Browsing by Subject "gene flow"

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  • Korpelainen, Helena; Elshibli, Sakina (2021)
    We conducted genomic characterization based on SNP and SilicoDArT markers on the invasive Himalayan balsam (Impatiens glandulifera) plants originating from native and non-native regions of their distribution. When genetic relationships were explored by PCoA using SNP and SilicoDArT marker data, the first, second, and third principal coordinates explained altogether 37.4% and 31.0% of the variability, respectively. Samples from the UK, Canada, and Pakistan were grouped together, while Indian plants were clearly distinct based on SNP markers but relatively close to the UK-Canada-Pakistan group based on SilicoDArT markers. Constructed trees differentiated individuals into clusters resembling the PCoA patterns. The Bayesian BAPS analysis performed for the SNP data revealed that the individuals were distributed in seven clusters, representing samples from each of the four Finnish populations, India, Pakistan, and the combination of the UK and Canada. Similar clustering was visible in the UPGMA tree. The Indian cluster did not display any ancestral gene flow with the others, while the Pakistani cluster showed ancestral gene flow only with the combined UK and Canada cluster. Furthermore, the latter cluster displayed ancestral gene flow with the Finnish populations varying from 0% to 3.1%. The BAPS analyses conducted for the SilicoDArT data differ slightly: The individuals were distributed in nine clusters, and the Indian cluster exhibited ancestral gene flow with the mixed cluster including Canadian, Pakistani, and UK samples, and one Finnish sample. The AMOVA showed that 45% and 26% of variation was present among the I. glandulifera groups/populations and the rest within them based on SNP and SilicoDArT markers, respectively. The Bayesian BAPS analyses and the gene flow networks were the most informative tools for resolving relationships among native and introduced plants. It is notable that the small sample sizes for non-Finnish plant materials may affect the accuracy of the gene flow and other estimates.
  • Galindo, Juan; Carvalho, Joao; Sotelo, Graciela; Duvetorp, Marten; Costa, Diana; Kemppainen, Petri; Panova, Marina; Kaliontzopoulou, Antigoni; Johannesson, Kerstin; Faria, Rui (2021)
    Low dispersal marine intertidal species facing strong divergent selective pressures associated with steep environmental gradients have a great potential to inform us about local adaptation and reproductive isolation. Among these, gastropods of the genus Littorina offer a unique system to study parallel phenotypic divergence resulting from adaptation to different habitats related with wave exposure. In this study, we focused on two Littorina fabalis ecotypes from Northern European shores and compared patterns of habitat-related phenotypic and genetic divergence across three different geographic levels (local, regional and global). Geometric morphometric analyses revealed that individuals from habitats moderately exposed to waves usually present a larger shell size with a wider aperture than those from sheltered habitats. The phenotypic clustering of L. fabalis by habitat across most locations (mainly in terms of shell size) support an important role of ecology in morphological divergence. A genome scan based on amplified fragment length polymorphisms (AFLPs) revealed a heterogeneous pattern of differentiation across the genome between populations from the two different habitats, suggesting ecotype divergence in the presence of gene flow. The contrasting patterns of genetic structure between nonoutlier and outlier loci, and the decreased sharing of outlier loci with geographic distance among locations are compatible with parallel evolution of phenotypic divergence, with an important contribution of gene flow and/or ancestral variation. In the future, model-based inference studies based on sequence data across the entire genome will help unravelling these evolutionary hypotheses, improving our knowledge about adaptation and its influence on diversification within the marine realm.
  • Saastamoinen, Marjo Anna Kaarina; Bocedi, Greta; Cote, Julien; Legrand, Dephine; Guillaume, Fredric; Wheat, Christopher West; Fronhofer, Emanuel A.; Garcia, Cristina; Henry, Roslyn; Husby, Arild; Baguette, Michelle; Bonte, Dries; Coulon, Aurelie; Kokko, Hanna; Matthysen, Erik; Niitepöld, Kristjan; Nonaka, Etsuko; Stevens , Virginie M.; Travis, Justin MJ; Donohue, Kathlin; Bullock, James M.; del Mar Delgado, Maria (2018)
    Dispersal is a process of central importance for the ecological and evolutionary dynamics of populations and communities, because of its diverse consequences for gene flow and demography. It is subject to evolutionary change, which begs the question, what is the genetic basis of this potentially complex trait? To address this question, we (i) review the empirical literature on the genetic basis of dispersal, (ii) explore how theoretical investigations of the evolution of dispersal have represented the genetics of dispersal, and (iii) discuss how the genetic basis of dispersal influences theoretical predictions of the evolution of dispersal and potential consequences. Dispersal has a detectable genetic basis in many organisms, from bacteria to plants and animals. Generally, there is evidence for significant genetic variation for dispersal or dispersal-related phenotypes or evidence for the micro-evolution of dispersal in natural populations. Dispersal is typically the outcome of several interacting traits, and this complexity is reflected in its genetic architecture: while some genes of moderate to large effect can influence certain aspects of dispersal, dispersal traits are typically polygenic. Correlations among dispersal traits as well as between dispersal traits and other traits under selection are common, and the genetic basis of dispersal can be highly environment-dependent. By contrast, models have historically considered a highly simplified genetic architecture of dispersal. It is only recently that models have started to consider multiple loci influencing dispersal, as well as non-additive effects such as dominance and epistasis, showing that the genetic basis of dispersal can influence evolutionary rates and outcomes, especially under non-equilibrium conditions. For example, the number of loci controlling dispersal can influence projected rates of dispersal evolution during range shifts and corresponding demographic impacts. Incorporating more realism in the genetic architecture of dispersal is thus necessary to enable models to move beyond the purely theoretical towards making more useful predictions of evolutionary and ecological dynamics under current and future environmental conditions. To inform these advances, empirical studies need to answer outstanding questions concerning whether specific genes underlie dispersal variation, the genetic architecture of context-dependent dispersal phenotypes and behaviours, and correlations among dispersal and other traits.
