Browsing by Subject "gene-environment interaction"

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  • Aschard, Hugues; Tobin, Martin D.; Hancock, Dana B.; Skurnik, David; Sood, Akshay; James, Alan; Smith, Albert Vernon; Manichaikul, Aniw; Campbell, Archie; Prins, Bram P.; Hayward, Caroline; Loth, Daanw; Porteous, David J.; Strachan, David P.; Zeggini, Eleftheria; O'Connor, George T.; Brusselle, Guy G.; Boezen, H. Marike; Schulz, Holger; Deary, Ian J.; Hall, Ian P.; Rudan, Igor; Kaprio, Jaakko; Wilson, James F.; Wilk, Jemma B.; Huffman, Jennifer E.; Zhao, Jing Hua; de Jong, Kim; Lyytikainen, Leo-Pekka; Wain, Louise V.; Jarvelin, Marjo-Riitta; Kahonen, Mika; Fornage, Myriam; Polasek, Ozren; Cassano, Patricia A.; Barr, R. Graham; Rawal, Rajesh; Harris, Sarah E.; Gharib, Sina A.; Enroth, Stefan; Heckbert, Susan R.; Lehtimaki, Terho; Gyllensten, Ulf; Jackson, Victoria E.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Tang, Wenbo; Dupuis, Josee; Artigas, Maria Soler; Joshi, Amit D.; London, Stephanie J.; Understanding Soc Sci Grp (2017)
    Background: Smoking is the strongest environmental risk factor for reduced pulmonary function. The genetic component of various pulmonary traits has also been demonstrated, and at least 26 loci have been reproducibly associated with either FEV1 (forced expiratory volume in 1 second) or FEV1/FVC (FEV1/forced vital capacity). Although the main effects of smoking and genetic loci are well established, the question of potential gene-by-smoking interaction effect remains unanswered. The aim of the present study was to assess, using a genetic risk score approach, whether the effect of these 26 loci on pulmonary function is influenced by smoking. Methods: We evaluated the interaction between smoking exposure, considered as either ever vs never or pack-years, and a 26-single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) genetic risk score in relation to FEV1 or FEV1/FVC in 50 047 participants of European ancestry from the Cohorts for Heart and Aging Research in Genomic Epidemiology (CHARGE) and SpiroMeta consortia. Results: We identified an interaction (beta(int) = -0.036, 95% confidence interval, -0.040 to -0.032, P = 0.00057) between an unweighted 26 SNP genetic risk score and smoking status (ever/never) on the FEV1/FVC ratio. In interpreting this interaction, we showed that the genetic risk of falling below the FEV1/FVC threshold used to diagnose chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is higher among ever smokers than among never smokers. A replication analysis in two independent datasets, although not statistically significant, showed a similar trend in the interaction effect. Conclusions: This study highlights the benefit of using genetic risk scores for identifying interactions missed when studying individual SNPs and shows, for the first time, that persons with the highest genetic risk for low FEV1/FVC may be more susceptible to the deleterious effects of smoking.
  • kConFab Investigators; NBCS Collaborators; Park, JooYong; Choi, Ji-Yeob; Choi, Jaesung; Blomqvist, Carl; Nevanlinna, Heli (2021)
    Simple Summary Breast cancer is the most common cancer in females worldwide. To date, many gene-environment interaction (GxE) studies have been conducted to better understand how genetic factors combine with environmental factors to influence risk. However, previous studies have not found or found only a few interactions by using SNPs which were discovered from genome-wide association studies and have been conducted, for the most part, within European populations. In this study, we focused on estrogen-related lifestyle factors that have been identified for breast cancer, including several well-established reproductive factors that are mediated by hormonal mechanisms. We aimed to examine whether there are any gene and environmental factor interactions related to estrogen exposure or metabolism using a candidate approach in Korean women. We found two interactions in this study, although they were not replicated in the independent large consortium data. These findings suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk. In this study we aim to examine gene-environment interactions (GxEs) between genes involved with estrogen metabolism and environmental factors related to estrogen exposure. GxE analyses were conducted with 1970 Korean breast cancer cases and 2052 controls in the case-control study, the Seoul Breast Cancer Study (SEBCS). A total of 11,555 SNPs from the 137 candidate genes were included in the GxE analyses with eight established environmental factors. A replication test was conducted by using an independent population from the Breast Cancer Association Consortium (BCAC), with 62,485 Europeans and 9047 Asians. The GxE tests were performed by using two-step methods in GxEScan software. Two interactions were found in the SEBCS. The first interaction was shown between rs13035764 of NCOA1 and age at menarche in the GE|2df model (p-2df = 1.2 x 10(-3)). The age at menarche before 14 years old was associated with the high risk of breast cancer, and the risk was higher when subjects had homozygous minor allele G. The second GxE was shown between rs851998 near ESR1 and height in the GE|2df model (p-2df = 1.1 x 10(-4)). Height taller than 160 cm was associated with a high risk of breast cancer, and the risk increased when the minor allele was added. The findings were not replicated in the BCAC. These results would suggest specificity in Koreans for breast cancer risk.
