Browsing by Subject "general History"

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  • Shkvarov, Alexey (RME Group Oy (Helsinki) and Aleteja (St Petersburg, Russia), 2012)
    Cossacks at the time of Peter the Great. The Fall of Cossacks freedom is focused on the reign of Peter the Great, which turned out to be a breaking point in the Cossack history and which marked the historical fall of several Cossack communities, such as Little Russian and Zaporozhian Cossacks. It also opened a new epoch for some others, such as Don, Yaik (Ural) and Terek Cossacks. This was a period of transition from a state of traditional Cossack freedom into a regular social estate. Peter the Great s relations with the Cossacks is one of the least researched issues of his reign. For many reasons these questions have been neglected and covered with myths and legends. There was the revolt by K.Bulavin, the treachery by I.Mazepa, escape to Turkey of Zaporozhiers with K.Gordienko and Don Cossacks with I.Nekrasov. This approach is reflected in the official historiography, which concentrated its attention upon the Cossacks as a potential and actual source of troubles. Thereby it also minimized the Cossacks role in military actions. References to Cossacks in this literature are few and they are contradictory. Peter the Great used a large scale of measures to the Cossacks: from forgiveness in several cases of disobedience up to utmost cruel punishments. By and by Peter subdued the Cossacks to the laws of the Russian Empire while he left to them their local traditions and rights. It seems to be that the Russian tsar was able to get from his Cossacks what he wanted. They formed a group of professional warriors by vocation that horrified any foes. Using foreign sources and literature, it is possible to reconstruct the image of the Cossacks as seen by the enemy. Cossacks are the unique historical phenomena on their own right. They were also important not only for Russia, but also for all its neighboring countries - from the Baltic region to China. The whole phenomenon of Cossacks is still poorly known and contradictory information abounds, not only in Russia itself, but in the Western countries as well. This study also purports to determine the typology of Cossack communities, the meaning of contemporary terminology and difference between the Cossacks in service and free Cossacks. The study represents the main trade-off conflict of opposites - Freedom and Autocracy For some of the Cossacks, it was found, for others - not. Founding the reasons for this different outcome of the struggle is the purpose of the study. This study examined all aspects of life of the Cossacks - religious, political, philosophical and for the first time, provided the real part of the Cossacks in Peter's wars, especially in the Great Northern War. It has never been studied before.