  • Boussarie, Germain; Momigliano, Paolo; Robbins, William D.; Bonnin, Lucas; Cornu, Jean-Francois; Fauvelot, Cecile; Kiszka, Jeremy J.; Manel, Stephanie; Mouillot, David; Vigliola, Laurent (2022)
    The ongoing decline of large marine vertebrates must be urgently mitigated, particularly under increasing levels of climate change and other anthropogenic pressures. However, characterizing the connectivity among populations remains one of the greatest challenges for the effective conservation of an increasing number of endangered species. Achieving conservation targets requires an understanding of which seascape features influence dispersal and subsequent genetic structure. This is particularly challenging for adult-disperser species, and when distribution-wide sampling is difficult. Here, we developed a two-step modelling framework to investigate how seascape features drive the genetic connectivity of marine species without larval dispersal, to better guide the design of marine protected area networks and corridors. We applied this framework to the endangered grey reef shark, Carcharhinus amblyrhynchos, a reef-associated shark distributed across the tropical Indo-Pacific. In the first step, we developed a seascape genomic approach based on isolation-by-resistance models involving circuit theory applied to 515 shark samples, genotyped for 4991 nuclear single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We show that deep oceanic areas act as strong barriers to dispersal, while proximity to habitat facilitates dispersal. In the second step, we predicted the resulting genetic differentiation across the entire distribution range of the species, providing both local and global-scale conservation units for future management guidance. We found that grey reef shark populations are more fragmented than expected for such a mobile species, raising concerns about the resilience of isolated populations under high anthropogenic pressures. We recommend the use of this framework to identify barriers to gene flow and to help in the delineation of conservation units at different scales, together with its integration across multiple species when considering marine spatial planning.
  • DiLeo, Michelle F.; Husby, Arild; Saastamoinen, Marjo (2018)
    There is now clear evidence that species across a broad range of taxa harbor extensive heritable variation in dispersal. While studies suggest that this variation can facilitate demographic outcomes such as range expansion and invasions, few have considered the consequences of intraspecific variation in dispersal for the maintenance and distribution of genetic variation across fragmented landscapes. Here, we examine how landscape characteristics and individual variation in dispersal combine to predict genetic structure using genomic and spatial data from the Glanville fritillary butterfly. We used linear and latent factor mixed models to identify the landscape features that best predict spatial sorting of alleles in the dispersal-related gene phosphoglucose isomerase (Pgi). We next used structural equation modeling to test if variation in Pgi mediated gene flow as measured by F-st at putatively neutral loci. In a year when the population was recovering following a large decline, individuals with a genotype associated with greater dispersal ability were found at significantly higher frequencies in populations isolated by water and forest, and these populations showed lower levels of genetic differentiation at neutral loci. These relationships disappeared in the next year when metapopulation density was high, suggesting that the effects of individual variation are context dependent. Together our results highlight that (1) more complex aspects of landscape structure beyond just the configuration of habitat can be important for maintaining spatial variation in dispersal traits and (2) that individual variation in dispersal plays a key role in maintaining genetic variation across fragmented landscapes.