  • Saleheen, Danish; Zhao, Wei; Young, Robin; Nelson, Christopher P.; Ho, WeangKee; Ferguson, Jane F.; Rasheed, Asif; Ou, Kristy; Nurnberg, Sylvia T.; Bauer, Robert C.; Goel, Anuj; Do, Ron; Stewart, Alexandre F. R.; Hartiala, Jaana; Zhang, Weihua; Thorleifsson, Gudmar; Strawbridge, Rona J.; Sinisalo, Juha; Kanoni, Stavroula; Sedaghat, Sanaz; Marouli, Eirini; Kristiansson, Kati; Zhao, Jing Hua; Scott, Robert; Gauguier, Dominique; Shah, Svati H.; Smith, Albert Vernon; van Zuydam, Natalie; Cox, Amanda J.; Willenborg, Christina; Kessler, Thorsten; Zeng, Lingyao; Province, Michael A.; Ganna, Andrea; Lind, Lars; Pedersen, Nancy L.; White, Charles C.; Joensuu, Anni; Kleber, Marcus Edi; Hall, Alistair S.; Maerz, Winfried; Salomaa, Veikko; O'Donnell, Christopher; Ingelsson, Erik; Feitosa, Mary F.; Erdmann, Jeanette; Bowden, Donald W.; Palmer, Colin N. A.; Gudnason, Vilmundur; Perola, Markus; PROMIS; Cardiogramplusc4D (2017)
    BACKGROUND: Common diseases such as coronary heart disease (CHD) are complex in etiology. The interaction of genetic susceptibility with lifestyle factors may play a prominent role. However, gene-lifestyle interactions for CHD have been difficult to identify. Here, we investigate interaction of smoking behavior, a potent lifestyle factor, with genotypes that have been shown to associate with CHD risk. METHODS: We analyzed data on 60 919 CHD cases and 80 243 controls from 29 studies for gene-smoking interactions for genetic variants at 45 loci previously reported to be associated with CHD risk. We also studied 5 loci associated with smoking behavior. Study-specific gene-smoking interaction effects were calculated and pooled using fixed-effects meta-analyses. Interaction analyses were declared to be significant at a P value of <1.0x10(-3) (Bonferroni correction for 50 tests). RESULTS: We identified novel gene-smoking interaction for a variant upstream of the ADAMTS7 gene. Every T allele of rs7178051 was associated with lower CHD risk by 12% in never-smokers (P= 1.3x10(-16)) in comparison with 5% in ever-smokers (P= 2.5x10(-4)), translating to a 60% loss of CHD protection conferred by this allelic variation in people who smoked tobacco (interaction P value= 8.7x10(-5)). The protective T allele at rs7178051 was also associated with reduced ADAMTS7 expression in human aortic endothelial cells and lymphoblastoid cell lines. Exposure of human coronary artery smooth muscle cells to cigarette smoke extract led to induction of ADAMTS7. CONCLUSIONS: Allelic variation at rs7178051 that associates with reduced ADAMTS7 expression confers stronger CHD protection in never-smokers than in ever-smokers. Increased vascular ADAMTS7 expression may contribute to the loss of CHD protection in smokers.
  • LifeLines Cohort Study; Sun, Daokun; Richard, Melissa A.; Musani, Solomon K.; Kilpeläinen, Tuomas O. (2021)
    Psychological and social factors are known to influence blood pressure (BP) and risk of hypertension and associated cardiovascular diseases. To identify novel BP loci, we carried out genome-wide association meta-analyses of systolic, diastolic, pulse, and mean arterial BP, taking into account the interaction effects of genetic variants with three psychosocial factors: depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and social support. Analyses were performed using a two-stage design in a sample of up to 128,894 adults from five ancestry groups. In the combined meta-analyses of stages 1 and 2, we identified 59 loci (p value < 5e−8), including nine novel BP loci. The novel associations were observed mostly with pulse pressure, with fewer observed with mean arterial pressure. Five novel loci were identified in African ancestry, and all but one showed patterns of interaction with at least one psychosocial factor. Functional annotation of the novel loci supports a major role for genes implicated in the immune response (PLCL2), synaptic function and neurotransmission (LIN7A and PFIA2), as well as genes previously implicated in neuropsychiatric or stress-related disorders (FSTL5 and CHODL). These findings underscore the importance of considering psychological and social factors in gene discovery for BP, especially in non-European populations.
