Browsing by Subject "genetic diversity"

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  • Keto-Timonen, R.; Tolvanen, R; Lundén, J.; Korkeala, H. (2007)
    Contamination routes of Listeria monocytogenes were examined in a chilled food processing plant that produced ready-to-eat and ready-to-reheat meals during an 8-year period by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis. A total of 319 L. monocytogenes isolates were recovered from raw materials (n=18), the environment (n=77), equipment (n=193), and products (n=31), and 18 different AFLP types were identified, five of which were repeatedly found to be persistent types. The three compartments (I to III) of the plant showed markedly different contamination statuses. Compartment I, which produced cooked meals, was heavily contaminated with three persistent AFLP types. AFLP type A1 dominated, and it comprised 93% of the isolates of the compartment. Compartment II, which produced uncooked chilled food, was contaminated with four persistent and five nonpersistent AFLP types. The equipment of compartment III, which produced cooked ready-to-reheat meals, was free of contamination. In compartments that produced cooked meals, the cleaning routines, product types, and lack of compartmentalization seemed to predispose production lines to persistent contamination. The most contaminated lines harbored L. monocytogenes in coolers, conveyors, and packing machines. Good compartmentalization limited the flow of L. monocytogenes into the postheat -treatment area and prevented the undesired movement of equipment and personnel, thus protecting the production lines from contamination. In compartment II, grated cheese was shown to cause product contamination. Therefore, special attention should be paid to continuous quality control of raw ingredients when uncooked ready-to-eat foods are produced. In compartment II, reconstruction of the production line resulted in reduced prevalence rates of L. monocytogenes and elimination of two persistent AFLP types.
  • Smaragdov, Michael G.; Kudinov, Andrei A.; Uimari, Pekka (2018)
    Holstein bulls and semen have been imported to Russia from Western countries since the 1970s. The objective of our study was to examine the effect of this introgression on genetic diversity between various commercial Holstein herds in the Leningrad region. A total of 803 Holstein cows from 13 herds were genotyped using the Illumina BovineSNP50 v.2 array. The pairwise Hudson's estimator of F-st values between 13 herds varied from 0.002 to 0.015, which is less than values usually obtained between dairy cattle breeds (> 0.1). The mean of these pairwise F-st values revealed differences between herds depending, mainly, on the proportion of common sires shared between the herds. In addition, we investigated the cause of negative F-st values. Based on our results, these negative values could be interpreted as an excess of within-herd genetic diversity over the between-herds genetic diversity. Our results show that introgressions of Holstein genes into Russian Black and White cattle of the Leningrad region have created genetic separation between herds similar with those for Jersey cows in USA, Australia and New Zealand.
  • Nyman, Tommi; Valtonen, Mia; Aspi, Jouni; Ruokonen, Minna; Kunnasranta, Mervi; Palo, Jukka U. (2014)
  • Trebichalsky, Andrej; Kalendar, Ruslan; Schulman, Alan; Stratula, Olga; Galova, Zdenka; Balazova, Zelmira; Chnapek, Milan (2013)
  • Özkan, Güller; Haliloglu, Kamil; Turkoglu, Aras; Öztürk, Halil Ibrahim; Elkoca, Erdal; Poczai, Peter (2022)
    Assessment of genetic diversity among different varieties helps to improve desired characteristics of crops, including disease resistance, early maturity, high yield, and resistance to drought. Molecular markers are one of the most effective tools for discovering genetic diversity that can increase reproductive efficiency. Simple sequence repeats (SSRs), which are codominant markers, are preferred for the determination of genetic diversity because they are highly polymorphic, multi-allelic, highly reproducible, and have good genome coverage. This study aimed to determine the genetic diversity of 40 common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) landraces collected from the Ispir district located in the Northeast Anatolia region of Turkiye and five commercial varieties using SSR markers. The Twenty-seven SSR markers produced a total of 142 polymorphic bands, ranging from 2 (GATS91 and PVTT001) to 12 (BM153) alleles per marker, with an average number of 5.26 alleles. The gene diversity per marker varied between 0.37 and 0.87 for BM053 and BM153 markers, respectively. When heterozygous individuals are calculated proportional to the population, the heterozygosity ranged from 0.00 to 1.00, with an average of 0.30. The expected heterozygosity of the SSR locus ranged from 0.37 (BM053) to 0.88 (BM153), with an average of 0.69. Nei's gene diversity scored an average of 0.69. The polymorphic information content (PIC) values of SSR markers varied from 0.33 (BM053) to 0.86 (BM153), with an average of 0.63 per locus. The greatest genetic distance (0.83) was between lines 49, 50, 53, and cultivar Karacasehir-90, while the shortest (0.08) was between lines 6 and 26. In cluster analysis using Nei's genetic distance, 45 common bean genotypes were divided into three groups and very little relationship was found between the genotypes and the geographical distances. In genetic structure analysis, three subgroups were formed, including local landraces and commercial varieties. The result confirmed that the rich diversity existing in Ispir bean landraces could be used as a genetic resource in designing breeding programs and may also contribute to Turkiye bean breeding programs.
