Browsing by Subject "generation"

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  • Virtanen, Suvi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2017)
    There has been a steady increase in alcohol consumption in Finland since the 1969 law reform, which allowed convenience stores to sell mild alcoholic beverages such as beer. Since then, the yearly consumption has increased from 3.6 liters in 1968 to 10.8 liters of pure alcohol per capita in 2016. Increasing levels of alcohol use tend to produce high economic and population health costs. Understanding why changes in alcohol consumption behavior occur enables development of more efficient prevention and intervention programs. Alcohol consumption is not distributed equally across the population. Liberalization of Finnish alcohol policy and culture from the 1960s onwards made alcohol more available than ever before, and especially the post-war cohorts started to use significantly more alcohol than the generations before them. Evidently, there are between-individual differences in alcohol use in addition to group level differences. According to decades of research, approximately 50% of the variation between individuals in alcohol consumption can be explained by genetic sources. In other words, the heritability of alcohol use is 50%, while non-genetic factors explain the other half. However, heritability is not a static estimate, but can be modified by social forces. While it has been established that the younger generations consume significantly more alcohol than generations preceding them, only a few studies to date have examined whether the importance of genetic influences on alcohol consumption is dependent on birth cohort or generation. The current study examined, if social control during a specific time in history (e.g. how strict is alcohol policy and the cultural climate while a generation is growing up) can affect the heritability of alcohol use in later life. Mean level differences in alcohol consumption quantity and abstinence trajectories of birth cohorts were also estimated. The older Finnish twin cohort data consists of all Finnish same-sex twin pairs born before 1958 with both co-twins alive in 1975 (n = 24 481). The data were collected in four waves in 1975, 1981, 1990, and 2011. Age of the participants at study baseline in 1975 ranged from 18 to 95. Participants were grouped into seven 10-year cohorts based on their birth year. Mean trajectories of alcohol consumption quantity and abstinence over the life course were estimated for men and women separately with hierarchical growth curve models. Cohort effects and age-by-cohort interactions were also investigated. The heritability of alcohol consumption and abstinence was estimated using structural equation modelling. Birth cohort effects on heritability of alcohol use were examined by comparing heritability estimates of different cohorts at similar ages. Mean levels of alcohol consumption quantity were the highest in the youngest birth cohorts. Women drank less than men in all cohorts. The decline in the quantity of monthly alcohol use due to aging was relatively small, and appeared to be more prominent in the older birth cohorts. The odds of abstaining became lower in every successive birth cohort. Moreover, women were more likely to be abstinent than men. The aging effect of increasing abstinence was notable only in the oldest birth cohorts. Birth cohort differences in the heritability of alcohol consumption quantity were found: heritability was 25% (CI 12–38%) in the older generation (born 1901–1920) and 48% (CI 39–50%) in the younger generation (born 1941–1957) of men at the age of 54–74. For women, heritability was 60% in the older and younger generation. In alcohol abstinence, a single model was run for men and women. The shared environmental component explained a large proportion of the variation in the older generation (43%), whereas unique environment (54%) and additive genetic influences (40%) were more important among the younger generation. The findings from the present study suggest that social control during a specific time in history may have a long-term impact on alcohol consumption behavior (i.e. how and why alcohol is used) of an entire generation growing up during that period.
  • Roos, J.P. (2008)
    How does kin solidarity and parent-offspring conflict manifest itself in contemporary Western societies? The GENTRANS research project surveyed children of “baby boomers” of Finns born in 1945-50 (n=1115) and their adult children (n=1435) in 2007. We predicted that parent-offspring conflict will affect interaction between adult children and their parents so that sibship size and birth order correlate negatively with giving and receiving financial and practical help. We were also interested in the role of gender.
  • Perälampi, Heidi (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Goals Economics and fertility are widely studied areas, and the link between economics and fertility is well proven. However, less research exists concerning economics as a life course factor to fertility. The first aim of this study is to research whether the 90's depression impacted Finnish children's future fertility. The hypothesis is that if the family's economic situation decreased during the 90's depression, the children would be less willing to have children of their own later in life. The other aim is to clarify whether this effect is different depending on children's age during the depression. Methods Participants in this study were selected among the FinnFamily-register data, consisting of a longitudinal following of 60000 Finish families for four generations. Among the FinnFamily data, 43 432 participants who were born between 1975-1989 were included in this study. Participants and their parents were followed to the end of 2012. Analyses were made using Cox regression. The robust covariance matrix -method was used to allow correlation among members of the same family. Results and conclusions A change in the parents' economic situation during the 90's depression was not connected to a decrease in the child's future fertility. Neither evidence of interaction between parents' income change and child's age was found. However, it was found that the decrease and a major increase in parents' income during the 90's depression was connected to the increase in the probability of having a first child in later life. The connection between income decrease and later fertility remained statistically significant after controlling the education level, sex, age cohort, and number of siblings. The connection between a major income increase and later fertility disappeared when the number of siblings was controlled. The finding was somewhat unexpected, and more research is needed to clarify the reasons behind this effect. Particularly longitudinal research, including measurements of participants' subjective experiences and narratives associating with parents' economic difficulties, is needed in the future.