  • Duplouy, Anne; Nair, Abhilash; Nyman, Toshka; van Nouhuys, Saskya (2021)
    Population bottlenecks associated with founder events strongly impact the establishment and genetic makeup of populations. In addition to their genotype, founding individuals also bring along symbionts that can manipulate the phenotype of their host, affecting the host population establishment, dynamics and evolution. Thus, to understand introduction, invasion, and spread, we should identify the roles played by accompanying symbionts. In 1991, the parasitoid wasp, Hyposoter horticola, and its associated hyperparasitoid were accidentally introduced from the main Åland islands, Finland, to an isolated island in the archipelago, along with their host, the Glanville fritillary butterfly. Though the receiving island was unoccupied, the butterfly was present on some of the small islands in the vicinity. The three species have persisted as small populations ever since. A strain of the endosymbiotic bacterium Wolbachia has an intermediate prevalence in the H. horticola across the main Åland population. The infection increases susceptibility of the parasitoid to hyperparasitism. We investigated the establishment and spread of the parasitoid, along with patterns of prevalence of its symbiont using 323 specimens collected between 1992 and 2013, from five localities across Åland, including the source and introduced populations. Using 14 microsatellites and one mitochondrial marker, we suggest that the relatively diverse founding population and occasional migration between islands might have facilitated the persistence of all isolated populations, despite multiple local population crashes. We also show local near-fixation of Wolbachia, where the hyperparasitoid is absent, and selection against infected wasp genotypes is relaxed.
  • Razumov, Vitali (Helsingin yliopisto, 2022)
    Climatic cycles lead to changes in habitat suitability, which in turn can lead to allopatry, i.e. isolation, between populations. Lack of gene flow between allopatric populations causes them to diverge through accumulation of genetic differences that can create incompatibilities between lineages upon secondary contact in the form of lowered survivability or reproduction rate in hybrids. Incompatible genes act as reproductive barriers and keep lineages isolated by selection against hybrids, while gene flow and recombination work as a counterforce to selection promoting admixture. Reproductive barriers like these are most often found inside hybrid zones and are well demonstrated in nature, but the isolating effect of individual genetic incompatibilities on genome-wide gene flow is still an open question. Here we test if selection counteracting gene flow maintains a narrow hybrid zone between two subspecies of the meadow grasshopper Pseudochorthippus parallelus. We targeted 0,01 % of the 13 GB genome, recovering a 29,1 mean coverage per locus per individual in targeted regions, when mapping against a transcriptome. We find that, for the nuclear markers, the hybrid zone is narrower than expected under a neutral scenario of no selection, suggesting that it is maintained by selection against hybrids. We also find significant isolation by distance, suggesting gene flow across the hybrid zone despite selection against hybrids. Different parts of the genome show significant excess or deficit of heterozygotes, suggesting that selection and gene flow are heterogeneous throughout the genome. Combined, our results show that reproductive isolation between recently diverged lineages can evolve quickly despite gene flow in neutral and positively selected sites.
  • Seppä, Perttu; Bonelli, Mariaelena; Dupont, Simon; Hakala, Sanja Maria; Bagnères, Anne-Geneviève; Lorenzi, M. Cristina (2020)
    Simple Summary The co-evolution of hosts and parasites depends on their ability to adapt to each other's defense and counter-defense mechanisms. The strength of selection on those mechanisms may vary among populations, resulting in a geographical mosaic of co-evolution. The boreo-montane paper wasp Polistes biglumis and its parasite Polistes atrimandibularis exemplify this type of co-evolutionary system. Here, we used genetic markers to examine the genetic population structures of these wasps in the western Alps. We found that both host and parasite populations displayed similar levels of genetic variation. In the host species, populations located near to each other were genetically similar; in both the host and the parasite species populations farther apart were significantly different. Thus, apparent dispersal barriers (i.e., high mountains) did not seem to restrict gene flow across populations as expected. Furthermore, there were no major differences in gene flow between the two species, perhaps because P. atrimandibularis parasitizes both alpine and lowland host species and annually migrates between alpine and lowland populations. The presence of strong gene flow in a system where local populations experience variable levels of selection pressure challenges the classical hypothesis that restricted gene flow is required for local adaptations to evolve. The co-evolutionary pathways followed by hosts and parasites strongly depend on the adaptive potential of antagonists and its underlying genetic architecture. Geographically structured populations of interacting species often experience local differences in the strength of reciprocal selection pressures, which can result in a geographic mosaic of co-evolution. One example of such a system is the boreo-montane social wasp Polistes biglumis and its social parasite Polistes atrimandibularis, which have evolved local defense and counter-defense mechanisms to match their antagonist. In this work, we study spatial genetic structure of P. biglumis and P. atrimandibularis populations at local and regional scales in the Alps, by using nuclear markers (DNA microsatellites, AFLP) and mitochondrial sequences. Both the host and the parasite populations harbored similar amounts of genetic variation. Host populations were not genetically structured at the local scale, but geographic regions were significantly differentiated from each other in both the host and the parasite in all markers. The net dispersal inferred from genetic differentiation was similar in the host and the parasite, which may be due to the annual migration pattern of the parasites between alpine and lowland populations. Thus, the apparent dispersal barriers (i.e., high mountains) do not restrict gene flow as expected and there are no important gene flow differences between the species, which contradict the hypothesis that restricted gene flow is required for local adaptations to evolve.