  • Li, Shitian; Ramakrishnan, Muthusamy; Vinod, K. K.; Kalendar, Ruslan; Yrjälä, Kim; Zhou, Mingbing (2020)
    Bamboo, a non-timber grass species, known for exceptionally fast growth, is a commercially viable crop. Long terminal repeat (LTR) retrotransposons, the main class I mobile genetic elements in plant genomes, are highly abundant (46%) in bamboo contributing to genome diversity. They play significant roles in the regulation of gene expression, chromosome size and structure as well as in genome integrity. Inter-retrotransposon amplified polymorphism (IRAP) is a high-throughput method to study the genetic diversity of plant species. Till date, there are no markers based on Transposable Elements (TEs) for the bamboo genome and no reports on bamboo genetic diversity using the IRAP method. Phyllostachys is an Asian bamboo, the largest group in the bamboo subfamily, Bambusoideae, and it is of great economic value due to its fast growth. The structure of LTR-retrotransposon superfamilies, Ty3-gypsy and Ty1-copia, were analysed in the bamboo genome using LTRharvest and LTRdigest software. A total of 98,850 LTR retrotransposons with both ends of intact LTR sequences were identified, grouped into 64,281 clusters/scaffolds, using CD-HIT software. Among the total of 64,281 clusters, 13 clusters had more than 30 copy numbers of LTR sequences and at least one copy had all intact protein domains such as gag protein and polyprotein. Based on the high copy numbers of conserved LTR sequences, a total of 16 IRAP primers were developed. All these IRAP primers were used to study the genetic diversity and population structure of the Asian bamboo. AMOVA analysis was done for 58 Asian bamboo species collected from nine different provinces of China, from Italy and America. In the bamboo species, these IRAP primers produced a total of 3340 amplicons with an average of 98% polymorphism. The 58 Asian bamboo species were grouped into two major clusters and four sub-clusters, based on UPGMA analysis. UPGMA cluster analysis was corroborated by statistical analyses of genetic similarity coefficients. Structure analysis showed that the bamboo species could be divided into four subpopulations (K = 4): SP1, SP2, SP3 and SP4. All SPs had an admixture of alleles. AMOVA analysis showed that higher genetic variations occurred within populations (75%) rather than among populations (25%). The study highlights the usability of IRAP in Asian bamboo to determine inter-species variability using retrotransposon markers.
  • Poczai, Peter; Cernak, Istvan; Gorji, Ahmad Mosapour; Nagy, Sandor; Taller, Janos; Polgar, Zsolt (2010)
    • Premise of the study: Intron Targeting (IT) primers were developed for potato using expressed sequence tags (EST) and NCBI database records to study genetic diversity. • Methods and Results: Twenty-nine polymorphic intron targeting (IT) markers were generated and characterized from 30 samples of potato and 22 samples of Solanum nigrum to detect polymorphism. The number of alleles (A) per locus ranged from 2 to 7 in the analyzed populations, and the observed heterozygosity (HO) and expected heterozygosity (HE) from 0 to 0.833 and 0.750, respectively. All of the primers also amplified in the related species S. nigrum. • Conclusions: The developed markers will provide valuable tools for genetic diversity analysis, genetic mapping, and marker-assisted breeding of potato and related Solanum species.