  • Gulin, Charlotta (2004)
    Studien granskar familjens roll i de stora årskullarnas (födda 1945-1950) liv, hur värden omsätts till handlingar av omsorg och hjälp som ges åt utflyttade barn och deras familjer samt åt egna föräldrar. Syftet är också att granska huruvida de stora årskullarna på basen av gruppens inre koherens kan beskrivas som en generation. Det empiriska materialet består av en omfattande (N=2628) enkätundersökning som Statistikcentralen utförde 1998. Som metoder tillämpas variansanalys och multipla jämförelser med hjälp av vilka årskullarna jämförs med en äldre (födda 1935-1944) och en yngre åldersgrupp (födda 1951-1970). Förutom åldersgruppen beaktas könets, barnantalets, religiositetens och alkoholkonsumtionens inverkan på hjälpanet. Dessutom granskas inkomsternas inverkan på hjälpen som ges åt utflyttade barn medan relationen till föräldrarna antas inverka på hjälpen som åt dem. Utöver de statistiska metoderna stöder jag mig vid analysen på övrig forskning inom området. Resultaten visar att de stora årskullarna är en familjecentrerad grupp som hjälper och hyser omsorg för familjemedlemmar som inte bor i samma hushåll. Jämfört med den äldre gruppen är årskullarna inte lika familjeorienterade vilket i hög grad beror på att familjens roll förändrats med tiden. Könet har en avgörande inverkan på hjälpandet, oavsett egen ålder hjälper kvinnorna både utflyttade barn och föräldrar mera än männen. Även barnatalet och graden av närhet i relationen till föräldrarna är avgörande för hjälpandet. Beträffande generationsaspekten kan man konstatera att årskullarna är en synnerligen enhetlig grupp där ingen enstaka årskull avviker från signifikant från de övriga. Män och kvinnor skiljer sig i detta avseende inte från varandra liksom bland de två övriga åldersgrupperna. Åldersgruppen kan således sägas vara en homogen grupp och kan påstås utgöra en generation. De viktigaste källorna består av både inhemsk och utländsk forskning kring familjen, familjelivet och generationerna. Riitta Jallinoja har en central ställning som författare till många texter kring temat familj medan diskussionen kring generationerna centrerar kring Karl Mannheims essä The Problem of Generations.
  • Peltola, Marja; Keskinen, Suvi Päivikki; Honkasalo, Marja Veronika; Honkatukia, Päivi Maritta (2017)
  • Kupari, Helena (2020)
    In the study of lived religion, the focus on laypeople as religious agents can result in the simplistic juxtaposition of religion-as-practised by individuals and religion-as-prescribed by institutions. This perspective leads to analyses that over-emphasize agency and overlook the embeddedness of religious persons in intricate power relations that expand beyond the institution(s) closest to them. I propose that Pierre Bourdieu's social theory, particularly as related to the religious field, offers tools for tackling this issue. While Bourdieu's work has been criticized for relegating the laity to the status of passive consumers of religious goods, his theorizations can also be employed to produce nuanced micro-level accounts that prioritize laypeople's practical knowledge of the field and the positions they take within it. Based on my case study of older Finnish women's normative assessments related to religion, I demonstrate how scholars can investigate the role which their informants' histories and investments within the religious field play in their religion-as-lived. The women in my study, lifelong members of Orthodox or Lutheran churches, defended their positions in the increasingly individualistic Finnish religious field through an emphasis on childhood socialization as the foundation of 'proper' religion.
  • Helin, Marjut (Helsingfors universitet, 2011)
    War children were sent away to shelter without their parents to other Nordic countries, mainly to Sweden. The phenomenon was remarkable. During the Second World War nearly 80,000 children were sent from their homes by trains or boats. These children travelled to foster homes where they were placed with new parents looking after them. After the conclusion of the peace, for some months or sometimes years later, orders were given to send the children back to their families in Finland. Returning back to Finland and to their biological parents and families was not always easy. Deep bonds between the children and their foster families were created and leaving caused grief to those small travellers once again. In some cases, distances were created in the relations between Mothers and their daughters. Many had forgotten their Finnish, and returning to school proved difficult. Some of the war children felt rootlessness, a result of being torn away from their family and culture. The aim of this study is to describe how former war children became mothers by themselves, and later on grandmothers. The study also explores how they describe the meaning of the war and their childhood in their own parenthood and what were their experiences of time in foster homes. Seven former war children and three daughters were interviewed for this study. Interviews were biographical. A narrative approach and thematic reading (by Riessman 2008) has guided the analysis of the texts. According to the results of this study, the importance of having your own home , family and security in childhood relationships is significant. Caring and having responsibility for disadvantaged others was important for former war children. What come from the detailed experiences of the 'war childhood' most of all were the difficulties they found on returning to Finland. Some of them had become very attached to their foster parents. There were varying degrees of language problems among the returnees. Some of the interviewees had completely forgotten their native language. Given that, starting the school at home was difficult. They also remembered continuous travelling.When asked on the outcome of their relationship with their biological mother, most interviewees were happy, with a few experiencing some distance in this relationship. Security and being available to protect their children were important in their own motherhood and grand motherhood. In difficult family situations like divorce, they wanted to give their time and support for helping with grandchildren. Another important aspect in family life is interaction between all its members. Talking things through in families and also in War Child Associations was highly valued. However, talking of war childhood had been silenced in some families. In conclusion, the experiences of former war children should take in consideration when difficult situations between parents and children or children's positions in war zones are resolved. War children also have a lot to give for further educational study.