Browsing by Subject "gender studies"

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  • Pareyon, Gabriel (Universidad de Guadalajara, 2010)
    This contribution deals with social and political aspects affecting cultural life in Jalisco (Mexico), during the last forty years. It is, especially, a critical view on the regional deterioration of experimental music, analysing ethnic, religion, gender and other social components in one of the culturally foremost states of Mexico.
  • Díaz-Reviriego, Isabel; Fernandez-Llamazares Onrubia, Alvaro; Salpeteur, Matthieu; Howard, Patricia L.; Reyes-García, Victoria (2016)
    Local medical systems are key elements of social-ecological systems as they provide culturally appropriate and locally accessible health care options, especially for populations with scarce access to biomedicine. The adaptive capacity of local medical systems generally rests on two pillars: species diversity and a robust local knowledge system, both threatened by local and global environmental change. We first present a conceptual framework to guide the assessment of knowledge diversity and redundancy in local medicinal knowledge systems through a gender lens. Then, we apply this conceptual framework to our research on the local medicinal plant knowledge of the Tsimane’ Amerindians. Our results suggest that Tsimane’ medicinal plant knowledge is gendered and that the frequency of reported ailments and the redundancy of knowledge used to treat them are positively associated. We discuss the implications of knowledge diversity and redundancy for local knowledge systems’ adaptive capacity, resilience, and health sovereignty.
  • Pulkkinen, Tuija (2015)
    Within the past 40 years, feminist studies/women's studies/gender studies/studies in gender and sexuality has effectively grown into a globally practised academic discipline while simultaneously resisting the notion of disciplinarity and strongly advocating multidisciplinarity, interdisciplinarity, and transdisciplinarity. In this article, I argue that gaining identity through refusing an identity can be viewed as being a constitutive paradox of gender studies. Through exploring gender studies as a transdisciplinary intellectual discipline, which came into existence in very particular multidisciplinary historical conditions of the feminist movement, I suggest that transdisciplinarity within gender studies takes on a meaning which results in a radical problematization of the academic goal of knowledge production'. Instead of such knowledge production', transdisciplinarity in gender studies promotes intervention which reaches beyond the concepts of accountability, innovation and corporate management. I argue that Jacques Derrida's promotion of the College International de Philosophie in 1982 in its particular relationship to the tradition of philosophy provides a parallel example of such an attitude. Adding to Joan Scott's and Clare Hemmings's insights on gender studies in terms of critique and transformation, I argue that transdisciplinarity as practice of intervention' is crucial for the construction of gender studies disciplinary identity, based upon apparent non-identity.
  • Pitkämäki, Arla-Maria (Helsingfors universitet, 2016)
    Tässä pro gradu -tutkielmassa analysoin mies- ja naiselokuvaohjaajista käytävää diskurssia, kuinka heitä kuvaillaan ja esitellään mediateksteissä. Työ perustuu korpuslingvistiikan tutkimusmetodeihin ja tutkimuskohteena on sanasto. Työn tavoitteena on tutkia, löytyykö mies- ja naiselokuvaohjaajien biografioista eroavaisuuksia tekstin painotuksissa ja käsiteltävissä aiheissa ja mitkä nämä mahdolliset erot ovat. Lisäksi tarkoituksena on analysoida muita mahdollisesti esiin nousevia mielenkiintoisia havaintoja. Tutkimusaineistona käytän Wikipediasta, Internet Movie Database -sivustolta ja Rotten Tomatoes -sivustolta kerättyjä ohjaajien biografioita. Valittuja ohjaajia on yhteensä 30 naisohjaajaa ja 30 miesohjaajaa, joista 15 on valittu Yhdysvaltojen lippukassatulojen ja 15 arvostelumenestyksen perusteella. Mieselokuvaohjaajien korpus koostuu 90 biografiasta ja naiselokuvaohjaajien korpus 85 biografiasta. Naisten asema elokuva-alalla on tunnetusti heikko. Vuonna 2015 vain 19% kulissien takana työskentelevistä työntekijöistä oli Yhdysvaltojen 250 parhaiten menestyneessä elokuvassa naisia, ja vain 9% näistä elokuvista oli naisten ohjaamia. Myös naishahmojen, varsinkin pääroolien, edustavuus valkokankailla on huono verrattuna mieshahmoihin. Naisten heikko asema elokuva-alalla on viime aikoina saanut runsaasti huomiota julkisuudessa. Työssä käytän korpuslingvistiikan tutkimusmetodeja: frekvenssejä, avainsanoja ja kollokaatiota. Vertailen mies- ja naiselokuvaohjaajien biografioissa esiintyvää työhön ja perhe-elämään liittyvää sanastoa, samoin vertailen avainsanoja näiden biografioiden kesken ja vertailen eniten esiintyviä adjektiiveja ja tutkin mies + ohjaaja -sanojen ja nais + ohjaaja -sanojen kollokaatiota. Viitekehyksenä työlle toimii kielitieteellinen naistutkimus. Mies- ja naiselokuvaohjaajista käytävä diskurssi osoittautuu erilaiseksi. Perheen rooli korostuu naiselokuvaohjaajista puhuttaessa huomattavasti enemmän kuin mieselokuvaohjaajista puhuttaessa. Naiselokuvaohjaajista puhuttaessa myös sukupuoli tuntuu