  • Bublyk, Olena M.; Andreev, Igor O.; Kalendar, Ruslan; Spiridonova, Kateryna V.; Kunakh, Viktor A. (2013)
  • Bergman, Nora (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    Rapid environmental changes over the last 100 years have led to substantial range shifts across taxonomic groups. Understanding what facilitates successful shifts is important for predicting ecological consequences and planning efficient conservation actions. Interestingly, the very process of range expansion can affect the success of the shift by causing genetic changes in the expanding populations. Theory predicts that without sufficient gene flow, repeated founder events and strong genetic drift can result in allele frequency gradients and loss of genetic diversity along the expansion axis. Empirical studies testing these expectations in environment-driven range shifts are still relatively scarce, and how range expansions affect genetics in highly mobile species remains unclear. In this study, I investigated the genetic consequences of a recent range expansion in a long-distance migratory passerine, the reed warbler (Acrocephalus scirpaceus). Utilizing genome-wide data from restriction site-associated DNA sequencing (RAD-seq), I studied whether the expansion was reflected in either population structure or genetic diversity of the recently established Finnish range edge population. Despite philopatry and genetic differentiation to the range core populations, principal component analysis (PCA) and a model-based Bayesian clustering approach (fineRADstructure) revealed a lack of spatial population structure along a putative colonization route. Levels of genetic diversity, based on expected heterozygosity, nucleotide diversity, and private allele count, were found to be very similar between range edge (Finland) and range core (Central Europe). The results likely indicate high levels of gene flow both within the new population and across greater spatial distances during or after the range expansion. Due to a detected sequencing batch effect, however, the exact diversity estimates must be considered preliminary. These findings suggest that species with high enough dispersal propensity may escape the predicted genetic costs of range expansions, retaining high levels of genetic variation at range margins. This study provides valuable insights for understanding range shifts in mobile taxa, and highlights the need to investigate further the traits of species that enable the preservation of evolutionary potential during range shifts.
  • Chen, Yuan X.; Zou, Lan; Penttinen, Petri; Chen, Qiang; Li, Qi Q.; Wang, Chang Q.; Xu, Kai W. (2018)
    We isolated 65 rhizobial strains from faba bean (Vicia faba L.) from Panxi, China, studied their plant growth promoting ability with nitrogen free hydroponics, genetic diversity with clustered analysis of combined ARDRA and IGS-RFLP, and phylogeny by sequence analyses of 16S rRNA gene, three housekeeping genes and symbiosis related genes. Eleven strains improved the plant shoot dry mass significantly comparing to that of not inoculated plants. According to the clustered analysis of combined ARDRA and IGS-RFLP the isolates were genetically diverse. Forty-one of 65 isolates represented Rhizobium anhuiense, and the others belonged to R. fabae, Rhizobium vallis, Rhizobium sophorae, Agrobacterium radiobacter, and four species related to Rhizobium and Agrobacterium. The isolates carried four and five genotypes of nifH and nodC, respectively, in six different nifH-nodC combinations. When looking at the species-nifH-nodC combinations it is noteworthy that all but two of the six R. anhuiense isolates were different. Our results suggested that faba bean rhizobia in Panxi are diverse at species, plant growth promoting ability and symbiosis related gene levels.
  • Pohjanmies, Tähti; Elshibli, Sakina; Pulkkinen, Pertti; Rusanen, Mari; Vakkari, Pekka; Korpelainen, Helena; Roslin, Tomas (2016)
    Populations at species' range margins are expected to show lower genetic diversity than populations at the core of the range. Yet, long-lived, widespread tree species are expected to be resistant to genetic impoverishment, thus showing comparatively high genetic diversity within populations and low differentiation among populations. Here, we study the distribution of genetic variation in the pedunculate oak (Quercus robur L.) at its range margin in Finland at two hierarchical scales using 15 microsatellite loci. At a regional scale, we compared variation within versus among three oak populations. At a landscape scale, we examined genetic structuring within one of these populations, growing on an island of ca 5 km(2). As expected, we found the majority of genetic variation in Q. robur to occur within populations. Nonetheless, differentiation among populations was markedly high (F-ST = 0.12) compared with values reported for populations of Q. robur closer to the core of its range. At the landscape level, some spatial and temporal sub-structuring was observed, likely explained by the history of land-use on the island. Overall, Q. robur fulfils the expectation of the central-marginal hypothesis of high differentiation among marginal populations, but the notable population differentiation has most likely been influenced also by the long, ongoing fragmentation of populations. Finnish oak populations may still be adjusting to the drastic habitat changes of the past centuries. Preservation of genetic variation within the remaining stands is thus an important factor in the conservation of Q. robur at its range margin.
