvistaakseen jatkuvasti omia maskuliinisia ominaisuuksiaan, ja torjuakseen feminiiniset vaikutukset. Miesten homososiaaliset suhteet asetetaan etusijalle miesten ja naisten välisiin suhteisiin nähden, koska mieshenkilöiden on rajoitettava feminiinistä vaikutusta elämässään. Miespuoliset supersankarit kammoavat erityisesti avioliittoa. Tästä huolimatta kuvatut suhteet ovat heteronormatiivisia, ja kustantajat eivät halua esittää homoseksuaalisuutta. Kertomuksissa vahvistetaankin konservatiivisia arvoja, ja supersankarit ovat yhteiskunnan auktoriteettien kanssa samalla puolella.
  • Leden, Laura Irene (2019)
    This case study discusses constraints related to the image of girlhood and gender roles evident in the abridged and adapted Swedish translation of L.M. Montgomery’s girls’ classic Emily of New Moon published in 1955 by C.W.K. Gleerups. The 1950s are called the golden age of girls’ books in Sweden because their publication peaked during this period. However, the popularity of girls’ books during the 1950s did not correlate with high status. Adaptation of translations was common, which indicates the low status of the genre. The Swedish translation of Emily of New Moon was adapted for a younger target audience than Montgomery’s original, and abridged to a lower page count required by the publisher series in which the book was included. The publisher imposed didactic constraints on the book, and these constraints are a sign of conservative and protective strategies and authoritarian attitudes. The adaptation reflects what kind of books the publisher wanted to present to girls, and largely involves purification of unconventional behavior and sexuality. This was consistent with didactic translation norms, reflected in the origin of girls’ books in educational literature. The translation presents a clear, unambiguous and conventional model for the appropriate behavior of girls, and female characters represent more restrictive gender roles than in the original.
  • Tanrikulu, Bengü (Helsingfors universitet, 2017)
    The rise of the political Islam has been affecting every sphere of life in Turkey during the last decade. The policies of the Turkish government and the discourses of the current Turkish president, Erdoğan aim to control the female participation in public space. However, the change in gender roles in space does not always evolve simultaneously with the political trend. This situation can be seen among the female artisans and artists of the Samanpazarı district of Ankara. Women are the main social actors who transform the area with the participation in the district and with the work they do. This thesis analyzes the everyday life of the female artisans and artists in the Samanpazarı district of Ankara, Turkey. The data was collected during a period of three months of ethnographic fieldwork. Different methods were used during this period. Participant observation and interviews were the main methods. In addition to these, gender map was sketched to understand the gendered use of space. The historical background of the area was also investigated. The aim of the thesis is to examine how female artisans and artists started to participate and to create businesses in the abandoned trading center of Ankara. The thesis also aims to investigate the period after female artisans moved in the district, because this is the period during which the area has gained a new identity and, the social and economic relations have changed. The main result of this thesis is that women used traditional craft skills and the history of the area to create a space for themselves and to participate in Samanpazarı. After they moved in, they started to gain more control in the area through the social and economic relations they created.
  • Juujärvi, Soile (2003)
    The departure point of this study is Gilligan's critique against Kohlberg's theory of moral development. The main aim was to examine whether the proposed levels of care-based reasoning form a developmental sequence. Care and justice reasoning were studied among practical nursing, bachelor-degree social work and law enforcement students in the beginning of education (N=66) and after 2 years (N=59). Main measures were Skoe's Ethic of Care Interview and Colby & Kohlberg et al's Moral Judgment Interview. Participants' real-life moral conflicts were also analyzed. Results showed that 34% of the participants progressed in care reasoning, and 48% in justice reasoning. Social work and nursing students progressed in care reasoning. All groups showed progress in justice reasoning. Care and justice reasoning were parallel in terms of internal consistency and regression. 5% regressed in care reasoning, compared with 3% in justice reasoning. Participants at the highest justice level also represented high-level care reasoning. Self-concept interviews involved descriptions of developmental transitions. Findings suggest that care reasoning constitutes a developmental sequence, from self-concern (Level 1) to caring for others and self-sacrifice (Level 2) to the balanced caring for self and others (Level 3). For women, age and androgynous gender role were positively related to care reasoning. At the posttest, participants at Level 3 were the most empathic and showed progress in empathy. Role taking was positively related to care reasoning for both genders, and to justice reasoning for men In real-life conflicts, the type of dilemma predicted moral orientation usage. Prosocial dilemmas pulled for care and antisocial dilemmas for justice orientation. Women with connected self-concept tended to use care orientation. Level of justice reasoning varied according to the dilemma type. Real-life care reasoning was consistent with participants' competence, with the exception of transgression-type dilemmas at the posttest. Participants reporting temptation-type dilemmas were the least developed in care reasoning. Levels of care and justice reasoning were strongly related to each other, and were integrated in mature reasoning. Care reasoning also involved values and ethical principles related to others' welfare. These results underscore the importance of dilemma type, and suggest that care reasoning is a significant part of real life morality.
  • Radun, Igor; Watling, Hanna; Radun, Jenni; Kaistinen, Jyrki; Olivier, Jake (2018)
    Objective: It is well established that young men are the riskiest group of all drivers, and men in general more often drive under the influence of alcohol. However, potentially oversimplified representations such as a young male problem and drunk driving as a male problem can influence action and reinforce existing attitudes by selectively directing attention to stereotypically consistent behavior. The purpose of this study was to test the hypothesis of possible bias toward young male drivers in the context of drunk driving.Methods: We have created a scenario study investigating whether the sex of an imaginary young drunk driver would be associated with a different perceived negligence (ranging from 0=not negligent at all to 10=extremely negligent) among our participants. These participants were a representative sample of Finnish female driver's license holders. The data for the study were gathered as part of a larger survey study on women's drinking and driving culture.Results: Perceptions of how negligent a person was depended on the age of the respondents such that the older the respondent, the higher the perceived negligence. Perceived negligence was similar for male and female drivers in the scenario; however, there was an interaction effect between driver sex and the age of respondents. The youngest (20-29 years) and 2 oldest (50-69 years) groups of our respondents found the young woman to be more negligent, whereas the opposite occurred for the other 2 groups.Conclusions: The results of our imaginary scenario study of a representative sample of Finnish female driver's license holders do not support a hypothesis that there would be a negative bias toward young male drivers in the context of drunk driving behavior.