korostuvan. Tästä kertoo esimerkiksi se, että naisohjaaja on useasti käytetty termi, toisin kuin miesohjaaja, joka ei esiinny kertaakaan biografioissa. Mieselokuvaohjaajien biografioissa esiintyy selkeästi enemmän työhön liittyvää sanastoa ja varsinkin työhön liittyvää teknillistä sanastoa. Eri korpuslingvistiset tutkimusmenetelmät tarkastelevat aineistoa eri lähtökohdista, mutta tulokset ovat varsin samansuuntaiset. Tutkimustulokset osoittavat nais- ja mieselokuvaohjaajista käytävässä diskurssissa naisen roolin perheen kasvattajana korostuvan vanhanaikaisella tavalla. Naiselokuvaohjaajista käytävä diskurssi myös korostaa sitä, kuinka poikkeavia naiselokuvaohjaajat ovat vielä tällä varsin miesvaltaisella alalla. Jotta tämä asiantila voisi muuttua, on tärkeää huomata diskurssien eroavaisuus, sillä diskursseilla on paljon valtaa.
  • Venäläinen, Satu (2021)
    Men's victimisation is a central topic in online discussions, particularly in the manosphere, where its emphasis is often combined with a strong anti-feminist stance. This article examines the interplay of affects and discourse in meaning-making around men's victimisation both in online discussions and among social and crisis workers asked to comment upon meanings circulating online. By using the concept of affective-discursive practice, the analysis shows how this meaning-making reiterates socially shared interpretative repertoires and positionings that mobilise affects based on sympathy, anger and hate. Furthermore, the article demonstrates how the practitioners respond to these affective meanings by adopting positions of responsibility, while also redirecting and neutralising online affect. The article contributes to knowledge on the interaction between online and offline meaning-making around men's victimisation, and to building an understanding of affects and discourse in seemingly moderate meaning-making around this topic that however resonates and links with the more extreme anti-feminism of the manosphere.
  • Kornak, Jacek (Helsingin yliopisto, 2015)
    The subject of this study is the term: queer which I analyse as a political concept. In many English-speaking countries queer has been a common abusive term for homosexuals and other sexually non-normative individuals. From around the end of the 1980s the term was picked up by many activists and academics as a tool for political engagement. Initially queer was politicized in the context of the AIDS crisis but soon afterwards, the term was used to address political, social and cultural marginalization of sexual minorities. Queer has ever since remained one of the most significant concepts in contemporary sexual minority politics. I examine how queer became a powerful political signifier and I study political messages that the term carried. My study focuses on multiple uses of queer , rising from various forms of direct political activism to numerous academic publications. I argue that the term often functioned as a type of alternative identity, a basis of community, an incitement for political action and even a philosophical category. Rather than trying to establish common elements between the uses of queer , I present the multiplicity of routes by which queer was mobilized politically. The research here described investigates an underexplored topic in the academic literature, as most publications to this day offer analyses of queer theories or activism, while the very concept queer has often been overlooked. By discussing the political uses of the term, my study therefore goes beyond the scope of so-called queer theory. Instead, I analyse these theories from a novel standpoint, reflecting on the conceptual politics that queer performs in various texts. This thesis traces the conceptual change that queer underwent to become an umbrella term for various political claims. At the end of the 1980s, queer was used by ACT UP activists and, subsequently, by other groups and individuals to express disagreement with mainstream U.S. sexual politics. From about 1991 queer enters academia. I study texts by Teresa de Lauretis, Michael Warner, Judith Butler, Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick, Lee Edelman and several others. I offer conceptual analyses of their use of queer as a political concept. I also engage in discussion about the consequences of certain political claims for sexual minorities. My findings indicate that queer was one of the central concepts used in academic debates concerning sexual minorities in the 1990s. For instance, Teresa de Lauretis used the term to criticize the previous lesbian and gay discourse and to incite development of a new language that would accommodate the multiplicity of experiences of lesbian and gay people. Judith Butler used the term to address intersections of sex, class and race. For Eve Kosofsky Sedgwick queer is a specific deconstructive term, whereas for Jack (Judith) Halberstam it is an anarchic term that opens a horizon of an alternative politics. Over the past recent decades there have been countless uses of queer as a political concept. My thesis analyses the most influential ones. I present a variety of political purposes the concept serves and point out the importance of this concept within contemporary sexual minority movement and thought.