  • Aragon Obando, Erwin Manuel (Helsingfors universitet, 2009)
    Genetic composition of Theobroma cacao L., including 60 Nicaraguan farmers accessions, was investigated using nine microsatellite (SSR) markers. Fourteen breeders accessions from Experimental Center “El Recreo”, INTA, Nicaragua, two Criollos accession from CATIE, Costa Rica, and two accessions from Ecuador were included as reference material. The average PIC value (0.78) indicated a high power of discrimination for the nine loci used. A total of 155 alleles were detected at the nine loci. The number of alleles per marker ranged from 10 to 22 with a means of 17.22 alleles per locus. A heterozygosity deficiency (HExp < HObs) was registered for all microsatellite loci. The average expected heterozygosity was=0.68 among Nicaraguan farmers accessions. The Analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) showed a low level of differentiation among populations. The genetic distances determined for the groups of farmers accessions RAAS and Pacifico Sur are closely similar, while a great genetic distance was observed between RAAN and RAAS groups. The cluster analysis presented a strong genetic relation between the Criollo 13 from CATIE and farmers accession MAT0404. The principal component analysis showed that 7 farmers accession from Nicaragua are genetically related with the accessions Criollo 13 and Yucatan from the international accessions. The present study suggested a good possibility to select farmers accessions to be included in breeding programs, especially those accessions related to know Criollo accessions.
  • Liu, Jiming; Gao, Shilun; Xu, Yuanyuan; Wang, Mianzhi; Ngiam, Jia Jun; Rui Wen, Nicholas Cho; Yi, Joan Jong Jing; Weng, Xuehuang; Jia, Liming; Salojarvi, Jarkko (2022)
    Sapindus is an important forest tree genus with utilization in biodiesel, biomedicine, and it harbors great potential for biochemical engineering applications. For advanced breeding of Sapindus, it is necessary to evaluate the genetic diversity and construct a rationally designed core germplasm collection. In this study, the genetic diversity and population structure of Sapindus were conducted with 18 expressed sequence tag-simple sequence repeat (EST-SSR) markers in order to establish a core germplasm collection from 161 Sapindus accessions. The population of Sapindus showed high genetic diversity and significant population structure. Interspecific genetic variation was significantly higher than intraspecific variation in the Sapindus mukorossi, Sapindus delavayi, and combined Sapindus rarak plus Sapindus rarak var. velutinus populations. S. mukorossi had abundant genetic variation and showed a specific pattern of geographical variation, whereas S. delavayi, S. rarak, and S. rarak var. velutinus showed less intraspecific variation. A core germplasm collection was created that contained 40% of genetic variation in the initial population, comprising 53 S. mukorossi and nine S. delavayi lineages, as well as single representatives of S. rarak and S. rarak var. velutinus. These results provide a germplasm basis and theoretical rationale for the efficient management, conservation, and utilization of Sapindus, as well as genetic resources for joint genomics research in the future.
  • Pohjanmies, Tähti (Helsingfors universitet, 2014)
    Genetic variation within a population is shaped by the life history traits of the species and the properties of the surrounding ecosystem. It is an important factor in the preservation of populations. According to the emerging field of community genetics, genetic variation within a population of one species may also influence the dynamics and diversity of associated species, extending the conservational relevance of intraspecific genetic diversity. Finnish populations of pedunculate oak (Quercus robur) offer an interesting study system for population genetics. Q. robur grows in south-western Finland at the northern limit of its natural range. Here, its distribution has been shaped by long-term climatic and geological changes as well as by human disturbance, and the current populations are small and strongly fragmented. As Q. robur supports a high diversity of associated species, it is considered to have great ecological and conservational importance. In this thesis, I studied the amount and distribution of genetic diversity within and among three Q. robur populations in south-western Finland using population genetic parameters. I also described the spatial and temporal sub-population structure of one population, on the island of Wattkast. The genetic data was based on 15 nuclear microsatellite loci. Additionally, I examined the effect of the genetic diversity and genotypic identity of the oaks within Wattkast on associated herbivore communities. In the analysis, I used observational data from two years. As predicted for widespread, long-lived tree species, the microsatellite loci showed high levels of diversity within the populations, but also significant differentiation among them. This may be due to fragmentation and to the marginality of the populations. Within the population on Wattkast, I observed patterns of spatial and temporal sub-population differentiation. The characteristics of the site, including the ongoing shift to less extensive land use, suggest that the population is in genetic disequilibrium. As both the genetic distance and the community dissimilarity between pairs of trees increased with increasing geographic distance, I could not conclude the genotypic identity of the host trees to have an effect on the herbivore community structure. However, higher heterozygosity was associated with higher richness and abundance of species. This result supports the notion that intraspecific genetic variation may increase associated species richness. Based on the results of my study, both the life history traits of the species and the historic habitat changes may be observed in the genetic structure of Q. robur populations in Finland. The results also suggest that preservation of genetic variation within the remaining stands may be a factor not only in the preservation of these populations, but also in the conservation of associated species diversity.
