Browsing by Subject "geneettinen monimuotoisuus"

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  • Pohjanmies, Tähti (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Genetic variation within a population is shaped by the life history traits of the species and the properties of the surrounding ecosystem. It is an important factor in the preservation of populations. According to the emerging field of community genetics, genetic variation within a population of one species may also influence the dynamics and diversity of associated species, extending the conservational relevance of intraspecific genetic diversity. Finnish populations of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) offer an interesting study system for population genetics. Q. robur grows in south-western Finland at the northern limit of its natural range. Here, its distribution has been shaped by long-term climatic and geological changes as well as by human disturbance, and the current populations are small and strongly fragmented. As Q. robur supports a high diversity of associated species, it is considered to have great ecological and conservational importance. In this thesis, I studied the amount and distribution of genetic diversity within and among three Q. robur populations in south-western Finland using population genetic parameters. I also described the spatial and temporal sub-population structure of one population, on the island of Wattkast. The genetic data was based on 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. Additionally, I examined the effect of the genetic diversity and genotypic identity of the oaks within Wattkast on associated herbivore communities. In the analysis, I used observational data from two years. As predicted for widespread, long-lived tree species, the microsatellite loci showed high levels of diversity within the populations, but also significant differentiation among them. This may be due to fragmentation and to the marginality of the populations. Within the population on Wattkast, I observed patterns of spatial and temporal sub-population differentiation. The characteristics of the site, including the ongoing shift to less extensive land use, suggest that the population is in genetic disequilibrium. As both the genetic distance and the community dissimilarity between pairs of trees increased with increasing geographic distance, I could not conclude the genotypic identity of the host trees to have an effect on the herbivore community structure. However, higher heterozygosity was associated with higher richness and abundance of species. This result supports the notion that intraspecific genetic variation may increase associated species richness. Based on the results of my study, both the life history traits of the species and the historic habitat changes may be observed in the genetic structure of Q. robur populations in Finland. The results also suggest that preservation of genetic variation within the remaining stands may be a factor not only in the preservation of these populations, but also in the conservation of associated species diversity.
  • Jarkko, Riikka; Juslén, Aino; Kekkonen, Mari; Aspi, Jouni (Luonnontieteellinen keskusmuseo, Helsingin yliopisto & Oulun yliopisto, 2019)