  • Xu, Qingbo (Helsingin yliopisto, 2014)
    This dissertation studies the work of Zhang Kangkang (a contemporary Chinese woman writer, 1950- ) in the light of evolutionary feminism (also called Darwinian feminism, which studies gender issues from an evolutionary perspective, brings feminist concerns into the fields of evolutionary biology, psychology and sociobiology, and illuminates and rectifies androcentric biases in these fields). I have three main research goals: the first is to present the similarities and congeniality of Zhang and evolutionary feminism, the second to explore whether Zhang has strong feminist concerns, and the third to try to bring Darwinism and feminism together and show their compatibility. Lying at the intersection of literature, feminist criticism, and evolutionary studies, my approach is based on transcultural and transdisciplinary comparisons. My primary texts include Zhang s writings and the literature on evolutionary feminist theory by scholars including Anne Campbell, Patricia Gowaty, Sarah Blaffer Hrdy, Barbara Smuts, Griet Vandermassen, and Marlene Zuk. I find that these two textual corpuses converge around five topics: sex differences, the mother-child bond, mating systems, violence, and infanticide. I discuss in depth how Zhang s descriptions of motherhood, love and political activity in China highlight these intersections. Both Zhang and evolutionary feminists try to uncover the evolved tendencies of sex differences in reproductive interests and strategies, understand women s reproductive behavior, highlight both male and female competitiveness and violence, as well as other predispositions that we may consider morally undesirable. Even Zhang, who has much in common with evolutionary insights, several times disproves or even tries to deny what she has revealed about female behavior in her stories. But evolutionary theory is descriptive and does not pursue science and value together. On the other hand, while evolutionary theory can describe human origins and propensities, and the roots of gender and social inequality, solving possible moral dilemmas entails the involvement of ethics, literature, and feminist studies for prescriptive guidance in order to improve our societies and strengthen gender equality.
  • Väkiparta, Maria (Helsingin yliopisto, 2019)
    In Somaliland, the prevalence rate for female genital mutilation/cutting (FGM/C) renders it nearly universal. An overwhelming majority of girls undergo the most radical type of FGM/C, locally referred to as pharaonic cutting. Yet, there is some evidence on a shift towards less radical types, locally labelled sunnah cutting. Amongst international institutions, researchers and activists engaged in preventing FGM/C, the practice is increasingly conceptualised as a human rights violation and as a form of gender discrimination. It is now argued that challenging stereotypes about gender power structures will pave the way for abandoning the practice. Simultaneously, researchers and activists urge men to voice their opinions about the practice. This research provides a deeper understanding of the engagement of young men in the prevention of FGM/C, but it also critically examines men’s engagement. Focusing on discursive practices, I examine how young men engaged in preventing FGM/C in Somaliland discursively negotiate violence against women, gender norms, and the gender order. I also explore whether these negotiations are on the one hand, consistent with those goals related to deconstructing the patriarchal gender regime and, on the other hand, consistent with locally prevailing masculinities. My study is guided by critical studies on men and masculinities and by a critical discourse analysis, through which I address the complex and often hidden workings of power and ideology in discourse. To do so, I collected data via semi-structured individual interviews with 19 university students (15 men, 4 women) who volunteered in a project to advocate against FGM/C in Somaliland. The interviewees employed four interlinked discourses: the righteousness discourse, the health discourse, the hierarchical difference discourse, and the masculine responsibility discourse. These discourses challenge some forms of violence against women, while legitimating others. They (re)produce prevailing masculinities and hierarchical gender order in many ways, but there are also discursive elements that renegotiate prevailing gender norms, particularly idealised womanhood. The findings of this study contribute to theories associated with female genital cutting as patriarchal violence, feminist theories on the workings of power and ideology within a discourse, and theories on men and masculinities. More practically, these findings can inform the design of programmes to prevent FGM/C, which should remain consistent with the deconstruction of patriarchal structures and practices that uphold FGM/C.