  • Elshibli, Sakina; Korpelainen, Helena (2021)
    Medemia argun is a wild, dioecious palm, adapted to the harsh arid environment of the Nubian Desert in Sudan and southern Egypt. There is a concern about its conservation status, since little is known about its distribution, abundance, and genetic variation. M. argun grows on the floodplains of seasonal rivers (wadis). The continuing loss of suitable habitats in the Nubian Desert is threatening the survival of this species. We analyzed the genetic diversity, population genetic structure, and occurrence of M. argun populations to foster the development of conservation strategies for M. argun. Genotyping-by-sequencing (GBS) analyses were performed using a whole-genome profiling service. We found an overall low genetic diversity and moderate genetic structuring based on 40 single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) and 9,866 SilicoDArT markers. The expected heterozygosity of the total population (H-T) equaled 0.036 and 0.127, and genetic differentiation among populations/groups (F-ST) was 0.052 and 0.092, based on SNP and SilicoDArT markers, respectively. Bayesian clustering analyses defined five genetic clusters that did not display any ancestral gene flow among each other. Based on SilicoDArT markers, the results of the analysis of molecular variance (AMOVA) confirmed the previously observed genetic differentiation among generation groups (23%; p < 0.01). Pairwise F-ST values indicated a genetic gap between old and young individuals. The observed low genetic diversity and its loss among generation groups, even under the detected high gene flow, show genetically vulnerable M. argun populations in the Nubian Desert in Sudan. To enrich and maintain genetic variability in these populations, conservation plans are required, including collection of seed material from genetically diverse populations and development of ex situ gene banks.
  • Laiho, Elina (Helsingin yliopisto, 2021)
    The European rabbit (Oryctolagus cuniculus) is a small mammal native to the Iberian Peninsula, but introduced by humans to all continents except Antarctica. The rabbit has been a remarkably successful invasive species due to its generalist nature and fast reproduction. Its spreading has mostly been destructive to the local nature, and humans have used fatal rabbit diseases such as rabbit haemorrhagic disease (RHD) to control harmful populations. The rabbit population in Helsinki is one of the most northern annually surviving rabbit populations in the world. It is believed to have originated from escaped pet rabbits in the late 1980s, and in the early 2000s, the rabbits spread rapidly around the Helsinki area. RHD spread unintentionally to Finland in 2016, and the disease caused a significant reduction in the Helsinki rabbit population. Rabbit population genetics has previously been studied in several countries, but never before in Finland. The aim of the thesis was to examine the genetic diversity and population structure of the Helsinki rabbit population before and after the RHD epidemic, and to compare the results to similar preceding rabbit population genetic studies. Rabbit populations have previously been found to recover from major population crashes without a notable loss in genetic diversity using DNA microsatellite markers. The recent RHD epidemic in Helsinki provided an opportunity to study, whether a rabbit population can recover from a population crash even in a harsher environment without losing genetic diversity. To conduct genetic analysis, fourteen DNA microsatellite loci were genotyped from individuals caught during two distinct time periods, in 2008-2009 (n=130) and in 2019-2020 (n=59). Population structure was observed in both temporal rabbit populations with small but significant FST values. The 2019-2020 population was more diverse than the 2008-2009 population in terms of allele numbers and expected heterozygosity. This result was unexpected considering the recent RHD-epidemic but could be explained by gene flow from new escaped rabbits. Compared to other wild rabbit populations around the world, the Helsinki area rabbits exhibit significantly lower genetic diversity. Bottleneck tests showed a significant signal separately in both temporal populations, but the RHD bottleneck cannot be distinguished based on the tests. The results could be biased by new gene flow, or the initial bottleneck caused by the founder effect of only a few pet rabbits. The rabbits have demonstrated their adaptation and survival skills in the cold climate of Helsinki. The population has significantly lower genetic diversity compared to other wild populations, yet recovered from a major RHD epidemic without reduction in genetic diversity under these more extreme environmental conditions. It has been proven again; the rabbit is a thriving invasive species.