  • Hjort, Rebecka; Ahlqvist, Emma; Andersson, Tomas; Alfredsson, Lars; Carlsson, Per-Ola; Grill, Valdemar; Groop, Leif; Martinell, Mats; Sorgjerd, Elin Pettersen; Tuomi, Tiinamaija; Asvold, Bjørn Olav; Carlsson, Sofia (2020)
    Purpose: Physical activity (PA) has been linked to a reduced risk of type 2 diabetes by reducing weight and improving insulin sensitivity. We investigated whether PA is associated with a lower incidence of latent autoimmune diabetes in adults (LADA) and whether the association is modified by genotypes of human leukocyte antigen (HLA), transcription factor 7-like 2 ( TCF7L2)-rs7903146, or the fat mass and obesity-associated gene, FTO-rs9939609. Methods: We combined data from a Swedish case-control study and a Norwegian prospective study including 621 incident cases of LADA and 3596 cases of type 2 diabetes. We estimated adjusted pooled relative risks (RRs) and 95% CI of diabetes in relation to high (>= 30 minutes of moderate activity 3 times/ week) self-reported leisure time PA, compared to sedentariness. Results: High PA was associated with a reduced risk of LADA (RR 0.61; CI, 0.43-0.86), which was attenuated after adjustment for body mass index (BMI) (RR 0.90; CI, 0.63-1.29). The reduced risk applied only to noncarriers of HLA-DQB1 and -DRB1 (RR 0.49; CI, 0.33-0.72), TCF7L2 (RR 0.62; CI, 0.45-0.87), and FTO (RR 0.51; CI, 0.32-0.79) risk genotypes. Adjustment for BMI attenuated but did not eliminate these associations. For type 2 diabetes, there was an inverse association with PA (RR 0.49; CI, 0.42-0.56), irrespective of genotype. Main Conclusions: Our findings indicate that high PA is associated with a reduced risk of LADA in individuals without genetic susceptibility.
  • Barr, Peter B.; Kuo, Sally I-Chun; Aliev, Fazil; Latvala, Antti; Viken, Richard; Rose, Richard J.; Kaprio, Jaakko; Salvatore, Jessica E.; Dick, Danielle M. (2019)
    Background and Aims Previous twin research suggests relationship status can moderate underlying genetic liability towards alcohol misuse. This paper examined: (1) whether genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) for alcohol consumption are associated with alcohol misuse; (2) whether these GPS are moderated by romantic relationships (gene-environment interaction; G x E) and (3) whether G x E results are consistent across sex. Design Linear mixed-effects models were used to test associations between genome-wide polygenic scores, relationship status and alcohol use/misuse. Setting Finnish twins born between 1983 and 1987 identified through Finland's central population registry. Participants An intensively studied subset of Finnish Twin Study (FinnTwin12) during the young adult phase (aged 20-26 years). The analytical sample includes those with complete interview and genetic data (n = 1201). Measurements Key measurements included involvement in a romantic partnership, drinking frequency, intoxication frequency and DSM-IV alcohol dependence (AD) symptoms. Genome-wide polygenic scores (GPS) were created from available summary statistics from a large genome-wide association study (GWAS) of drinks per week. Results GPS predicted drinking frequency [b = 0.109; 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.050, 0.168], intoxication frequency (b = 0.111; 95% CI = 0.054, 0.168) and AD symptoms (b = 0.123; 95% CI = 0.064, 0.182). Having a romantic relationship negatively influenced the association between GPS and drinking frequency (b = -0.105; 95% CI = -0.211, -0.001), intoxication frequency (b = -0.118; 95% CI = -0.220, -0.016) and AD symptoms (b = -0.119; 95% CI = -0.229, -0.009). There was a three-way interaction between sex, relationship status and GPS for intoxication frequency (b = 0.223; 95% CI = 0.013, 0.433), such that the reduced association between GPS and intoxication frequency for those in a relationship was only apparent in males. We found no evidence of three-way interactions for drinking frequency or AD symptoms. Conclusions Being in a romantic relationship reduced the association between genetic predisposition and drinking, high-risk drinking and alcohol problems. However, for high-risk drinking the protective effect was limited to males, mapping onto earlier findings suggesting that males benefit more from romantic partnerships.