  • Lehto-Edwards, Nanna (Helsingin yliopisto, 2020)
    Five wild sea buckthorn populations in Finland were studied using 8 SSR markers to reveal genetic diversity within and among populations. Population samples were collected from four different locations on mainland and one from the Åland Islands. Allelic data obtained from SSR markers were subjected to statistical analysis and AMOVA, and rarefaction was used to correct effects of uneven population sample sizes on some population diversity indices. Results showed moderate to high genetic diversity levels, as mean HE of all populations was 0.55 and HO 0.50. Most populations showed larger observed heterozygosity levels than expected, one showed equal amounts and one population showed lower heterozygosity levels than expected. Most genetic variation of populations was found within individuals across populations (84%) and only some among populations (16%). A weighted neighbor-joining phylogenetic tree showed only some clustering based on populations. The results of this study show, that there is mentionable diversity in Finnish wild sea buckthorn populations, and that populations are only moderately differentiated. This information can be beneficial particularly in sea buckthorn breeding efforts, but also from a possible genetic resources’ and conservation standpoint.
  • Chertov, Nikita; Vasilyeva, Yulia; Zhulanov, Andrei; Nechaeva, Yu; Boronnikova, Svetlana; Kalendar, Ruslan (2021)
    The Ural Mountains and the West Eurasian Taiga forests are one of the most important centers of genetic diversity for Larix sibirica Ledeb. Forest fragmentation negatively impacts forest ecosystems, especially due to the impact of their intensive use on the effects of climate change. For the preservation and rational use of forest genetic resources, it is necessary to carefully investigate the genetic diversity of the main forest-forming plant species. The Larix genus species are among the most widespread woody plants in the world. The Siberian larch (Larix sibirica, Pinaceae) is found in the forest, forest-tundra, tundra (Southern part), and forest-steppe zones of the North, Northeast, and partly East of the European part of Russia and in Western and Eastern Siberia; in the Urals, the Siberian larch is distributed fragmentarily. In this study, eight pairs of simple sequence repeat (SSR) primers were used to analyse the genetic diversity and population structure of 15 Siberian larch populations in the Urals. Natural populations in the Urals exhibit indicators of genetic diversity comparable to those of Siberia populations (expected heterozygosity, He = 0.623; expected number of alleles, Ne = 4017; observed heterozygosity, Ho = 0.461). Genetic structure analysis revealed that the examined populations are relatively highly differentiated (Fst = 0.089). Using various algorithms for determining the spatial genetic structure, the examined populations formed three groups according to geographical location. The data obtained are required for the development of species conservation and restoration programs, which are especially important in the Middle Urals, which is the region with strong forest fragmentation.
  • Vasilyeva, Yulia; Chertov, Nikita; Nechaeva, Yulia; Sboeva, Yana; Pystogova, Nina; Boronnikova, Svetlana; Kalendar, Ruslan (2021)
    In order to carry out activities aimed at conservation and rational use of forest resources; it is necessary to study the main forest-forming plant species in detail. Scots pine (Pinus sylvestris L., Pinaceae) is mainly found in the boreal forests of Eurasia and is not so often encountered in the east of the East European Plain. The aim of the study was to study the genetic diversity, structure and differentiation of Scots pine populations in the east of the East European Plain. We studied ten populations of P. sylvestris using the Inter Simple Sequence Repeats (ISSR)-based DNA polymorphism detection method. Natural populations are demonstrated by relatively high rates of genetic diversity (He = 0.167; ne = 1.279; I = 0.253). At the same time, there is a tendency for a decrease in the genetic diversity of the studied populations of P. sylvestris from west to east. Analysis of the genetic structure shows that the studied populations are highly differentiated (GST = 0.439), the intrapopulation component accounts for about 56% of the genetic diversity. Using various algorithms for determining the spatial genetic structure, it is found that the studied populations form two groups of populations in accordance with geographic location. With the help of a genetic originality coefficient, populations with specific and typical gene pools are identified. They are recommended as sources of genetic diversity and reserves for the conservation of genetic resources of the species
  • Khazaei, Hamid; Santanen, Arja; Street, Kenneth; Stoddard, Frederick L. (2019)
    Among grain legumes, faba bean is reputed to be relatively sensitive to drought stress. Epicuticular wax (ECW) quantity is considered as an important drought adaptation strategy in plant species. This study aimed to define variation in leaf ECW concentration as a drought-adaptive trait in 197 faba bean accessions under well-watered conditions. The relationship between ECW and stomatal characteristics was also investigated. Highly significant differences were found in the ECW concentration, which ranged from 0.680 to 2.104 mg/dm(2). No relationships were found between ECW and any measure of stomatal morphology and function. This study provides evidence of the wide variation in ECW in faba bean germplasm, which is independent of stomatal characteristics and leaf water content. This variation may allow the genetic improvement of ECW as a drought-adaptive character in faba bean breeding programs aiming at the economical use of water.